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Humanities 31 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. HUMANITIES 31 A STUDY OF PEOPLE: THAT WHICH REFLECTS THEM AND THEY REFLECT
  • 2. HUMANITIES August 30, 31 2011
    • HUMANITIES INCLUDE THE DISCIPLINES WHICH STUDY PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, HISTORY, LITERATURE, AND THE ARTS.
  • 3. WHY DO I THINK WHAT I THINK
    • WE WILL ANALYZE HOW THESE DISCIPLINES IMPACT AND FORM YOUR PERCEPTIONS ABOUT WHO WE ARE, WHY WE ARE HERE, AND WHAT WE SHOULD DO WHILE WE ARE HERE.
  • 4. IDEOLOGICAL FORMATION
    • THE RESULT OF ORDERING OR SEQUENCING THE OBSERVED, THOUGHTS, AND/OR FEELINGS INTO A WHOLE
  • 5. CULTURAL FORMATION
    • A MATTER OF ORDERING OR SEQUENCING THE OBSERVED, THOUGHTS, AND OR FEELINGS INTO A PREDOMINANT CULTURES PERCEPTION OF “PROPER”
  • 6. CULTURE
    • THINGS VALUED AND ACCEPTED:
    • SKILLS
    • ART
    • MUSIC
    • LITERATURE
    • CLOTHING
    • EMPLOYMENT
    • GENDER ROLES
    • RELIGION (S)
    • PHILOSOPHIES
    • EDUCATION
  • 7. ARE YOU APPROPRIATE?
    • THERE IS A DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN AN INDIVIDUAL’S “FORM” OF THE APPROPRIATE RESPONSE AND HIS/HER CULTURE’ S “FORM” OF THE APPROPRIATE RESPONSE.
    • WHEN THE TWO FORMS MATCH, A PERSON IS APPROPRIATE.
  • 8. RORSCHACH CARD IV CH
  • 9. IDEOLOGICAL CONTENT
    • THE COLLECTION OF FORMED IDEAS ARE SEQUENCED AND COMBINED TO FORM ONE’S IDEOLOGY AND NORMS
  • 10. NORMATIVE BELIEVES AND BEHAVIORS
    • NORMS ARE THE EXPECTED PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR AND THINKING RELATIVE TO A GROUP
  • 11. Questions????
    • Is there a relationship between the social definition of “appropriate” and the social definition of mental health, moral behavior, and intelligence?
    • Are there different expectations and definitions for people of different: ages, periods they live in, experiences they have had, ethnicity, skin color, gender, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation and behavior?
  • 12. Questions????
    • What happens if one does not understand the norms and patterns of behavior?
    • What happens if one does understand the norms and patterns of behavior, but finds them hard to recite and practice?
    • What happens to people coming from one culture to another?
  • 13. CULTURE
    • AN INTEGRATED PATTERN OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE, BELIEF, AND BEHAVIOR THAT DEPENDS UPON THE CAPACITY FOR SYMBOLIC THOUGHT AND SOCIAL LEARNING.
  • 14. SYMBOLS
    • ASSERT A NON- SYMBOLIC TRUTH
  • 15. WORDS ARE SYMBOLS
    • WHEN ONE ASSERT SOMETHING HE/SHE INTENDS TO CREATE AN APPROPRIATE REALITY FOR OTHERS, I.E., A NORM, PATTERN OF BEHAVIOR, FEELING
  • 16. SOCIALIZATION
    • A PROCESS OF FORMING THE CONTENT OF A GROUPS NORMS TO CREATE A BEHAVIOR BASED ON AND REINFORCED BY APPROPRIATE SYMBOLS
    • IS KNOWLEDGE POSITIONAL/RELATIVE
  • 17. Questions????
    • Is formal education a socialization agency?
    • Is religion a socialization agency?
    • Is therapy a socialization agency?
    • Do socializing agencies “form” your beliefs?
    • Do socializing agencies “form” your perception of morality?
    • Do socializing agencies “form” your perception of self, i.e., attractive, smart, good, valuable, important, worthwhile?
  • 18. THE WORLD IS FLAT
    • YOU LIVE IN A TECHNOLOGICALLY BASED, DIVERSE AND GLOBAL WORLD
    • MOST OF US ARE EMPLOYED IN JOBS WITH EXPECTATIONS THAT DID NOT EXIST WHEN WE WERE PREPARED AND/OR QUALIFIED FOR THE JOB
    • IS YOUR EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE PREPARING YOU TO THINK AND BE OPEN TO THE CHANGES THAT ARE TO COME IN THE 21 ST CENTURY OR STILL PRESENTING 20 TH CENTURY PREPARATION?
  • 19. SHARED JOURNAL
    • YOU WILL THINK THROUGH THE AREAS WE HAVE STUDIED AND WRITE A RESPONSE IN YOUR JOURNAL THAT YOU WILL SHARE WITH YOUR GROUP FOR DISCUSSION.
    • THIS WEEK I WOULD LIKE YOU TO JOURNAL HOW YOU HAVE DEVELOPED YOUR NORMS AND PATTERNS
  • 20. A Geography of Violence or Awareness and Peace September 3, 2011
    • We will meet in the Great Hall.
  • 21. Views of Truth
    • “ And ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free." John 8:32.
    • “ Thus with right wisdom he sees it as it is. The Absolute Truth is Reality.” Buddha
    • And those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers. Plato
    • Existence precedes and commands Essence. Jean Paul Sartre
    • We regarded any situation as raw material for our joint efforts and not as a factor conditioning them: we imagined ourselves to be wholly independent agents. Simone de Beauvoir
  • 22. Today’s Premise
    • We must know who we are, why we are here, and how what we do relates to our self and purpose.
    • We are now living in a global world and need to realize that the 21 st century is new and different than anything that has ever been experienced before.
    • We need to change the skill of conquering for the skills of co-conducting.
  • 23. Attributions
    • Human attributions are qualities that some believe are innate, learned, or innate and learned.
    • Human attributions account for the causes of events and behavior.
    • Human attributions are referred to in order to understand human experiences.
    • Human attributions strongly influence the way people interact with others.
  • 24. Attributions
    • Are attributions used to describe human qualities that are innate or are they learned qualities that individuals learn throughout life’s experiences?
    • Is the appropriateness and inappropriateness of attributions positional?
    • Are attributions value laden? You have good attributions……he/she doesn’t.
  • 25. Internal vs. External Attributions
    • In an internal , or dispositional, attribution , people infer that an event or a person’s behavior is due to personal factors such as traits, abilities, or feelings.
    • In an external , or situational, attribution , people infer that a person’s behavior is due to situational factors.
  • 26. Stable vs. Unstable Attributions
    • When people make a stable attribution , they infer that an event or behavior is due to stable, unchanging factors.
    • When making an unstable attribution , they infer that an event or behavior is due to unstable, temporary factors
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29. Geert Hofstede™ Cultural Dimensions
    • Power Distance Index (PDI) that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. It suggests that a society's level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that 'all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others'.
  • 30.
    • Individualism (IDV) on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family .
    • On the collectivist side , we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (with uncles, aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
  • 31.
    • Masculinity (MAS) versus its opposite, femininity, refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The BEM studies revealed that (a) women's values differ less among societies than men's values; (b) men's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women's values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other. The assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the modest, caring pole 'feminine'. The women in feminine countries have the same modest, caring values as the men; in the masculine countries they are somewhat assertive and competitive, but not as much as the men, so that these countries show a gap between men's values and women's values.
  • 32.
    • Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man's search for truth. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute truth; 'there can only be one truth and we have it'. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy (they can’t stand the fact that life doesn’t always follow rigid plans).
    • The opposite type , uncertainty accepting cultures, are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to; they try to have as few rules as possible, and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side
  • 33.
    • Long-Term Orientation (LTO) versus short-term orientation: this fifth dimension was found in a study among students in 23 countries around the world, using a questionnaire designed by Chinese scholars It can be said to deal with Virtue regardless of Truth (it doesn’t make sense, but I will adhere out of duty). Values associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'. Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the teachings of Confucius, the most influential Chinese philosopher who lived around 500 B.C.; however, the dimension also applies to countries without a Confucian heritage.
    •  
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  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48. East Africa includes the countries of Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia
  • 49. Southern Africa
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54.
    • Complete Bem’s androgyny evaluation
  • 55. Part 2: Saturday 9/3/2011
    • Alexithymia: Peter Sifneos is the person credited with creating the term alexithymia in 1972. He kept seeing problems with patients who could not express their feelings with words as he talked to them. So he created a term for this based on a few Greek words as follows
    • a = lack lexis = word thymos = emotions
  • 56.
    • Alexithymia can result from psychological influences such as socio-cultural conditioning, neurotic retroflection or defense against trauma.
    • Fritz Perls defines Retroflection as a split within the self, a resisting of aspects of the self by the self. This is a form of assimilation where one substitutes self for environment.
  • 57. How to Know if You Are Alexithymic
    • If you:
    • find it difficult to talk about your own emotions; be perceived by others as
    • excessively logical, or unsentimental without being unfriendly;
    • be perplexed by other people's emotional reactions;
    • make personal decisions according to principles rather than feelings;
    • suffer occasional inexplicable physiological disturbances such as palpitations, stomach ache, or hot flushes;
    • get angry when you are frustrated, hurt, or deceived, rather than telling others how they make you feel;
    • go to get food when you are not hungry because you “feel” hungry
    •   You may be alexithymic
  • 58.
    • Sandra Bem's gender schema theory states that people have a generalized tendency to understand and process behaviors based on sex-linked associations that constitute the gender schema.
    • She contends that sex typing is a product of society's insistence on the functionality of the gender dichotomy and gender-related behaviors.
  • 59.
    • Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions, Peter Sifneos theory of alexithymia, and Sandra Bem’s theory of androgyny all suggest that we are individuals of a learned structure of thinking and reporting relative truth that is short on objectivity.
  • 60. Communication and Globalization
    • There are four dominant communication styles:
    • Autonomous: able to make decisions and act as a free and independent agent (Conductor)
    • Rebellious: defying or resisting some established authority or independent agent(Reactor)
    • Those with autonomous and/or rebellious communication styles are aggressive in nature.
  • 61.
    • Withdrawn : socially detached and unresponsive (Reactive)
    • Capitulation: surrenders or yields to others point of view in order to stay safe (Reactive)
    • Those with withdrawn and/or capitulating communication style are passive in nature.
  • 62.
    • Autonomy Withdrawn
    • co-conduction
    • conduction to conduction
    • conduction to reaction
    • reaction to reaction
    • Rebellious Capitulation
  • 63. Co-Conductors
  • 64. Writing Assignment
    • If there is to be a global experience, what mental construct(s) will need to change?
    • Are people, individually and/or collectively, capable of adjusting to a global understanding and acceptance of “truth”?
    • Is your educational experience preparing you to live the global experience?
  • 65. SYSTEMS THEORY September 6,7 2011
    • A SYSTEM IS A GROUP OF ORDERED AND INTERRELATED PARTS WITH THE PURPOSE OF CREATING AN INTENDED STRUCTURE.
    • THE PARTS OF A SYSTEM HAVE AN OPERATIVE AND ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ONE ANOTHER THAT EXIT BECAUSE OF A REASONED RESULT, I.E., AN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE
  • 66.
    • We ended the last class talking about the yin and yang and the balance in life.
    • Is balance a function of neurology?
  • 67. The Brain: the ultimate system
    • The nervous system is your body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made of nerves.
    • Together they control every part of your daily life, from breathing and blinking to helping you memorize facts for a test.
  • 68. Peripheral Nervous System
    • The peripheral nervous system, in combination with the central nervous system, allows humans to harmonize with their internal and external environments. Without the peripheral nervous system, one could not sense the external environment (smell, sight, touch, taste, hear), and would neither recognize threats or pleasurable experiences.
  • 69. Peripheral Nervous Systems
    • One would not even know if it were light or dark, rainy or sunny, hot or cold. Internally, human organs and organ systems would not be able to coordinate, but would act independently; muscle movement and glandular activity would be chaotic.
  • 70. Peripheral Nervous System
    • The peripheral nervous system is divided into two subsystems, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
    • The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, and the enteric nervous system.
  • 71. Somatic Nervous System
    • The somatic nervous system involves nerves just under the skin and serves as the connection between the outside environment and the CNS.
    • These nerves are under conscious control, but there still can be a largely automatic component.
  • 72. Somatic Nervous System
    • In humans, the somatic nervous system consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves (Chamberlin and Narins 2005).
    • Some pairs are exclusively sensory nerves (the five senses), such as those used for smell, vision, hearing, and balance;
  • 73. Nerves
    • Cranial nerves reach from your brain to your face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body.
    • Sensory nerves gather information from the environment, send that info to the spinal cord, which then speed the message to the brain. The brain then makes sense of that message and fires off a response.
  • 74.
    • Motor nerves deliver the instructions from the brain to the rest of your body.
    • The spinal cord , made of a bundle of nerves running up and down the spine, is similar to a superhighway, speeding messages to and from the brain at every second.
  • 75. Autonomic Nervous System
    • The autonomic nervous system is subdivided into the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, and the enteric nervous system.
    • The autonomic nervous systems have a reputation as independent of conscious control, acting involuntarily (reflexively), responsible for functions of the heart muscles, endocrine system, exocrine glands, and smooth muscle (Chamberin and Narins 2005).
  • 76. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • The sympathetic nervous system deals with the response to stress and danger, the release of epinephrine (adrenaline), and in general increases activity and metabolic rate, cardiac muscle, muscle, and glandular tissue.
    • It dominates in stressful or emergency situations and prepares the body for strenuous physical activity, e.g., causing the heart to beat faster.
  • 77. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • The parasympathetic nervous system is central during rest, sleeping, and digestion, and in general lowers metabolic rate and slows activity, innervating (sending messages through nerves) e same types of tissues as the sympathetic nerves but restoring blood pressure, resting heartbeat, and so forth (Chamberlain and Narins 2005).
  • 78. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • It reverses the effects of the sympathetic nervous system.
    • It controls heartbeat, respiration and other vital functions.
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81.  
  • 82.
    • Practicing meditation has been shown to induce some changes in the body, such as changes in the body's "Fight or Flight" response. The system responsible for this response is the autonomic nervous system . It regulate many organs and muscles, including function such as the heart beat, sweating, breathing, and digestion, and does so automatically.
  • 83.
    • One way some types of meditation might work is by reducing activity in the sympathetic nervous system and increasing the activity in the parasympathetic nervous system.
    • Some research is looking at whether meditation is associated with significant changes in brain function. A number of researchers believe that these changes account for many meditation's effects.
  • 84.
    • A sense of the lack of status and autonomy, uncertainty about the future, fear of others, and unfairness generates a strong threat or alert response. Your brain detects something is wrong, and your ability to focus on other issues diminishes.
    • Your brain doesn't like any of these experiences- it's like a type of pain, something to be avoided..
  • 85.
    • Status, certainty, autonomy, relatedness, and fairness feels rewarding, and we tend to steer toward it, even when it might be better for us to remain and be comfortable in an uncertain state of being.
  • 86. System and SCARF (Dr. David Rock)
    • S tatus is about relative importance to others.
    • C ertainty concerns being able to predict the future.
    • A utonomy provides a sense of control over events.
    • R elatedness is a sense of safety with others, of friend rather than foe.
    • F airness is a perception of fair exchanges between people.
  • 87. System Theory
    • Do system give us a sense of comfort when possibly we should be uncomfortable?
    • Religion
    • Psychology
    • Philosophy
    • Literature
    • Art
  • 88.
    • Some systems that may not seem like systems that may be a defense mechanism?
    • Empathy
    • Relativity
    • Acceptance of others
    • Being free
    • Asking others what they think, i.e. other centered
  • 89. FORMAL RELIGIONS
    • 5 PARTS OF FORMAL RELIGIONS
    • ONE GOD: MONOTHESISTIC
    • HOLY BOOKS
    • RITUALS: AN EXERCISE THAT CAUSES YOU TO FOCUS ON THE SACRED, NOT THE TEMPORAL
    • SYMBOLS: ASSERT A NON-SYMBOLIC TRUTH
    • CULTURAL APPROVAL: BELIEFS ARE APPROPRIATE
  • 90. 5 Pillars of Islam: Faith
    • There is none worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is the messenger of God." This declaration of faith is called the Shahadah, a simple formula that all the faithful pronounce. The significance of this declaration is the belief that the only purpose of life is to serve and obey God, and this is achieved through the teachings and practices of the Last  Prophet, Muhammad.
  • 91. Prayer
    • Salah is the name for the obligatory prayers that are performed five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshipper and God. There is no hierarchical authority in Islam and there are no priests. Prayers are led by a learned person who knows the Qur'an and is generally chosen by the congregation.
    • Prayers are said at dawn, mid-day, late-afternoon, sunset and nightfall,  and thus determine the rhythm of the entire day. These five prescribed prayers contain verses from the Qur'an, and are said in Arabic, the  language of the Revelation. Personal supplications, however, can be  offered in one's own language and at any time.
  • 92. Financial Obligation
    •   An important principle of Islam is that everything belongs to God, and that wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. The word zakah means  both "purification" and "growth." Our possessions are purified by setting aside a proportion for those in need and for the society in general. Like the pruning of plants, this cutting back balances and encourages new growth.
    •   Each Muslim calculates his or her own zakah individually. This involves the annual payment of a fortieth of one's capital, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools.
  • 93. pilgrimage
    • The pilgrimage to Makkah (the hajj) is an obligation only for those who are physically and financially able to do so. Nevertheless, over two million people go to Makkah each year from every corner of the globe providing a unique opportunity for those of different nations to meet one another.
    • The annual hajj begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic year (which is lunar, not solar, so that hajj and Ramada-n fall sometimes in summer, sometimes in winter). Pilgrims wear special clothes: simple garments that strip away distinctions of class and culture, so that all stand equal before God.
  • 94. fasting
    • Every year in the month of Ramada-n, all Muslims fast from dawn until sundown--abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations with their spouses.
    •   Those who are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and women who are menstruating, pregnant or nursing, are permitted to break the fast and  make up an equal number of days later in the year if they are healthy and able. Children begin to fast (and to observe prayers) from puberty, although many start earlier.
  • 95. Eight Beatitudes
    • "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they who mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.
  • 96. Beatitudes Continued
    • Blessed are the merciful,
    • for they shall obtain mercy.
    • Blessed are the pure of heart,
    • for they shall see God.
    • Blessed are the peacemakers,
    • for they shall be called children of God.
    • Blessed are they who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness,
    • for theirs is the kingdom of heaven."
  • 97. Ten Commandments
    • ONE: ' You shall have no other gods before Me. ' TWO: ' You shall not make for yourself a carved image--any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. ' THREE: ' You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain. ' FOUR: ' Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. ' FIVE: ' Honor your father and your mother. '
  • 98. Ten Commandments
    • SIX: ' You shall not murder. ' SEVEN: ' You shall not commit adultery. ' EIGHT: ' You shall not steal. ' NINE: ' You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. ' TEN: ' You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor's. '
  • 99. PHILOSPHICAL BRANCHES September 13, 14, 2011
    • METAPHYSICS: THE STUDY OF NATURE AND WHAT IS REAL
    • EPISTEMOLOGY: THE STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE AND TRUTH
    • TELEOLOGY: THE STUDY OF RESULTS AND PURPOSE
    • HERMENEUTICS: THE STUDY OF INTERPRETATION
  • 100. PHILOSOPHY CONTINUED
    • MORALITY: THE STUDY OF RIGHT AND WRONG
    • LOGIC: THE STUDY OF ARGUMENTATION, CORRECT REASONING, AND SWITCHING FUNCTIONS
    • AESTHETICS: THE STUDY OF BEAUTY AND ART
  • 101. System Theory and Psychology September 20,21, 2011
    • Stage theories present a systematic developmental process that each person:
    • must progress through without interruption
    • must not anteriogress
    • will regress if they do not progress without interruption, unless
    • they retrogress and pickup missed stages .
  • 102. Erickson’s 8 Stages of Development
    • Infancy: Birth to 18 Months
    • Ego Development Outcome: Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Basic strength: Drive and Hope
    • Erikson also referred to infancy as the Oral Sensory Stage (as anyone might who watches a baby put everything in her mouth) where the major emphasis is on the mother's positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch. If we pass successfully through this period of life, we will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the future. If we fail to experience trust and are constantly frustrated because our needs are not met, we may end up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general.
  • 103. ERICKSON
    • . Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 Years
    • Ego Development Outcome: Autonomy vs. Shame
    • Basic Strengths: Self-control, Courage, and Will
    • During this stage we learn to master skills for ourselves. Not only do we learn to walk, talk and feed ourselves, we are learning finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training. Here we have the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as we gain more control over our bodies and acquire new skills, learning right from wrong. And one of our skills during the "Terrible Two's" is our ability to use the powerful word "NO!" It may be pain for parents, but it develops important skills of the will.
    • It is also during this stage, however, that we can be very vulnerable. If we're shamed in the process of toilet training or in learning other important skills, we may feel great shame and doubt of our capabilities and suffer low self-esteem as a result
  • 104. ERICKSON
    • . Play Age: 3 to 5 Years
    • Ego Development Outcome: Initiative vs. Guilt
    • Basic Strength: Purpose
    • During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations. We make up stories with Barbie's and Ken's, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out roles in a trial universe, experimenting with the blueprint for what we believe it means to be an adult. We also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world—"WHY?"
    • While Erikson was influenced by Freud, he downplays biological sexuality in favor of the psychosocial features of conflict between child and parents. Nevertheless, he said that at this stage we usually become involved in the classic "Oedipal struggle" and resolve this struggle through "social role identification." If we're frustrated over natural desires and goals, we may easily experience guilt .
  • 105. ERICKSON
    • School Age: 6 to 12 Years
    • Ego Development Outcome: Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Basic Strengths: Method and Competence
    • During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry . This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem.
    • As the world expands a bit, our most significant relationship is with the school and neighborhood. Parents are no longer the complete authorities they once were, although they are still important.
  • 106. ERICKSON
    • 5. Adolescence: 12 to 18 Years
    • Ego Development Outcome: Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity
    • Up to this stage, according to Erikson, development mostly depends upon what is done to us . From here on out, development depends primarily upon what we do . And while adolescence is a stage at which we are neither a child nor an adult, life is definitely getting more complex as we attempt to find our own identity , struggle with social interactions, and grapple with moral issues.
    • Our task is to discover who we are as individuals separate from our family of origin and as members of a wider society. Unfortunately for those around us, in this process many of us go into a period of withdrawing from responsibilities, which Erikson called a "moratorium." And if we are unsuccessful in navigating this stage, we will experience role confusion and upheaval.
  • 107. ERICKSON
    • . Young adulthood: 18 to 35
    • Ego Development Outcome: Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation
    • Basic Strengths: Affiliation and Love
    • In the initial stage of being an adult we seek one or more companions and love. As we try to find mutually satisfying relationships, primarily through marriage and friends, we generally also begin to start a family, though this age has been pushed back for many couples who today don't start their families until their late thirties. If negotiating this stage is successful, we can experience intimacy on a deep level.
    • If we're not successful, isolation and distance from others may occur. And when we don't find it easy to create satisfying relationships, our world can begin to shrink as, in defense, we can feel superior to others.
    • Our significant relationships are with marital partners and friends.
  • 108. ERICKSON
    • Middle Adulthood: 35 to 55 or 65
    • Ego Development Outcome: Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation
    • Basic Strengths: Production and Care
    • Now work is most crucial. Erikson observed that middle-age is when we tend to be occupied with creative and meaningful work and with issues surrounding our family. Also, middle adulthood is when we can expect to "be in charge," the role we've longer envied.
    • The significant task is to perpetuate culture and transmit values of the culture through the family (taming the kids) and working to establish a stable environment. Strength comes through care of others and production of something that contributes to the betterment of society, which Erikson calls generativity , so when we're in this stage we often fear inactivity and meaninglessness
  • 109. ERICKSON
    • Late Adulthood: 55 or 65 to Death
    • Ego Development Outcome: Integrity vs. Despair
    • Basic Strengths: Wisdom
    • Erikson felt that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage is recovering from it. Perhaps that is because as older adults we can often look back on our lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and we've made a contribution to life, a feeling Erikson calls integrity . Our strengt h comes from a wisdom that the world is very large and we now have a detached concern for the whole of life, accepting death as the completion of life.
    • On the other hand, some adults may reach this stage and despair at their experiences and perceived failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering "Was the trip worth it?" Alternatively, they may feel they have all the answers (not unlike going back to adolescence) and end with a strong dogmatism that only their view has been correct.
  • 110. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Social Morality
    • His moral structure is based on stage theory development rooted in a positional social morality.
  • 111. Social Morality Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment
  • 112. SOCIAL MORALITY
    • Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz’s needs. Reciprocity is possible, but only if it serves one's own interests.
  • 113. SOCIAL MORALITY
    • Stage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships
  • 114. SOCIAL MORALITY
    • Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty and respecting authority.
  • 115. SOCIAL MORALITY
    • Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards
  • 116. SOCIAL MORALITY
    • Stage 6 - Universal Principles Kohlberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules
  • 117. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT PIAGET
    • Sensorimotor: (birth to about age 2) During this stage, the child learns about himself and his environment through motor and reflex actions. Thought derives from sensation and movement. The child learns that he is separate from his environment and that aspects of his environment -- his parents or favorite toy -- continue to exist even though they may be outside the reach of his senses. Teaching for a child in this stage should be geared to the sensorimotor system. You can modify behavior by using the senses: a frown, a stern or soothing voice -- all serve as appropriate techniques.
  • 118. PIAGET
    • Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7) Applying his new knowledge of language, the child begins to use symbols to represent objects. Early in this stage he also personifies objects. He is now better able to think about things and events that aren't immediately present. Oriented to the present, the child has difficulty conceptualizing time. His thinking is influenced by fantasy -- the way he'd like things to be -- and he assumes that others see situations from his viewpoint. He takes in information and then changes it in his mind to fit his ideas. Teaching must take into account the child's vivid fantasies and undeveloped sense of time. Using neutral words, body outlines and equipment a child can touch gives him an active role in learning.
  • 119. PIAGET
    • Concrete: (about first grade to early adolescence) During this stage, accommodation increases. The child develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgements about concrete or observable phenomena, which in the past he needed to manipulate physically to understand. In teaching this child, giving him the opportunity to ask questions and to explain things back to you allows him to mentally manipulate information.
  • 120. PIAGET
    • Formal Operations: (adolescence) This stage brings cognition to its final form. This person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgements. At his point, he is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. Teaching for the adolescent may be wideranging because he'll be able to consider many possibilities from several perspectives.
  • 121. SHARED JOURNALS
    • WHAT SYSTEM (S) HAVE BEEN MOST PERVASIVE IN YOUR LIFE?
    • HAVE THEY HAD A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE IMPACT?
    • WHAT/WHY ARE PEOPLE DISCOVERING, ACCEPTING, AND SHARING WHAT THEY ARE?
    • WHAT/WHY ARE PEOPLE RESISTANT TO DISCOVERING, ACCEPTING, AND SHARING WHAT HE/SHE ARE NOT?
  • 122. Visual Art September 24, 20ll
    • The class will be divided into three group and will cycle with their group through three different presentations :
    • Systems approach to art appreciation
    • Clay and metal work
    • Presentation of general information on the arts and ideas of the Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassic, and Romantic periods.
  • 123. Movement
    • An art movement is a style or technique in art followed by a group of artists who share common goals and beliefs. Movements are confined to a specific period of time, anywhere from a few months to several years, and can be visual, architectural, or literary.
    • An art period is a distinct phase within a movement, it can also be a marked phase in the work of a single artist such as Pablo Picasso's Blue Period.
  • 124. Examples of Art Movements
    • Abstract Expressionism , action painting - a New York school of painting characterized by freely created abstractions; the first important school of American painting to develop independently of European styles
    • , Ashcan school - early 20th-century United States painting; portrays realistic and sordid scenes of city life
    • Impressionism - a school of late 19th century French painters who pictured appearances by strokes of unmixed colors to give the impression of reflected light
    • Pop Art - a school of art that emerged in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and became prevalent in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1960s; it imitated the techniques of commercial art (as the soup cans of Andy Warhol) and the styles of popular culture and the mass media
  • 125.
    • art deco , deco - a style of design that was popular in the 1920s and 1930s; marked by stylized forms and geometric designs adapted to mass production
    • art nouveau - a French school of art and architecture popular in the 1890s; characterized by stylized natural forms and sinuous outlines of such objects as leaves and vines and flowers
    • constructivism - an abstractionist artistic movement in Russia after World War I; industrial materials were used to construct nonrepresentational objects
    • cubism - an artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes
    • expressionism - an art movement early in the 20th century; the artist's subjective expression of inner experiences was emphasized; an inner feeling was expressed through a distorted rendition of reality
    • fauvism - an art movement launched in 1905 whose work was characterized by bright and non-natural colors and simple forms; influenced the expressionists
  • 126.
    • imagism - a movement by American and English poets early in the 20th century in reaction to Victorian sentimentality; used common speech in free verse with clear concrete imagery
    • minimal art , minimalism , reductivism - an art movement in sculpture and painting that began in the 1950s and emphasized extreme simplification of form and color
    • naturalism , realism - an artistic movement in 19th century France; artists and writers strove for detailed realistic and factual description
    • neoromanticism - an art movement based on a revival of Romanticism in art and literature
    • New Wave , Nouvelle Vague - an art movement in French cinema in the 1960s
    • surrealism - a 20th century movement of artists who used fantastic images and incongruous juxtapositions in order to represent unconscious thoughts and dreams
    • symbolism - an artistic movement in the late 19th century that tried to express abstract or mystical ideas through the symbolic use of images
  • 127. Picasso: Cubism
    • Cubism was a 20th century art movement , pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque , that revolutionized European painting and sculpture , and inspired related movements in music , literature and architecture .
    • In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism's distinct characteristics.
  • 128.
    • This changed when the loss of a friend led to Picasso's blue period . Under the influence of his grief, and also the Spanish old master El Greco, Picasso's previously romantic style made way for a gloomy, sinister style which was far more expressive and for the first time he was beginning to show a style of his own, instead of copying other artists' styles, as he had previously done
  • 129. Picasso’s Blue Period
    • An ever returning theme in Picasso's blue period is the desolation of social outsiders, whether they be prisoners, beggars, circus people or poor or despairing people in general.
    • It also answered to the zeitgeist (the spirit of the time) of the artistic and intellectual avant garde (in front of the rest) at the beginning of the twentieth century.
  • 130.
    • As one of the founders of modern abstract art, Pablo Picasso is generally associated with cubism and related styles which are predominantly abstract. It is therefore essential to realize that at the time of Picasso's blue period, abstract art as we know it today didn't yet exist. As a twenty year old man Pablo Picasso was an accomplished classicist painter, but like many young artists of his time, he was dissatisfied with the dogmas of traditional art.
  • 131. Picasso’s Blue Period Self Portrait 1903
  • 132. The Two Sisters
  • 133. Picasso’s Conscious and Visual Perspective
    • A significant influence on Picasso's blue period paintings was his visit to a woman's prison called St. Lazare in Paris, where nuns served as guards. The Two sisters in the painting were in fact a prisoner and a nun and the painting is an example of Picasso’s view of Christian iconography.
    • The posture and gestures of the women were derived from the way artists depict the visitation , the color blue symbolizing Mary, the Mother of God. The meeting, or visitation, refers to the meeting between Mary, Mother of God and Elizabeth the mother of John the Baptist.
  • 134.
    • The name Elizabeth is Hebrew for "worshiper of God." All that we know of Elizabeth is that she was the wife of Zachary and mother of John the Baptist. The only account of this is in the account of Luke.
    • There is no account of her relationship with Mary, but she was reported to be pure.
  • 135. Picasso’s Self Portraits
    • Over the course of his live Picasso accounted his life and awareness on canvas.
    • The following portraits are a few examples.
  • 136. Picasso’s Self Portrait 1906
  • 137. Picasso Self Portrait 1907
  • 138. Picasso’s Self Portrait Facing Death 1972
  • 139. Facing Death
    • The piece is done with crayon on paper, and took several months to complete.
    • There is much commentary about this piece. People talk about the fear of death Picasso had and how terrified his eyes look. They comment on the deep lines of age, and the work symbolizing Picasso's confrontation of death.
    • Others report that he was facing death as a strong Spaniard and that he looked death in the face.
  • 140. VISUAL ART APPRECIATION NATURE OR NURTURE
    • LINE AND SHAPE
    • VALUE
    • MATERIAL AND TEXTURE
    • SPACE
    • REPETITION
    • BALANCE
    • CONTRAST
    • SUBJECT
    • EMOTION
  • 141. September 27, 28, 2011
    • Midterm exam (take home)
    • Cinema and music (American experience video)
  • 142. LITERARY WORK: The story of war September10/4, 5/2011
    • PLOT: Direct or IMPLIED CAUSAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN EVENTS
    • SETTING: THE TIME AND PLACE
    • THEME: IDEA EXPLORED
    • CHARACTERS: BEINGS THAT PLAY A ROLE
    • CONTEXT: THE INTEGRATIONS OF PAST, PRESENT, AND FURTURE EVENTS
    • HERO
    • VICTIM
    • VILLAIN
  • 143. October 8, 2011
    • Music, poetry and literary readings, and picnic in the park
  • 144. October 11, 12 2011
    • Final Exam (take home) review, explain art project
  • 145. October 18, 19 2011
    • Help on final/project
  • 146. October 22, 2011
    • Art Show and description of what art is and why yours is art.
    • Journals and Final exams are submitted.