Liberté



a first-year French textbook


Gretchen Angelo
Copyright c 2003 Gretchen V. Angelo
All rights reserved.




    This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribut...
Brief Contents

 1   Bonjour! Ca va? 9
                ¸
 2   Ma famille et mes possessions 73
 3   Le travail et les lois...
Contents
    1 Bonjour! Ca va?
               ¸                                           l’universit´, 149.—Le travail, 1...
Questions, 279.                               B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 282...
Savoir and connaˆ
                      ıtre, 520.                      meilleurs, 546.
    C Lab Worksheet and Review . ....
Introduction
To the teacher and the student
This French book is aimed at a first-year college student. Its features include...
8
Chapter 1
Bonjour! Ca va?
         ¸
Objectives for chapter 1
Communication (what students will be able to do):
By the end...
´
                                        A Activites
                                        A.1 Bonjour !

             ...
A.1.3 Le cercle d’amis
Pr´sentons-nous ! Dans cet exercice, toute la classe va se pr´senter.
  e                          ...
´
                                   A.1.4 L’alphabet des prenoms
                    ´
          LES PRENOMS             ...
´                     ´
A.1.6 Dictee : Le francais en Amerique
                      ¸

                                  ...
A.1.7 Dialogue : Bonjour !

                                     Grammaire: Voir B.2, “Pronoms sujets,” page 35.

        ...
A.1.8 Rencontres                                                     Note : the mask symbol is used
                      ...
Mini-Vocabulaire:                      A.2 Le cours de francais
                                                          ...
A.2.2 Aux ordres du professeur !

                          ´
 Grammaire: Voir B.4, “Imperatifs,” page 43.

Ob´issez aux i...
A.3 Les chiffres

                                    A.3.1 Maths !

                                     Grammaire: Voir ...
A.3.3 Qui parle francais ?
                    ¸


        LA FRANCOPHONIE - L’EUROPE ET L’AFRIQUE                        ...
LA RENTREE The´                      ´               ´
                                     A.3.4 Preparons la rentree !
fi...
A.4 Identifications. Qui est. . . ?

A.4.1 Dans la classe de francais
                            ¸
                       ...
A.5 Descriptions

                                                              ´
                                     A.5...
A.5.3 Comment sont-ils ?

 Grammaire: Voir B.7, “L’accord des adjectifs,” page 49.

Utilisez les adjectifs ` droite pour d...
A.5.5 Sondage de la classe

                         Grammaire: Voir B.8, “Questions,” page 53.

                         ...
´   ´
A.6 Resume

Les activit´s dans cette section vous permettent de pratiquer tout le
           e
mat´riel du chapitre....
Mini-Vocabulaire:                           ´   ´                ´
                                      A.6.3 Resume : Vo...
´   ´
A.6.4 Resume : Dialogue

            Avec un(e) partenaire ou dans un groupe de 3 personnes,
            pr´parez un...
A.7 Vocabulaire francais-anglais
                                            ¸

                         Les pr´sentations...
Prononciation et orthographe
Ca s’´crit comment ? ‘s— se kri ky m£“
¸     e                               e      How is th...
Les adjectifs
                         Comment sont-ils ?   ‘ky m£ s£ til“
                                               ...
B Grammar
B.1 The French alphabet and French pronunciation

Students beginning to study French are invariably shocked by F...
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French

  1. 1. Liberté a first-year French textbook Gretchen Angelo
  2. 2. Copyright c 2003 Gretchen V. Angelo All rights reserved. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/1.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. A copy of this license is also included in appendix 2 of this book. rev. 13th February 2007
  3. 3. Brief Contents 1 Bonjour! Ca va? 9 ¸ 2 Ma famille et mes possessions 73 3 Le travail et les loisirs 145 4 Sorties et voyages 201 5 Les voyages de ma famille 253 6 ` Tant de choses a faire! 297 7 Mon corps 337 8 A table! 389 9 Hier, aujourd’hui, et demain 427 10 Racontons des histoires! 453 11 Au magasin 489 12 ´ Resultats 539 3
  4. 4. Contents 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸ l’universit´, 149.—Le travail, 156.—Les e loisirs, 159.—R´sum´, 162.—Vocabulaire e e ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 fran¸ais-anglais, 164. c Bonjour !, 10.—Le cours de fran¸ais, c B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 16.—Les chiffres, 18.—Identifications. Qui est. . . ?, 21.—Descriptions, 22.—R´sum´, e e Telling time, 168.—Regular verbs in the 25.—Vocabulaire fran¸ais-anglais, 28. c present tense, 172.—Two-verb sentences, 177.—Yes/No Questions, 179.—-er verbs B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 with spelling changes, 182. The French alphabet and French C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 185 pronunciation, 31.—Subject pronouns, with special attention to vous and tu., La vie ` l’universit´, 185.—L’emploi a e 35.—Articles and Gender of Nouns, 40.— du temps, 186.—Le travail, 188.—Les Giving Commands - the imperative form, loisirs, 188.—L’heure et le jour, 189.— 43.—Numbers, 45.—The verb ˆtre, 47.— e Vocabulaire, 190.—Exercices de r´vision e Gender of adjectives, 49.—Questions in ´crits, 192.—Self-Check : Meeting chapter e French, 53.—Optional : IPA Help, 56. 3 objectives, 196.—Answers, 197. C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 58 Bonjour !, 59.—En classe, 60.—Les chiffres, 4 Sorties et voyages 61.—Identifications, 62.—Descriptions, ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 63.—Exercices de r´vision ´crits, 65.— e e En ville, 202.—Directions, 207.—Les Self-Check : Meeting chapter 1 objectives, saisons et le climat, 210.—Les voyages, 68.—Answers, 69. 214.—R´sum´: e e chapitre 4, 217.— Vocabulaire fran¸ais-anglais, 218. c 2 Ma famille et mes possessions 73 B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 The prepositions “`” and “de” and their a Nos possessions, 74.—Ma famille, 79.—Ma contractions with the definite article, maison, 87.—L’ˆge, 91.—Nos conditions a 221.—Le verbe aller , 222.—R´vision : les e physiques et mentales, 93.—R´sum´, 95.— e e verbes en -ir, 226.—The verb faire, 228.— Vocabulaire fran¸ais-anglais, 97. c Faire and weather expressions, 229.— B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Recognition : Le pass´ compos´, 231. e e Definite and indefinite articles, 101.— C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 234 Possession and Definite and Indefinite En ville, 234.—Les verbes r´guliers en -ir, e Articles, 103.—Pr´positions de lieu - Pre- e 235.—Les directions, 236.—Les mois et les positions of location, 104.—The verb saisons, 237.—Le temps qu’il fait, 238.— avoir , 106.—Il y a, 108.—Possessive Les voyages, 239.—Tense recognition, Adjectives, 110.—Simple Negation, 116.— 240.—Le vocabulaire - Optional, 241.— Age, 119.—Idiomatic Expressions with Exercices de r´vision ´crits, 242.—Self- e e avoir , 120. Check: Meeting chapter 4 objectives, 247. C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 126 Nos possessions, 126.—Ma famille, 5 Les voyages de ma famille 128.—Ma maison, 130.—Nos condi- ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 tions physiques, 131.—L’ˆge, 132.— a Prononciation, 133.—Exercices de r´vision e Les origines, 254.—Notre voyage aux ´crits, 135.—Self-Check : Meeting chapter e Etats-Unis, 257.—L’histoire de ma famille, 2 objectives, 138. 260.—R´sum´: Visite au pays d’origine, e e 262.—Vocabulaire fran¸ais-anglais, 264. c B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 3 Le travail et les loisirs The verb venir , 267.—Prepositions with ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Place Names, 269.—Le pass´ com-e Mon emploi du temps, 146.—La vie ` a pos´, 272.—Dates, 278.—Informational e 4
  5. 5. Questions, 279. B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 282 The partitive article, 401.—Negatives, Les origines, 282.—Le pass´ compos´, e e 406.—Prendre and Boire, 411.— 283.—L’immigration, 284.—Dans le pass´, e Imperatives, 413. 285.—Les Dates, 286.—Exercices de C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 417 r´vision ´crits, 288.—Self-Check : Meeting e e La nourriture, 417.—Contradictions, chapter 5 objectives, 292.—Answers, 293. 419.—Au restaurant, 421.—Imperatives (Time on recording: 51:05), 422. ` 6 Tant de choses a faire ! ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 9 Hier, aujourd’hui, et demain Nos activit´s r´centes, 298.—Les travaux e e ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 m´nagers, 300.—Mes responsabilit´s au e e Comparaisons, 428.—Aujourd’hui et travail, 305.—Pas de temps!, 307.— demain, 430.—Hier et aujourd’hui, 431.— Mon temps libre, 309.—R´sum´, 311.— e e Pr´cisions, 433. e Vocabulaire fran¸ais-anglais, 313. c B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Comparatives, 435.—L’imparfait, 438.— R´vision : les verbes en -re, 316.— e Demonstratives, 441. Les verbes vouloir, pouvoir, et devoir, C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 446 e e e 317.—Pass´ compos´ of ˆtre verbs, 320.— Comparaisons, 446.—Aujourd’hui et L’adjectif interrogatif Quel, 323. demain, 448.—Hier et aujourd’hui, 449.— C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 325 Pr´cisions, 450. e Les travaux m´nagers, 325.—Mes repon- e sabilit´s au travail, 326.—Le pass´ com- e e pos´, 327.—Comment passer le temps, e 10 Racontons des histoires 329.—Exercices de r´vision ´crits, 330.— e e ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Answers, 334. Comment le faites-vous ?, 454.—Vers un ´panouissement personnel, 457.—Les mo- e ments cl´s de la vie, 460.—Racontons des e 7 Mon corps histoires!, 463.—R´sum´, 465. e e ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Mon corps, 338.—Mes vˆtements, 343.— e Adverbs, 467.—Comparisons with adverbs Ma journ´e, 346.—Ma sant´, 349.— e e and verbs, 469.—Conditions, 471.—Les e R´sum´,e c 355.—Vocabulaire fran¸ais- verbes dire, lire, ´crire, 472.—Le pass´ e e anglais, 357. compos´ et l’imparfait : Action et contexte, e B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 474. Direct object pronouns, 360.—Placement C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 480 of adjectives, 366.—The verb mettre and Lab : Comment faire ?, 480.—Lab : Vers verbs like sortir , 371.—Reflexive or Prono- un ´panouissement personnel, 480.—Lab : e minal Verbs, 374.—Agreement of the past Lire, dire, ´crire, 482.—Racontons une his- e participle in “avoir” verbs, 378.—Reflexive toire !, 482.—Exercices de r´vision ´crits, e e or Pronominal verbs in the pass´ compos´, e e 484. 379. C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 383 11 Au magasin Le corps, 383.—Les vˆtements, 383.—Ma e ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 routine, 384.—Ma sant´, 385. e Aux Galeries Lafayette, 490.—Au magasin, 494.—Mes achats, 497.—Cadeaux, 500.— 8 A table ! Vocabulaire fran¸ais-anglais, 502. c ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 La nourriture, 390.—Contradictions, Indirect Objects, 504.—Imperatives with 393.—Au restaurant, 396.—Vocabulaire pronouns, 510.—The interrogatives qui, fran¸ais-anglais, chapitre 8, 398. c que, qu’est-ce qui, quoi, and quel , 514.— 5
  6. 6. Savoir and connaˆ ıtre, 520. meilleurs, 546. C Lab Worksheet and Review . . . . 524 B Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 Au magasin et ` la maison, 524.—Achats a The pronoun y, 549.—The pronoun en, et information, 525.—Poser des questions, 551.—Reactions : More on the pass´ com- e 526.—Savoir et connaˆ ıtre, 526.—Exercices pos´ and imparfait, 556.—Superlatives, e de r´vision ´crits, 528.—Answers, 532. e e 559.—Optional section - vouloir, pouvoir, devoir in the past tenses, 563.—Appendix : ´ 12 Resultats “Le Corbeau et le Renard” par Jean de la Fontaine (texte original), 564. ´ A Activites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Cons´quences, 540.—R´actions, 543.—Les e e 6
  7. 7. Introduction To the teacher and the student This French book is aimed at a first-year college student. Its features include: 1. Each chapter is built around communicative strategies. Clearly defined objectives in communi- cation, culture, and grammar are given at the start of each chapter, and summary exercises at the end allow students to measure their mastery of these objectives. 2. The exercises in the in-class (A) sections are composed mainly of guided practice and extension activities, along with occasional comprehension checks and comprehensible input. Some further activities are indicated in the instructor’s marginal notes. The teacher can provide teacher- directed “setting-the-stage” activities, comprehension checks, and further comprehensible input before beginning each section. Many models are provided to the students to give them a secure context in which to practice their vocabulary before they are asked to produce independent language. 3. The grammar included is explained in a more narrative form and in much more detail than is typical for first-year textbooks. The grammar (B) sections should be read by the students outside of class before the communicative activities requiring those grammar points are done in class. By providing more explicit grammatical detail than is usual in a first-year book, the author hopes to stimulate students to reflect on the grammar of their own language as well as of French, helping students to become aware that their study of French is not just about mastery of a new language and culture, but about a more critical view of their own. 4. The amount of grammar is much less than is typically contained in a first-year text. The grammar included has been chosen to meet the needs of the communicative goals of each chapter, and these have been selected based on what a student ranking intermediate-low to -mid on the ACTFL oral proficiency scale should be able to accomplish. The grammatical concepts included in this book focus on those that will be needed for the sentences and questions that a typical low-intermediate speaker can form, and those are emphasized repeatedly. 5. The book implicitly and explicitly recycles material from previous chapters on a regular basis, so that students can see their learning as a continual progression rather than as a rush from one grammar point to the next. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸ Objectives for chapter 1 Communication (what students will be able to do): By the end of this chapter, students will be able to: a / Salut! 1. Greet other people and introduce themselves. 2. Understand basic commands given in French class and respond appropriately. 3. Count and spell in French. 4. Identify and describe themselves, other people, and objects. Culture (what students will know about the French-speaking world): By the end of this chapter, students will know something about: 1. Where French is spoken and by how many people; the defini- tion of “Francophone.” 2. How to address another person formally or informally, as ap- propriate. 3. Customs of greeting in France and other Francophone coun- tries. Grammar/ Tools (what students need to know): In order to perform these communicative tasks, students will have to understand and be able to use correctly the following structures: 1. The French alphabet, numbers, and some basics of French pronunciation. 2. The subject pronouns and the difference between tu and vous in French. 3. The conjugation of the present tense of the verb ˆtre. e 4. The concept of gender for nouns and of gender and number agreement of adjectives. 9
  10. 10. ´ A Activites A.1 Bonjour ! Dans cette section, nous allons observer les dialogues et les pratiques culturelles quand on fait la connaissance de quelqu’un. ´ A.1.1 Presentations Quand on fait la connaissance de quelqu’un, on se pr´sente. e Mini-Vocabulaire: faire la connaissance ‘fir l— ky ni s£s“e to meet b / Ils se serrent la main. quelqu’un ‘kil q÷“ £ someone se pr´senter e ‘sd pre z£ te“ e to introduce oneself se serrer la main ‘sd si re l— m£“ i to shake hands Bonjour ‘˜£ ur“ y Hello Note : In the model dia- Comment . . . ‘ky m£“ F F F e What is your name? logues and exercise examples, . . . t’appelles-tu ? . . . ‘t— pil ty“ (informal) the speakers are labeled (A) . . . vous appelez-vous ? . . . ‘vu z— ple vu“ (formal) and (B), and their parts should Je m’appelle. . . ‘d m— pil“ My name is. . . be read in turn. Elements you Enchant´(e)e ‘£ ƒ£ te“ e e Pleased to meet you. will need to replace to perso- Pr´sentez-vous e ‘pre z£ te vu“ e Introduce yourself nalize the dialogues are shaded ` cˆt´ de vous a o e ‘— ko te dd vu“ next to you in grey. Words in bold are vo- Exemple: A: Bonjour ! B: Bonjour ! cabulary words whose English A: Je m’appelle Marie. B: Je m’appelle Marc. translation is given in a ”mini- Comment t’appelles- vocabulary” list in the margin tu ? or in the exercise. A: Enchant´e ! e B: Enchant´. e Note : The world symbol is Pr´sentez-vous ` deux (2) personnes ` cˆt´ de vous. e a a o e used to designate cultural in- formation contained in the A.1.2 Observation culturelle text. Very shortly, these pre- sentations will be in French. LA BISE In many French-speaking countries, people kiss each other on the cheek or shake hands when they meet. In everyday situations, men shake hands, while women more often kiss, and mixed couples will kiss or shake hands depending on their level of acquaintance. The kiss (“le bisou” or “la bise”) begins on the right cheek first, which means you should move your head to your left ; the number of kisses varies from one to four depending on the region or country and on the level of emotion. A kiss or handshake is also given upon leaving, even if the two parties have only been together a few minutes ! Another aspect of French-speaking cultures you should be aware of is the space between people. In many countries, people stand much closer together when talking than Americans do, so do not c / La bise feel intimidated or crowded if the person you are speaking with stands quite close. 10 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  11. 11. A.1.3 Le cercle d’amis Pr´sentons-nous ! Dans cet exercice, toute la classe va se pr´senter. e e Formez un grand cercle dans la classe. 1. Dans des groupes de 3 (A-B-C), pr´sentez-vous. A e se pr´sente ` B ; B se pr´sente ` C ; la personne au e a e a centre (B) pr´sente A ` C. e a B A C1 A ` B : Bonjour, je m’appelle Sylvie. a B ` A : Je m’appelle Joe. a A et B : Enchant´(e). [A et B se serrent la main.] e B ` C : Comment t’appelles-tu ? a C ` B : Je m’appelle Oscar. a B ` A et ` C : Sylvie, je te pr´sente Oscar. a a e A et C : Bonjour / Enchant´(e). [A et B se serrent la main.] e 2. A et C changent de position, et C change de groupe. B A C1 3. La personne au centre (A) se pr´sente au nouveau e C, et pr´sente C ` B. e a A B C2 A ` C : Bonjour, je m’appelle Sylvie. Comment t’appelles-tu ? a C : Je m’appelle Veronica. A ` C et ` B : Veronica, je te pr´sente Joe. a a e B et C : Bonjour, Joe/Veronica. /Enchant´(e). [B et C se e serrent la main.] 4. B et C changent de position, et C change de groupe. Continuez. A B C2 Section A ´ Activites 11
  12. 12. ´ A.1.4 L’alphabet des prenoms ´ LES PRENOMS Grammaire: Voir B.1, “L’alphabet,” page 31. Many French names can be used for both men and Epelez les pr´noms fran¸ais suivants. Est-ce qu’ils sont masculins e c women, sometimes with dif- ou f´minins ? e ferent spelling but the same pronunciation, other times A e Aim´e H Henri O Olivier V Vanessa with the same spelling. For B B´atrice e I Isabelle P Pascale centuries, French names were W William C Claude J Jean Q Quentin predominantly saints’ names, and recognizably “French” - D Dominique K Kevin R Ren´e X Xavier but nowadays, many Arabic E ´ Emile L Laurence S Serge Y Yves and English names are also F Francis M Manon T Th´r`se ee popular, sometimes adapted G Gilles N Nicolas U Ulysse Z Z´lie e into more French forms. A.1.5 Comment t’appelles-tu ? Mini-Vocabulaire: Ca s’´crit comment ? ¸ e ‘s— se kri ky m£“e How is that spelled? Ecrivez ! ‘e kri ve“ Write! Epelez ! ‘e ple“ @‘e pd le“A Spell! le nom ‘ld n£“ y last name le pr´nom e ‘ld pre n£“ y first name Note : The microphone symbol is used to designate exercises Circulez dans la classe. Demandez les noms de vos ca- where you must interview se- marades de classe. Ecrivez les noms de 3 personnes. veral people, asking the same question(s) of each. Mod`le : e A: Comment t’appelles-tu ? B: Je m’appelle Shahira. A: Ca s’´crit comment ? ¸ e B: S-H-A-H-I-R-A. A: Shahira est ton pr´nom ? e B: Oui. A: Et ton nom ? B: Mon nom, c’est Jones. A: Ca s’´crit comment ? ¸ e B: J-O-N-E-S. Et toi, comment t’appelles-tu ? . . . Continuez le dialogue. Ecrivez : Mes camarades de classe s’appellent , , et . 12 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  13. 13. ´ ´ A.1.6 Dictee : Le francais en Amerique ¸ Note : “francophone” = ´ une personne qui parle fran¸ais. c LA FRANCOPHONIE - L’AMERIQUE “Un pays francophone” = une u e e O` sont les francophones en Am´rique du Nord, Am´rique du Sud, et nation o` on parle fran¸ais. “La u c Am´rique centrale ? Ecrivez le mot que le professeur ´pelle. Ensuite, e e Francophonie” = toutes les na- essayez d’identifier le pays (ou l’´tat) nomm´. e e tions o` on parle fran¸ais. u c Rappel : Mini-Vocabulaire: accent aigu (´) e accent grave (`) e accent circonflexe (ˆ) e c´dille e (¸) c tr´ma e (¨) e 1. La C’est quelle lettre ? 2. La C’est quelle lettre ? 3. Le C’est quelle lettre ? 4. C’est quelle lettre ? 5. La C’est quelle lettre ? 6. La C’est quelle lettre ? =⇒ Continuons! Savez-vous o` sont les villes suivantes ? u 1. Montr´al e 2. Port-au-Prince 3. La Nouvelle-Orl´ans e 4. Qu´bec e Section A ´ Activites 13
  14. 14. A.1.7 Dialogue : Bonjour ! Grammaire: Voir B.2, “Pronoms sujets,” page 35. Mini-Vocabulaire: Madame ‘m— d—m“ Mrs., Ma’am Monsieur ‘md sjø“ Mr., Sir Mademoiselle ‘m—d mw— zil“ Miss Salut ! ‘s— ly“ Hi! or Bye! (informal) Ca va ? ¸ ‘s— v— “ How are you? Comment ¸a va ? c ‘ky m£ s— v— e “ How are you? Comment allez-vous ? ‘ky m£ t— le vu“ e How are you? (formal) Comment vas-tu ? ‘ky m£ v— ty“ e How are you? (informal) Ca va. ¸ ‘s— v—“ O.K. Ca va bien/mal. ¸ ‘s— v— ˜j£“ ‘s— v— m—l“ i Good/ Bad. Comme ci, comme ¸a. c ‘kym si kym s—“ So-so. Merci. ‘mir si“ Thank you. Et vous ? / Et toi ? ‘e vu“ ‘e tw—“ And you? Au revoir ! ‘o vw—r“ Goodbye! A demain ! ‘— dd m£“ i See you tomorrow! une rencontre ‘r£ k£ trd“ e y a meeting Note : the partner symbol is Imitez le dialogue mod`le avec un(e) partenaire. Chan- e used to designate conversations gez les ´l´ments gris pour personnaliser le dialogue. ee or exercises done in pairs. Mod`le : e A: Salut, Christophe ! B: Ah, bonjour, Marc ! Ca¸ va ? A: Comme ci, comme ¸a. Et c toi, Christophe ? Comment c ¸a va ? B: Ca va bien, merci. ¸ A: Au revoir. B: Salut. 14 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  15. 15. A.1.8 Rencontres Note : the mask symbol is used to designate activities where you assume a role in a conver- Imaginez un petit dialogue pour les paires ou groupes sation. suivants. C’est formel, ou informel ? Pratiquez le dia- logue avec votre partenaire, et pr´sentez votre dialogue e devant la classe. 1. 2. A: A: B: B: C: C: 3. 4. A: A: B: B: C: A: : B: : A: : B: Section A ´ Activites 15
  16. 16. Mini-Vocabulaire: A.2 Le cours de francais ¸ ` gauche a ‘— goƒ“ ` droite a ‘— drw—t“ les affiches ‘le z— fiƒ“ le bureau ‘ld ˜y ro“ la chaise ‘l— ƒiz“ la craie ‘l— kri“ les devoirs ‘le dd vw—r“ l’´tudiant e ‘le ty dj£“ e l’´tudiante e ‘le ty dj£t“ e la fenˆtre e ‘l— fd ni trd“ ferm´(e) e ‘fir me“ la feuille ‘l— f÷j“ le livre ‘ld livr“ la main ‘l— m£“i le mur ‘ld myr“ ouvert(e) ‘u vir“ ‘u virt“ le papier ‘ld p— pje“ la pendule ‘l— p£ dyl“ e le plafond ‘ld pl— f£“ y la porte ‘l— pyrt“ le professeur ‘ld pry fi s÷r“ le pupitre ‘ld py pitr“ le sac ` dos a ‘ld s— k— do“ le sol ‘ld syl“ le stylo ‘ld sti lo“ le tableau ‘ld t— ˜lo“ le t´l´phone ee ‘ld te le fyn“ A.2.1 Vocabulaire : La salle de classe portable ‘pyr t—˜l“ Que veut dire ‘kd vø dir“ ´ Grammaire: Voir B.3, “Articles Definis,” page 40. Selectionnez la r´ponse correcte et lisez la phrase enti`re. e e 1. Le professeur ´crit au tableau avec la craie / la chaise. e 2. Pour donner la r´ponse, l’´tudiant l`ve le sac ` dos / la main. e e e a 3. On n’utilise pas le t´l´phone portable / le livre en classe. ee Do not expect to understand every word in these sentences. 4. Pour ´crire, l’´tudiante utilise le stylo / la fenˆtre. e e e There should be enough words 5. L’´tudiante / l’´tudiant ´crit sur la feuille de papier. e e e you recognize to allow you to 6. Le livre de l’´tudiant est ouvert / ferm´. e e guess the right answer. Part of learning a language is accepting 7. Le devoir / le livre sur le bureau a une note de A+. that there will be words you do 8. Le stylo rouge est sur le pupitre / le bureau. not understand, and you need to work around that. If you feel 9. L’´tudiant est attentif – il regarde la pendule / le professeur. e that there is a word whose mea- 10. La porte est ` gauche / ` droite. a a ning you truly need to know, 11. Les affiches sont au mur / au plafond. use the question, “Que veut dire ‘X’ ?” = “What does ‘X’ mean ?” 16 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  17. 17. A.2.2 Aux ordres du professeur ! ´ Grammaire: Voir B.4, “Imperatifs,” page 43. Ob´issez aux instructions de votre professeur. e Mini-Vocabulaire: Tout le monde ‘tu ld m£d“ y Everyone Allez ‘— le“ Go Dites ‘dit“ Say Donnez ‘dy ne“ Give Ecoutez ‘e ku te“ Listen Ecrivez ‘e kri ve“ Write Fermez ‘fir me“ Close Mettez ‘mi te“ Put Montrez ‘m£ tre“ y Show Ouvrez ‘u vre“ Open Prenez ‘prd ne“ Take/ Pick up R´p´tez e e ‘re pe te“ Repeat ´ A.2.3 Dictee : La salle de classe Ecrivez les mots que le professeur ´pelle. Puis, mettez le mot correct e dans la phrase ` droite. a 1. a. Le parle fran¸ais tr`s bien. c e 2. b. Les ne sont pas tr`s confortables. e 3. c. Le professeur ´crit au e . 4. d. On ´crit sur le papier avec un e . 5. e. On ´crit au tableau avec une e . 6. f. Le professeur corrige les avec un stylo rouge. 7. g. Pr´f´rez-vous les fenˆtres ouvertes ou ee e ? 8. h. Les ´tudiants entrent par la e . 9. i. Le du professeur est grand. 10. j. La classe est finie. Mettez les livres dans votre . A.2.4 Parlez francais en classe ! ¸ Mini-Vocabulaire: Comment ? ‘ky m£“e What? (Huh?) Je ne comprends pas. ‘d nd k£ pr£ p—“ y e I don’t understand. Comment dit-on . . . ? ‘ky m£ di t£“ e y How do you say. . . ? Excusez-moi. ‘ik sky ze mw—“ Excuse me. S’il vous plaˆ ıt ‘sil vu pli“ Please (formal) Dans des groupes de 3, imaginez un petit dialogue entre un professeur de fran¸ais et deux ´tudiants. Pratiquez c e le dialogue. R´p´tez le dialogue devant la classe. e e Section A ´ Activites 17
  18. 18. A.3 Les chiffres A.3.1 Maths ! Grammaire: Voir B.5, “Les chiffres,” page 45. Pratiquons les chiffres ! Lisez le probl`me math´matique e e a ` votre partenaire ; il/elle va donner la r´ponse correcte. e Une personne donne le probl`me, le/la partenaire donne e la r´ponse ; puis, les deux personnes changent de rˆle. e o Mod`le : 2+2= e Deux plus deux ´galent quatre. e 7-4= Sept moins quatre ´galent trois. e 1. 2+4= 7. 12+57= 13. 10-7= 2. 3+6= 8. 26+14= 14. 11-6= 3. 5+5= 9. 33+41= 15. 23-9= 4. 1+7= 10. 8-4= 16. 63-13= 5. 8+3= 11. 15-10= 17. 77-36= 6. 9+4= 12. 3-2= 18. 82-41= ` A.3.2 Voila ! (Note : This is a game like Pr´parez une carte pour jouer. Mettez vos chiffres pr´f´r´es : e eee “Bingo.” 5 numbers in any di- V=1-19 ; O=20-39 ; I=40-59 ; L=60-79 ; A=80-99 a rection = “Voil` !” The star in V O I L A the middle is a free square.) 2 29 47 62 83 19 38 57 74 84 Exemple : 7 35 * 76 96 12 24 44 65 99 18 34 51 69 94 V O I L A V O I L A * * 18 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  19. 19. A.3.3 Qui parle francais ? ¸ LA FRANCOPHONIE - L’EUROPE ET L’AFRIQUE Note : In French, the decimal places are separated from the integers by a comma rather Mini-Vocabulaire: than a period. 10,2 in French combien ‘k£ ˜j£“ y i how many, how much = 10.2 in English. Conver- cent ‘s£“ e hundred sely, 1.000.000 in French = mille ‘mil“ thousand 1,000,000 in English. million ‘mi lj£“ y million virgule ‘vir gyl“ comma La population (en millions) de quelques pays francophones QUI PARLE FRANCAIS ? ¸ French is spoken as a native language by about 77 million people. Far more people speak French as a second language than as a first language. About 220 million people live in countries, especially in Africa, where French is an official language, meaning that it is the language of education and government, even though it is usually not the native language of the population. Not all the Fran- cophone nations of Europe and Africa are labeled on this map, but even among those that are named, French plays many different roles : a native language ; a lingua franca (common language) that groups with different native tongues use to communicate ; a language of commerce and of diplomacy. French is the Regardez la carte et dites combien de personnes habitent dans chaque second most commonly taught pays francophone. second language, behind only English. A good estimate is 1. la France 6. le S´n´gal e e 11. la Cˆte o that approximately 115 million 2. le Mali 7. le Cameroun d’Ivoire people speak French as a part of their daily life, and about 3. le Niger 8. le Rwanda 12. la R´publique e twice that many use it on a 4. le Maroc 9. la Belgique D´mocratique e regular basis. 5. le Tchad 10. l’Alg´rie e du Congo Section A ´ Activites 19
  20. 20. LA RENTREE The´ ´ ´ A.3.4 Preparons la rentree ! first day of school in Fran- cophone countries is called Mini-Vocabulaire: “la rentr´e” (literally, “the e la rentr´e ‘r£ tre“ e e first day of school return”). Since most countries vous avez ‘vu z— ve“ you have have standard national curri- achetez ‘—ƒ te“D ‘— ƒd te“ buy cula, the whole country often d´penses e ‘de p£s“ e expenditures has “la rentr´e” on the same e day. Vous avez 100 Euros. Achetez le n´cessaire pour la e rentr´e. Calculez vos d´penses. e e la carte t´l´phonique ee le stylo le sac ` dos a ‘l— k—rt te le fy nik“ ‘ld sti lo“ ‘ld s— k— do“ 20 Euros en plastique : 2,40 bleu, rouge, ou Euros jaune : 44,90 Euros 40 Euros en m´tal : 8,50 Euros e noir ou brun : 63,20 Euros L’EURO Since 2002, the Euro has been the common currency of most European countries, replacing national currencies like the French franc and the German Deutschmark. The value of one Euro has le livre le crayon le cahier varied with the exchange rate ‘ld livr“ ‘ld kri j£“ y ‘ld k— je“ from about $.80 to $1.30. 36,20 Euros 0,90 Euros 2,50 Euros Unlike American bills, the Mod`le : e different denominations of Euros are each a different color A: Bonjour, Madame ! Le sac ` dos, c’est combien, s’il vous a and a different size. The fronts plaˆ ? ıt feature windows and the backs B: Le sac ` dos bleu coˆte 44 Euros 90, le sac ` dos brun coˆte a u a u feature bridges from different 63 Euros 20. eras and countries. A: Je voudrais un sac ` dos bleu, s’il vous plaˆ a ıt. B: Tr`s bien, Mademoiselle. Ca fait 44,90. Vous d´sirez e ¸ e quelque chose d’autre ? A: Le stylo coˆte combien ? . . . u [Continuez la conversation . . . ] B: Merci, Madame. Au revoir ! 20 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  21. 21. A.4 Identifications. Qui est. . . ? A.4.1 Dans la classe de francais ¸ Note : Comment = “how” ˆ Grammaire: Voir B.6, “Le verbe etre,” page 47. “Comment est X ?” = “What is X like ?” Comment est la classe de fran¸ais ? Avec votre parte- c “Comment va X ?” = “How is naire, compl´tez les phrases suivantes. Donnez la forme e X ?” (voir section A.1.) correcte du verbe “ˆtre.” e 1. Je dans la classe de fran¸ais. c 2. Nous ´tudiants. e 3. Le professeur intelligent. 4. Les ´tudiants e sociables. 5. Tu am´ricain(e) ? e 6. Nous contents d’´tudier le fran¸ais. e c 7. Le livre facile. 8. Vous fran¸ais ? c 9. La classe grande. 10. Tu enthousiaste ? 11. Oui, je tr`s enthousiaste ! e 12. Les ´tudiants e prˆts ! e A.4.2 Faisons connaissance ! Mini-Vocabulaire: Faisons connaissance ! ‘fd z£ ky ni s£s“ y e Let’s get acquainted! Qui ‘ki“ Who Levez la main ‘ld ve l— m£“ i Raise your hand travailleur(se) ‘tr— v— j÷r @jøzA“ hard-working paresseux(se) ‘p— ri sø @søzA“ lazy Si la description s’applique ` vous, levez la main et dites “je suis. . ..” a Dans la classe, qui est. . . ? 1. grand 6. paresseux 11. sportif 2. petit 7. anxieux 12. s´dentaire e 3. brun 8. calme 13. travailleur 4. blond 9. timide 14. s´rieux e 5. studieux 10. courageux 15. frivole Section A ´ Activites 21
  22. 22. A.5 Descriptions ´ A.5.1 Changeons d’identite ! Rappel : en fran¸ais, les mots c Grammaire: Voir B.7, “L’accord de l’adjectif,” page 49. descriptifs (les adjectifs) sont masculins ou f´minins, singu- e R´p´tez la phrase donn´e, et puis substituez le nouveau sujet ou e e e liers ou pluriels, comme l’objet adjectif. Changez les autres mots si c’est n´cessaire ! e qu’ils d´crivent. e Exemple: Je suis blond. [Marie] Marie est blonde. [am´ricain] e Marie est am´ricaine. e [tu] Tu es am´ricain. e Le fran¸ais est amusant. c 1. La classe 7. Nous 13. Tu 2. Le livre 8. s´rieux e 14. attentif 3. int´ressant e 9. Je 15. Hamid 4. Le professeur 10. Sylvie 16. petit 5. am´ricain e 11. sociable 17. Vous 6. Les ´tudiants e 12. Marc et Marie 18. Miriam A.5.2 Qui est-ce ? Qui est-ce ? Essayez d’identifier les personnes sur les photos. 1. Marie Curie a. 2. George Bush b. Hint : The adjective in the 3. G´rard Depardieu e c. question is in the masculine 4. Jacques Chirac d. form because it’s not describing 5. C´line Dion e e. anyone yet. When you give an =⇒ Continuons! answer, you will have to make Regardez les photos et r´pondez aux questions. Utilisez la bonne e the adjective agree with the forme de l’adjectif ! gender and number of that per- son. 1. Qui est blond ? 5. Qui est mort ? 2. Qui est s´rieux ? e 6. Qui est intelligent ? 3. Qui est am´ricain ? e 7. Qui est chic ? 4. Qui est canadien ? 8. Qui est riche ? 22 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  23. 23. A.5.3 Comment sont-ils ? Grammaire: Voir B.7, “L’accord des adjectifs,” page 49. Utilisez les adjectifs ` droite pour d´crire les personnes ou les choses a e a ` gauche. Changez la forme de l’adjectif si c’est n´cessaire ! e Mini-Vocabulaire: Comment sont-ils ? ‘ky m£ s£ til“ e y What are they like? ma m`re e ‘m— mir“ my mother gentil (gentille) ‘£ tij“ e nice cher (ch`re) e ‘ƒir“ expensive sale [sal] dirty tr`s e ‘tri“ very pas vraiment ‘p— vri m£“ e not really 1. le professeur a. stupide 2. la France b. difficile 3. la prononciation du fran¸ais c c. comp´tent e 4. Georges Bush d. important 5. ma m`ree e. travailleur 6. moi f. s´rieux e 7. le livre g. ´l´gant ee 8. la guerre en Iraq h. cher 9. les ´tudiants de fran¸ais e c i. grand 10. l’universit´ e j. gentil 11. mes classes k. sale 12. la salle de classe l. intelligent 13. les devoirs m. int´ressant e A.5.4 L’image des stars Dans des groupes de 4, nommez une personne c´l`bre. Ecrivez le ee nom sur une feuille de papier. Quels adjectifs d´crivent cette per- e sonne ? Passez la feuille. Chaque ´tudiant ´crit un adjectif qui d´crit e e e la personne c´l`bre. ee Quelques adjectifs oppos´s sont : e grand-petit gentil(le)-m´chant e blond-brun comp´tent-incomp´tent e e s´rieux-frivole e timide-courageux riche-pauvre s´dentaire-sportif e travailleur-paresseux enthousiaste-indiff´rent e intelligent-stupide sale-propre calme-anxieux sociable-solitaire patient-impatient int´ressant-ennuyeux e Section A ´ Activites 23
  24. 24. A.5.5 Sondage de la classe Grammaire: Voir B.8, “Questions,” page 53. Interviewez vos camarades de classe. Utilisant l’into- nation, posez des questions. Ecrivez les noms des per- sonnes qui r´pondent affirmativement. Chaque ´tudiant e e pose deux questions ` ses camarades. Changez la forme a de l’adjectif au f´minin si la personne en face de vous est une femme. e Exemple: A: [sociable-honnˆte] e B: [enthousiaste- im- poli] A: Bonjour ! Comment B: Je m’appelle Marie. t’appelles- tu ? Et toi ? A: Je m’appelle Paula. Marie, tu es sociable ? B: Non, pas vraiment. A: Tu es honnˆte ? e B: Oui, je suis tr`s e honnˆte. e Paula, tu es enthou- siaste ? A: Oui, je suis enthou- B: Tu es impolie ? siaste. A: Non ! la liste de Paula la liste de Marie PERSONNES SO- PERSONNES EN- CIABLES : THOUSIASTES : Paula PERSONNES PERSONNES IMPO- ˆ HONNETES : LIES : Marie 1. honnˆte - impatient e 6. s´rieux - poli e 2. content - sportif 7. s´dentaire - studieux e 3. anxieux - riche 8. g´n´reux - gentil e e 4. timide - intelligent 9. tol´rant - calme e 5. travailleur - am´ricain e 10. chic - paresseux 24 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  25. 25. ´ ´ A.6 Resume Les activit´s dans cette section vous permettent de pratiquer tout le e mat´riel du chapitre. Regardez les “objectifs” du chapitre ` la page e a 9. ´ ´ A.6.1 Resume : Descriptions Dans votre groupe, trouvez le maximum d’adjectifs pour d´crire les personnes, institutions, et objets suivants. e Mettez l’adjectif ` la forme correcte (masculin, f´minin, a e singulier, pluriel). 1. l’universit´ e 6. les ´tudiants ` votre uni- e a 2. les professeurs versit´ e 3. ma m`re e 7. les devoirs 4. la porte 5. le cours de fran¸ais c 8. mes amis ´ ´ A.6.2 Resume : Instructions en classe (Jacques a dit !) Ecoutez les instructions du professeur. Quand le professeur dit, “Jacques a dit” + l’instruction, ex´cutez-la. Mais s’il dit “Jacques e a dit a dit” + l’instruction, ne l’ex´cutez pas. e 1. Levez-vous. 2. Prenez le stylo. 3. Ecrivez votre nom. 4. Ecrivez votre pr´nom. e 5. Allez ` la fenˆtre. a e 6. Ouvrez la fenˆtre. e 7. Allez au tableau. 8. Prenez la craie. 9. Ecrivez la phrase, ”Comment allez-vous ?” au tableau. 10. Allez ` votre chaise. a 11. (instruction du professeur) 12. (instruction du professeur) 13. (instruction du professeur) 14. (instruction du professeur) 15. (instruction du professeur) Section A ´ Activites 25
  26. 26. Mini-Vocabulaire: ´ ´ ´ A.6.3 Resume : Votre identite la rue street lieu de place of naissance birth D’abord, pratiquez le dialogue mod`le avec le profes- e seur. LE PALAIS DE ´ L’ELYSEE Jacques Chirac A: Bonjour, Monsieur. est le pr´sident fran¸ais. La e c B: Bonjour. r´sidence officielle du pr´sident e e A: Votre nom, s’il vous plaˆ ? ıt est le Palais de l’Elys´e, qui se e B: Chirac. trouve ` l’adresse indiqu´e. a e A: Ca s’´crit comment ? ¸ e B: C-H-I-R-A-C. A: Votre pr´nom ? e B: Jacques ; J-A-C-Q-U-E-S. A: Quelle est votre adresse ? B: 55, rue du Faubourg Saint-Honor´. e A: Le nom de la rue s’´crit comment ? e B: F-a-u-b-o-u-r-g S-a-i-n-t-H-o-n-o-r-´. e ´ d / Le Palais Elysee A: Dans quelle ville ? B: Paris. A: Et quel est votre lieu de naissance ? B: Paris aussi. A: Merci, Monsieur. J’ai toutes les informations n´cessaires. e Maintenant, compl´tez la fiche d’identification avec vos informa- e tions. Vous pouvez inventer une adresse fictive si vous d´sirez. Puis, e avec un(e) partenaire, changez les ´l´ments gris du dialogue mod`le ee e pour personnaliser le dialogue. Ecrivez les informations de votre par- tenaire sur la fiche. Mes informations : Nom Pr´nom(s) e Adresse Lieu de naissance Les informations de mon partenaire : Nom Pr´nom(s) e Adresse Lieu de naissance 26 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  27. 27. ´ ´ A.6.4 Resume : Dialogue Avec un(e) partenaire ou dans un groupe de 3 personnes, pr´parez un petit dialogue pour illustrer une de ces si- e tuations. Pratiquez le dialogue et pr´sentez-le devant la e classe. nouveau, nouvelle = new 1. (2 ou 3 personnes) La rentr´e - Vous ˆtes dans une nouvelle classe. e e un nouveau copain = a new Imaginez la conversation entre les ´tudiants ou entre le professeur e boyfriend et les ´tudiants. e une nouvelle copine = a new 2. (2 personnes) Interviewez votre partenaire. Comment est-il/elle ? girlfriend Faites une description de votre partenaire ` la classe. (Chaque per- a sonne d´crit son partenaire). e 3. (3 personnes) Vous avez un nouveau copain / une nouvelle copine. Pr´sentez cette personne ` un de vos parents. e a Section A ´ Activites 27
  28. 28. A.7 Vocabulaire francais-anglais ¸ Les pr´sentations, l’identit´ et la sant´ e e e Bonjour ‘˜£ ur“ y Hello Salut ! ‘s— ly“ Hi! or Bye! (informal) Au revoir ! ‘o vw—r“ Goodbye! A demain ! ‘— dd m£“ i See you tomorrow! Madame ‘m— d—m“ Mrs., Ma’am Monsieur ‘md sjø“ Mr., Sir Mademoiselle ‘m—d mw— zil“ Miss Comment . . . ‘ky m£“ F F F e What’s your name? . . . t’appelles-tu ? ‘t— pil ty“ (informal) . . . vous appelez-vous ? ‘vu z— ple vu“ (formal) Je m’appelle . . . ‘d m— pil“ My name is. . . le nom ‘ld n£“ y last name le pr´nom e ‘ld pre n£“y first name la rue ‘l— ry“ street le lieu de naissance ‘ld ljø dd ni s£s“ e place of birth Enchant´(e) e ‘£ ƒ£ te“ e e Pleased to meet you. Ca va ? ¸ ‘s— v— “ How are you? Comment ¸a va ? c ‘ky m£ s— v— e “ How are you? Comment allez-vous ? ‘ky m£ t— le vu“ e How are you? (formal) Comment vas-tu ? ‘ky m£ v— ty“ e How are you? (informal) Ca va. ¸ ‘s— v—“ O.K. Ca va bien/mal. ¸ ‘s— v— ˜j£“ ‘s— v— m—l“ i Good/ Bad. Comme ci, comme ¸a. ‘kym si kym s—“ c So-so. Merci. ‘mir si“ Thank you. Et vous ? / Et toi ? ‘e vu“ ‘e tw—“ And you? (formal/inf.) Parler en classe tout le monde ‘tu ld m£d“ y Everyone allez ‘— le“ go arrˆtez e ‘— ri te“ stop dites ‘dit“ say donnez ‘dy ne“ give ´coutez e ‘e ku te“ listen ´crivez e ‘e kri ve“ write ´pelez e ‘e ple“D ‘e pd le“ spell fermez ‘fir me“ close levez ‘ld ve“ raise, lift mettez ‘mi te“ put montrez ‘m£ tre“ y show ouvrez ‘u vre“ open prenez ‘prd ne“ take/ pick up r´p´tez e e ‘re pe te“ repeat Comment ? ‘ky m£“e What? (Huh?) Je ne comprends pas. ‘d nd k£ pr£ p—“ y e I don’t understand. Comment dit-on . . . ? ‘ky m£ di t£“ e y How do you say. . . ? Que veut dire . . . ? ‘kd vødir“ What does . . . mean? Excusez-moi. ‘ik sky ze mw—“ Excuse me. S’il vous plaˆıt ‘sil vu pli“ Please (formal) 28 Chapter 1 Ca te ¸ Bonjour! S’ilva? plaˆ ıt ‘sil td pli“ Please (informal)
  29. 29. Prononciation et orthographe Ca s’´crit comment ? ‘s— se kri ky m£“ ¸ e e How is that spelled? accent aigu ‘—k s£ e gy“ e acute accent (like this: ´) e accent grave ‘—k s£ gr—v“ e grave accent (like this: `) e accent circonflexe ‘—k s£ sir k£ fliks“ e y circumflex accent (like this: ˆ) e tr´ma e ‘tre m—“ diaresis (like this: ¨ı) c´dille e ‘se dij“ cedilla (like this: ¸) c majuscule ‘m— y skyl“ capital letter minuscule ‘mi ny skyl“ small letter En classe ` gauche a ‘— goƒ“ (to the) left ` droite a ‘— drw—t“ (to the) right l’affiche (f.) ‘l— fiƒ“ poster le bureau ‘ld ˜y ro“ desk le cahier ‘ld k— ji“ notebook la chaise ‘l— ƒiz“ chair la craie ‘l— kri“ chalk le crayon ‘ld kri j£“ y pencil le devoir ‘ld dd vw—r“ homework l’´tudiant e ‘le ty dj£“ e (male) student l’´tudiante e ‘le ty dj£t“ e (female) student la fenˆtre e ‘l— fd ni trd“ window ferm´(e) e ‘fir me“ closed la feuille de papier ‘l— f÷j dd p— pji“ sheet (of paper) le livre ‘ld livr“ book la main ‘l— m£“i hand le mur ‘ld myr“ wall ouvert(e) ‘u vir“ ‘u virt“ open le papier ‘ld p— pje“ paper la pendule ‘l— p£ dyl“ e clock le plafond ‘ld pl— f£“ y ceiling la porte ‘l— pyrt“ door le professeur ‘ld pry fi s÷r“ teacher le pupitre ‘ld py pitr“ (student’s) desk le sac ` dos a ‘ld s— k— do“ backpack le sol ‘ld syl“ floor le stylo ‘ld sti lo“ pen le tableau ‘ld t— ˜lo“ chalkboard le t´l´phone ee ‘ld te le fyn“ telephone portable ‘pyr t—˜l“ portable Section A ´ Activites 29
  30. 30. Les adjectifs Comment sont-ils ? ‘ky m£ s£ til“ e y What are they like? am´ricain(e) e ‘— me ri k£“ ‘kin“ i American anxieux(se) ‘£k sjø@sjøzA“ e anxious blond(e) ‘˜l£“ ‘˜l£d“ y y blond brun(e) ‘˜r÷“ ‘˜ryn“ £ brown-haired calme ‘k—lm“ calm canadien(ne) ‘k— n— dj£“ ‘djin“ i Canadian cher (ch`re) e ‘ƒir“ expensive chic ‘ƒik“ chic comp´tent(e) e ‘k£ pe t£“ ‘t£t“ y e e competent content(e) ‘k£ t£“ ‘t£t“ y e e happy courageux(se) ‘ku r— ø“ ‘øz“ brave difficile ‘di fi sil“ hard, difficult ´l´gant(e) ee ‘e le g£“ ‘g£t“ e e elegant fran¸ais(e) c ‘fr£ si“ ‘siz“ e French frivole ‘fri vyl“ frivolous g´n´reux(se) e e ‘e ne rø“ ‘røz“ generous gentil(le) ‘£ tij“ e nice grand(e) ‘gr£“ ‘gr£d“ e e big (things), tall (people) honnˆte e ‘y nit“ honest impatient(e) ‘£ p— sj£“ ‘sj£t“ i e e impatient impoli(e) ‘£ py li“ i impolite, rude important(e) ‘£ pyr t£“ ‘t£t“ i e e important intelligent(e) ‘£ ti li £“ ‘£t“ i e e intelligent int´ressant(e) e ‘£ te ri s£“ ‘s£t“ i e e interesting intol´rant(e) e ‘£ ty le r£“ ‘r£t“ i e e intolerant m´chant(e) e ‘me ƒ£“ ‘ƒ£t“ e e mean paresseux(se) ‘p— ri sø“ ‘søz“ lazy patient(e) ‘p— sj£“ ‘sj£t“ e e patient petit(e) ‘pd ti“ ‘tit“ small (things), short (people) poli(e) ‘py li“ polite riche ‘riƒ“ rich sale [sal] dirty sportif(ve) ‘spyr tif“ ‘tiv“ athletic s´dentaire e ‘se d£ tir“ e sedentary s´rieux(se) e ‘se rjø“ ‘rjøz“ serious studieux(se) ‘sty djø“ ‘djøz“ studious stupide ‘sty pid“ stupid timide ‘ti mid“ timid, shy tol´rant(e) e ‘ty le r£“ ‘r£t“ e e tolerant travailleur(se) ‘tr— v— j÷r“ ‘jøz“ hard-working For numbers, see page 45. 30 Chapter 1 Bonjour! Ca va? ¸
  31. 31. B Grammar B.1 The French alphabet and French pronunciation Students beginning to study French are invariably shocked by French pronunciation. The historical evolution of French has led to many cases where letters are written, but not pronounced. At one point, all the letters in French words were pronounced; but since you want to be understood by twenty-first century French speakers and not thirteenth-century ones, you need to be able to pronounce modern French correctly. Students sometimes think that as long as they “learn their gram- mar,” they will do well in French. That is true if you are taking a written test, but this book aims to make you both orally proficient and literate — it will do you no good to have impeccable grammar if you go to Montreal for a vacation and no one can understand a word you say. If you have ever tried to figure out how to pronounce an English word by looking in the dictionary, you may have had to consult a pronunciation guide. American dictionaries seldom use the stan- dard for the rest of the world, which is the International Phonetic Alphabet, or IPA. In this book, as in any French dictionary you buy, each new vocabulary word will be given along with its phonetic transcription according to the IPA. Becoming familiar with the IPA will take you a little while, but it will save you from attempting to write down in inaccurate English what the French word sounds like. In IPA transcription, only the sounds that are pronounced are indicated. The IPA transcription by itself will not magically get you speaking French like a native, but if you use it in conjunction with listening carefully to your teacher’s modeling of a word’s pronunci- ation and practice in the laboratory, you will soon find it easier to figure out how to pronounce a new French word. The IPA is provided to help you remember how a word is pronounced when a French speaker is not available to help you. You will not be tested on it in any way, and are not expected to “get it” all right away. It is a reminder system that we hope will become more useful to you as your study of French progresses. We will be giving you more information about French pronunciation, and hints on IPA transcription, throughout the book. If you wish to start using the IPA help right now, you should consult the optional section at the end of this chapter, B.9, on page 56. Here is the French alphabet, accompanied by the IPA pronunciation for each letter. Section B Grammar 31

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