- Given by Edwin Locke
Just as people are motivated to satisfy needs on the job, they are
also motivated to strive for and attain goals. Goals are the source of
motivation because they indicate what has to be done and how much
effort should be exerted. Attainment of goals satisfy the individual’s
achievement drive, boosts the self-esteem. Thus, we can say that
specific goals increase the performance than general goals. Similarly
difficult goals result in higher performance provided they are
acceptable to the individual.
Feedback also plays an important role may it be external or self-
generated. It helps the people to perform better every time from the
The following factors influences the Goal-Performance relationship:
1) Adequate Self-Efficacy: It is the key factor in determining goal
setting. It refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is
capable of performing a task successfully. Self-Efficacy has a
direct relationship with person’s confidence and thus with goal
High, Self-Efficacy High, Goal Setting
Low, Self-Efficacy Low, Goal Setting
On receiving negative feedback the people with,
High, Self-Efficacy Efforts increases
Low, Self-Efficacy Efforts decreases
Hence, the primary task of managers is to build employee self-
2) Challenging Goals: Researches has proved that only a
challenging job content motivates the employees. In such case
everyone is anxious to prove that he or she is capable of
attaining the task. However even though the task are
challenging they should be attainable. A goal that is difficult but
attainable increases the challenge of the job.
3) Specific Goals: Researches has established that the goals
must be specified in quantitative terms. They should be
accompanied by concrete actions, plans, target etc.
4) Owned Goals: Owned or Acceptable goals are preferable to
impose goals. Goals must not only be specific and challenging
but it must be made acceptable to the employees. In order to
make the goals acceptable to employees following conditions
must be fulfilled.
Employees participation in goal setting and decision making.
Public commitment of goals will make the employee more
serious towards goal.
Superior should ensure full support to their lower level
Goal congruence should always exist to satisfy the need of
organization as well as employees.
5) Performance monitoring and Feedback: Feedback helps
Employees work with greater involvement and lead to greater
Job satisfaction. Feedback gives rise to achievement motivation.
performance monitoring involves observing and inspecting
employees work. This helps to indicate to the employees that
their work is important and their contributions to the organization
(Given by Vroom & it was further developed by Porter & Lawler)
One of the great notifications of the Vroom theory is that it recognizes
the prominence of different individuals needs and motivations.
Therefore it is beyond the simplistic features of the Maslow and
Herzberg’s approaches. It seems to be more realistic, and fits the
concept of the harmony of objectives, an emotional touch. Along and
apart with the organization goals, individuals carry their personals
goals which can be harmonized, the theory is completely consistent
with the system of managing by objectives.
Life is not as easy as it seems to be. So, the theory has on one
side the theory is brilliantly drafted to satisfy people’s goals but
following explanation depicts its strength becoming weakness.
The theory assumes that perceptions of value vary among
individuals at different times at different places, the phenomenon
appears be fit real life more accurately. It also lacks solid evidence
hence further research is needed. It is not applicable in actual work
situation as well as since the model gives a formula to calculate the
strength of a person’s motivation but is dependent on the ‘ ‘
of expectancy and valence which again is an incomplete process.
The Expectancy Theory is the product of 3 factors that is:
Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
Modified Model By Porter And Lawler
Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler derived a substantially more
complete model of motivation built in large part on expectancy theory.
The below given model was applied by them primarily to managers.
The model indicates that the amount of effort i.e. the strength of
motivation and energy exerted depends on the value of a reward plus
the amount of energy a person feels is required along with the
probability of receiving the reward. Also, the actual performance in
turn influences the perceived efforts and possibility of actually getting
Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by effort
expended but also it is greatly influenced by an individuals ability i.e.
knowledge and skill to do the job and by his or her perception of what
the required task is, the extent to which the persons understands the
goals, required activities, and other elements of a task. Performance
in turn is seen as leading to intrinsic rewards as a feeling of self-
actualization and extrinsic rewards such as working conditions and
status. These rewards, further lead to satisfaction.
But, the manager should carefully decide their reward structure
and that there careful planning; managing by objectives and clearly
performing duties and responsibility there sever efforts.
Ability to do
(LAST FOUR THORIES AND JOB ENRICHMENT)
SR.NO. NAME ROLL NO.
1 Paridhi Guptu 7134
2 Supriya Hegde 7136
3 Saima Inamdar 7137
4 Neha Joshi 7144
GROUP LEADER: NEHA JOSHI
- Given by B.F. Skinner
The Behavior Modification Theory is also popularly known as
Reinforcement theory. The Behavior modification theory states
that if the consequences are controlled then behavior also can be
Organizational behavior modification or OB Mod is the
application of the principles of behavior modification in
organization. OB Mod is based on the idea that since behavior
depends on its consequences, it is possible to control a number of
employee behavior by manipulating their consequences. OB Mod
relies heavily on the Law of Effect.
Law of Effect:
The law of effect states that a person tends to repeat behavior that
is accompanied by favorable consequences and tends not to
repeat behavior that is accompanied by unfavorable
consequences. In other words, the law of effect states that we tend
to learn response that have rewarding consequences and not
learn those that have punishing consequences.
Successful practice of OB Mod involves 3 steps:
1) To decide whether to increase or decrease the repetition of a
person’s particular behavior.
2) To decide the type of consequences that will follow a particular
3) To decide the reinforcement schedule.
There are 4 outcomes depending on the manager’s decision to
apply to withdraw a positive or negative consequences.
1) Positive reinforcement: It is favorable consequences that
encourage repetition of a behavior. For eg: the manager
praises the employee for doing high quality work. Positive
reinforcement is a process by which people learn to perform
behaviors that lead to desired outcomes.
2) Negative reinforcement: It is the process by which people
learn to perform acts that leads to the removal of undesirable
events. In negative reinforcement the behavior is accompanied
by removal of an unfavorable consequences. For eg: the
employee learns that reporting work on time prevents firing from
3) Punishment: It is the process of decreasing undesirable
behavior by following it with unfavorable consequences that
discourages a certain behavior. Managers need to use
punishment with care for the following reasons:
a) Punishment does not directly encourage desired
b) Employees dislike their manager, which causes a strain in
their work relationship.
c) What specific behavior of employee is being punished
should be specified otherwise it would be demotivating.
4) Extinction: It is the withholding of significant positive
consequences that previously followed desirable behavior when
a response that was once rewarded is no longer rewarded, it
tends to weaken and eventually die out i.e. it is extinguished.
Schedules of Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement are the rules to determine how
reinforcement will be delivered. In other words, a schedule of
reinforcement is a plan for determining which responses are to be
reinforced or rewarded.
Continuous reinforcement Partial reinforcement
Continuous reinforcement: It is a schedule of reinforcement in
which all desired behaviors are reinforced. Such a schedule leads to
quick learning but it is not possible to follow this schedule in
Partial reinforcement: it is a schedule of reinforcement in which only
some desired behavior are reinforced. Learning in such a schedule is
slower but is retained longer. Following are its types:
1) Fixed Interval Schedule
2) Variable Interval Schedule
3) Fixed Ratio Schedule
4) Variable Ratio Schedule.