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Portfolio Laura van Santen


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Portfolio Laura van Santen

Portfolio Laura van Santen

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  • 1. Portfolio Laura van Santen
  • 2. Laura van Santen Rietveld 89 2611 LH Delft +31(0)651488389 Education Work Experience MSc2 Urbanism Internship Faculty of Architecture Onix Architecten, Delft University of Technology Groningen February 2009 – June 2009 February 2007 – June 2007 MSc1 Building Technology Professional Maquette Building Faculty of Architecture In-Vorm Architecten Delft University of Technology Groningen September 2008 – January 2009 February 2007 – June 2007 International Architecture Program Faculty of Architecture and Landscape Helsinki University of Technology February 2008 - June 2008 Bachelor of Architecture Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology September 2005 – January 2008 Software Skills Propedeuse Architecture AutoCAD Faculty of Architecture and Landscape Autodesk VIZ Leeds Metropolitan University VectorWorks September 2004 – June 2005 Sketchup Maya International Baccalaureate Programme Adobe Photoshop International School Adobe InDesign Rijnlands Lyceum Oegstgeest Adobe Illustrator September 1998 – June 2003 Microsoft Office
  • 3. Materialz Paviljoen Bouwkunde
  • 4. Materialz Paviljoen Bouwkunde Bouwtechniek ism N Grammatikou september 2008 - januari 2009 18 15 CROSS SECTIONS CROSS SECTIONS Voor het ontwerp voor een materiaal pa- viljoen voor de nieuwe faculteit van Bouwkunde was het belangrijk dat de ma- teriaal monsters bibliotheek kon opber- gen en deels tentoonstellen, informatie 13 13 over materialen aan studenten en onder- ELEVATIONS ELEVATIONS zoekers kon geven, en tegelijkertijd een omgeving creerde voor studenten om te ontspannen. Het concept van een muur als tentoonstellingsruimte werd gecom- bineerd met het concept van een laden kast als opslag ruimte waarin studenten zelf konden zoeken. Wanneer de ladenkast dicht is, is het paviljoen een muur, als ze open zijn ontstaan er binnenruimtes waar materiaaleigenschappen zoals tex- tuur, warmte, en transparantie kunnen worden ervaren. scale 1:50 1:50 scale
  • 5. Urban Emergencies Bangladesh
  • 6. Urban Emergencies Bangladesh ism M Svensson en D A de Koning februari 2009 - june 2009 Geïnitieerd door studenten richt de 50 000 onderzoekstudio Urban Emergencies zich op de (re)actie op wereldwijde natuur- 200 000 Rajshahi $ rampen vanuit het architectonische en stedebouwkundige perspectief. In feb- 150 000 Dhaka ap ita 1 bilion dollars of Pp e rc donor aid annually: this equals 2,5% of ruari 2009 is een eerste groep van 18 GD on the total incoming in- lati studenten vertrokken naar 6 verschil- vestments. 100 000 opu al p 90 000 Sylhet epende n independence tot n 80 000 lende landen om het wederopbouwproces atio partition o india a tion of ndia and n d pul l po east and w pakistan nd west d rura 70 000 te analyseren door middel van data ver- abolishment of a l m abol hme feudal sys f d s feud l system f 60 000 Chittagong zameling en het in kaart brengen van de ruimtelijke condities die na zo’n ramp 50 000 12 November 1970 22 April 1991 11 June 2007 Cyclone Bhola Cyclone Gorky Chittagong mudslides split o east a d west pakistan sp t of east and west pakistan p split as an w a t tion 300 000 casualties 140 000 casualties 330 casualties la GD P p opu The Pakistani recieved severe critisism for its relief operation 10 million people left homeless 8 000 people evacuated from the slums in the hillsides im p musl er capita a gainst average 40 000 awami league first elected f $ awami a e awami league w re- c d - ague re-elected 30 000 Barisal vaak ontstaan door intense internation- government go e nme g vernm t nment 1 2 1982 1991 BNP party elected 1991 a y d $ perce go n ent o overnme e government ntage of world 20 000 ale samenwerking. Bottom-up onderzoeks military cou military coup milita y cou tary u devel 11 Nov 2007 Cyclone Sidr 3 500 casualties urba n pop ulat ion opm ent aid 10 000 7 500 Khulna methodologien diende om kwalitatieve lan langua e lang n language war 2 million people evacuated to storm shelters, damage estimated to $450 million g 00 1500-1757 e mughal empire british east india company is s 1757-1857 7 british crown is s rdu t d g urdu to bengali 1975 c u of 1975 coup of B 5 BNP party t 5 000 2 500 informatie te verzamelen. Als deelnemer van team Bangladesh heb ik drie maan- 1857-1947 7 7- 500 hin hindu popu population u 100 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 den op lokatie onderzoek gedaan naar de gevolgen van de terugkerende cyclonen.
  • 7. LIVING OF THE LAND Life in the countryside Land usage Requirements Coping mechanism THE EMBANKMENT Decisive in settlement Storm surge Aforestation Road infrastructure WATER AND THE LAND The availability of MULTIPURPOSE CYCLONE SHELTER The most visible sign of The essence of mixed-use cyclone shelters Since the great cyclones of 1970 and 1991 a Five points of cyclonic architecture Ons onderzoek richtte zich op Latrine pit Ponds de gevolgen van twee cyclonen; of Bangladesh is patterns of Bangladesh fresh drinking water is Bangladesh’ struggle 1 The storm surge is a tidal wave created by the cyclone as the winds put To protect the embankment from erosion (mangrove) The embankment is, linear and raised above the rest of lot of single purpose cyclone shelters have pilotis against flooding The fishing industry isn’t using any Based on extracting fish from the The materials used for fishing pressure on the surface of the sea. As the cyclone moves inland the wave trees can be planted on the sea side of the embankment. the land, the basis for the road network in Bangladesh. been constructed. The cyclone shelters were directly linked to the land to speak of but is based on the rivers and the sea the fishing (boats and nets) are the biggest is the embankment. central to life in Sanitation in the countryside of Bangladesh is The pond is the source of water for washing and irrigation. Ponds can be used by a single against the elements is only used during cyclones, and were Fishing rivers of Bangladesh and the Bay of sector doesn’t have any specific concerns in relation to cyclones. builds up. The impact of the storm surge is the most destructive aspect of a Aforestation has the additional advantage that it lowers In the aftermath of a cyclone the embankment is used solved by latrine pits adjacent to the homes. Latrine household or by the community. Pond filtration systems can be installed to provide fresh In order to protect the cyclone shelter land itself. 90% of the Bengal. land requirements. To cope with the cyclones the This raised dike is cyclone. The storm surge of a supercyclone can reach up to ten meters. The the impact of the wind from cyclones. alongside waterways to bring in relief aid. Bangladesh. With pits are usually constructed of concrete ring slabs, a drinking water from ponds. This system is used in areas where drilling tube wells isn’t possible. the cyclone shelters. therefore exclusively designed for that use. from storm surges, the building has been storm surge by cyclone Gorki had a height of six meters. Due to the resulting lack of daily use raised 6 meters into the air by using area is used for fishing boats are anchored in Bangladesh’s first line arsenic poisoning and floorplate and a small structure for privacy. If tube wells nor filtration systems are available the ponds might be used for drinking water. This These concrete outside the cyclone seasons, there was a pilotis made of concrete. coves in mangrove forests along is a big health risk, especially in combinations with flooding and low lying pit latrines. Diarrheal agricultural of defense against epidemics caused by buildings are raised lack of money to maintain the building. 2 the coast. outbreaks occur annually due to this reason. roof terrace for extra capacaty Cyclone shelters therefore deteriorated in production. Fishing, cyclones, in particular flash floods it’s the above the land, acting due time, some of which had to be Gorki 1991 die het zuiwesten van Salt and shrimp farming requires a Salt & shrimp farming is done at The salt from the salt fields can be Since the cyclone shelters are often Salt & shrimp salt & shrimp farming, large investment to be profitable and large fields close to the coast. stored in large sacks underground the storm surge. The most critical health as a safe haven during demolished later on. crowded during the disaster, the roof rice cultivation and are as a result run by large land Salty water is pumped into to protect it from the surge wave embankment divides issue the country has to a cyclone and its storm terrace can allow for extra capacity as lords. The sector requires salty water shallow pools, and as the water of the cyclones. No such well as rain water storage for drinking. stockbreeding are the the land in two, inside deal with. surge. NGOs and the Combining the need for specific functions = 3 and is located close to the coast, evaporates the salt is harvested. In possibility exists to protect the with the cyclone shelters could optimize the concrete walls for protection most common often outside the embankment. the rainy period the same pools shrimps. and outside. The government are now use of cyclone shelters. These structures are used for shrimp cultivation. then become multi purpose cyclone livelihoods in the area. embankment is largely trying to create hybrid shelters, opening the space for various To make sure that all people using the cyclone shelter are safe and sound, the All livelihoods have Rice cultivation has a reasonably Rice in Bangladesh is cultivated in Due to the seasonal nature of constructed by the functions for these functions for the community. These walls have to be strong enough to het land trof (the salt fields low investment cost and is often wet paddies. The paddies require harvesting rice there’s no effective include: primary schools, madrasas, office withstand the strong gusts of wind. different requirements, done by small-scale farmers in a high amount of fresh water for way to protect the rice paddies government and the arsenic, As 33 cyclone shelters. For spaces for NGOs, mosques, etc. 4 Rice characteristics and combination with other work. The irrigation. from cyclones. The harvested rice land outside the instance: cyclone free floor plan sector requires fresh water irrigation can, however, be stored on coping mechanisms to and is located inside the suspended platform inside the embankment is usually shelter cum school, The floorplan should be free enough, so deal with cyclones. embankment. home. governmental land, 150m cyclone shelter cum that the shelter’s program can change all = Concrete structures in Bangladesh are not Inclination Sluice gate around the year. It can then be used as kash land. Shallow tube well Deep tube well mosque, and cyclone very common, especially the rural areas of school or office for instance. Stockbreeding Stockbreedng can be done at a small Smallscale stockbreeding can be To protect the livestock from To break the wave of the storm surge and protect the Essential for the embankment is a sufficient amount of the country. These ”pucca” buildings could 1 shelter cum office. The 5 van Cox’s Bazar en the harbour household scale. Chicken, goats and done with just a small patch of cyclones they can be brought to embankment against erosion the embankment is functioning sluice gates. Insufficient sluice gates can Shallow tube wells are used to extract ground water for Deep tube wells are the most common source of fresh potentially provide shelter for people windows with metal shutters cattle are the most common land. This can be directly adjacent specific, raised platforms, killas. during cyclones, but most do not provide animals. to the home. Stockbreeding These protect the livestock from a constructed with an inclination of 1:5 on the sea side lead to waterlogging during the rainy season while drinking. In most areas of Bangladesh shallow tube wells are a drinking water. In order to avoid arsenic poisoning deep tube modernistic concept 5 3 and 1:3 on the inland side. broken sluice gates form a risk during cyclones. health risk due to high levels of arsenic in the ground. wells are dug to a depth of 150 meters. this option, so that both the cyclone During a cyclone, the open windows On this scale stockbreeding is rarely requires fresh or dry food for the storm surge up to a certain height. shows through the five shelters and the concrete structures are should be protected from outside winds. the main form of income but rather livestock. single purpose buildings. Metal shutters make sure that everyone a complement. points shown here. inside is safe and sound. city van Chittagong) en Sidr 2007 die het zuidoosten aan land kwam (the delta van Bari- sal en the resort van Kuakata). Rasheda, Razia, shrimp housewife farmer My husband is a day laborer I used to live in a bamboo Mumtaz, teacher Ibrahim, fisherman on other farms. He earns house but now we have built a brick and concrete house. Our I work as a primary teacher in 150TK (1,50E) per day. The relatives helped us with the the cyclone shelter and I moved here 35 years ago NGOs call us hardcore poor. I costs. We do not own this receive training from an when I lost my land through De twee casussen contrasteren work in the household. Other land, and we work on our NGO. We have a lot of space. river erosion. I do river fishing women in the village think landlord’s land. In the wet Children start school at age 4. now. I don’t own a boat. I I’m crazy. We don’t have any season we cultivate shrimp School is free for girls and also work on my landlord’s money to repair our house, or and in dry season collect salt. 50TK a month for boys. field. I sell my fish at the Ahmedullah, salt make it stronger. During a cyclone warning we Joshi, fisherman bazaar. My landlord sells his salt to a broker, who hires a Nuran, rice farmer farmer In the 1991 disaster I lost my evacuate furniture and books. boat to transport to the city. parents and 6 siblings. It took I go deep sea fishing for a I survived the storm in 1991. us two years to repair the We would like a megaphone week at a time with my crew It took us 3 years to restore During 1991 cyclone I didn’t There was a 6-meter storm fields. We also migrated here here to sound the alarm but of 8 men; we share profit. I niet alleen in schaal qua ste- the rice paddy after the we don’t have it. Our main believe the warning, and took surge but we heard didn’t 30 years ago due to river own the boat, and it cost me cyclone in 1991. I employ 12 shelter in a haystack. The know it was coming. I rebuilt erosion. We never received problems in the shelter after a 500,000TK (5000E). I am not day-laborers, and share shelter is 4 km from here. my own house with my own any help from NGOs to build disaster are with water and insured against disaster. irrigation with other farmers. There was a 6-meter storm hands. It is very strong and back as this is considered a sanitation. There are no During the last cyclone I We moved here to be closer to surge and three of my sons has central columns. We need high-risk disaster area. separate toilets for men and stored my boat inside a canal. the cyclone shelter where I died in the storm. It took 6 a killa (plinth) to save our women. We would like to Last year pirates robbed us. am also teaching to pay for months to repair my house cattle in the next disaster. store rainwater on the roof. my children to attend college. and cost 20,000TK (200E). delijke en nietstedelijke loka- ties maar ook in tijd. sh shrimps bricks clay rope salt water salt bamboo palm tree ken brick sh sea water bam boo ma t fresh water bro s boo po bam les THE SALT FIELDS jute 30 50 metal roll led metal me tal rods clay bricks sand cement iimestone LAND SCARCITY METROPOLITAN MASTER PLAN WATER IN THE CITY LIVING IN THE CITY As the country with the After cyclone Gorki Urban development Local integration Global integration Chittagong Metropolitan Master Plan A l o n g s i d e Inundation after 1991 Gorki Main drains Ponds With 3,7 million Land use Requirements Coping mechanism highest population struck Chittagong in infrastructure water inhabitants the city of The day labourer travels across Due to the multitude of tasks The coping mechanisms of the Day labourer density in the world 19991 the Chittagong management is the Chittagong is the Chittagong along with the job fulfilled there is no choerent day labourer are dependant on the oppertunities availible. requirements for the day labourer. specific industry. land scarcity has D e v e l o p m e n t most pressing issue for second largest in always been a key Authority and the Chittagong to solve. Bangladesh. The city issue. 54% of the Chittagong City During 1991 a large hosts the main harbour farmers in Bangladesh Corporation put part of the city was of the country and Small scale shops are located all The small shops are situated along The small shops have limited are functionally together the inundated. Due to the much of the economy Shop owner over Chittagong with the highest the locally cnetral streets. means to protect their goods. landless, which means Metropolitan Master under dimensioned is in one way or concentration along the streets in central Chittagong. that they can’t live of Plan. The plan has a drainage of the city the another related to it. their land. As the focus on infrastructural water can stay for To give an insight into population grows the improvement but weeks. The city only the livelihoods of the individual plots shrink covers a lot of topics. has two directions in city a comparison is The garment factories of Chittagong The garment industry is Standard practice in the garment Garnment are located in multistory pucca dependant on the infrastructure, industry is to place heavy and and more and more The plan lays out a which the water can made between the buildings. Here imported textile is the the harbour of Chittagong and expensive machinery on the farmers to sell their strategy for an go, to the sea in west or harbour, the garment made into clothing for export. Most the highway to Dhaka. higher floors. While this protects garment factories are located in the the machinery it doesn’t help land to seek their luck improved embankment the river in east. industry, the shop west of the city. when the workforce are unable to better economical The single landlord Land rights Population growth Fragmentation around the city, a Traditionally ponds ownership and the day work due to their own loss. opportunities in the Traditionally land ownership has not been directly At a certain point land rights (formally or As the population of Bangladesh rapidly grew the In present day Bangladesh most plots of land have mangrove belt along have been used to labourer. The harbour of Chittagong is A requirement for the harbour of While the harbour is located along related to the social hierarchy in Bangladesh. informally was given to the farmers). The land plots of land kept getting smaller and smaller. shrunk to a size where the farmer no longer can larger cities. Disasters the western coast and relieve the drainage located on the riverside in the south Chittagong and a reason for its the river Karnaphuli and not Harbour Unlike the feudal system in Europe land in was divided into smaller plots of land. sustain his upkeep by the land alone. Land is sold of the city. The surrounding area is importance is the protected banks directly at the coast the lack of a can act as a trigger Bangladesh was controlled by the ruler and leased off to landlords controlling large disconnected zones where system but in recent dominated by industry. of the river Karnaphuli. proper embankment makes the for limited time to administrative ”landlords”. areas of land. The result is a fragmented mix of event, accelerating this The farmers working in the field had no rights to large but disjointed areas and small individual development is years these have been harbour vulnerable. After Gorki it took two years for the harbour process. the land and lived on a hand-to-mouth basis. plots. restricted. filled for construction. activities to recover. Zahir Reza & Abdullah, Shahidul Haque, shipbreaker CCC & CDA Garment workers Most of us have moved here At the Chittagong Develop- from villages in the north. My We work with 600 women ment Authority, disaster father left my family and I here, in one of the 1000 Solimpur, work here to support my garment factories of preparedness is integrated in the planning. CDA have fisherman mother. A lot of us have lost Chittagong. All of us proposed an improved our homes and livelihoods to migrated here for the work. embankment cum infrastruc- We live inside the river erosion and decided to The factory is well organized. ture running along the entire embankment on our go here. Now we live here A day care centre is provided coast. This embankment will ancestors’ land. After the seasonally in rented dorms. for us in the building but most be shielded by 200meter cyclone we stayed, as we own of us stop working when we mangrove belt. this land. We heard the signal There are many NGOs get a family. The valuable Bidhan, Shobun & fighting against the ship but stayed at home when the breaking industry but you can machinery is located on the top two floors to protect them School children, Ravi, FPC At the Chittagong City 5-meter surge hit. It cost us Corporation we work on 20,000TK (200E) to rebuild earn more here than working against flooding. slum dwellers We in the Forum Plan making a healthy city. We our houses. The embankment on a farm. There are 30,000 of are architects and planners Chittagong are a group of would be good protection but us working here and this is Khatali, nomad We are studying Bangla in a volunteer specialists with working together. We work the sluice gates are broken. our only hope. This weekend school built by a local NGO. on canalization and impro- we will demonstrate against Our mothers work in the backgrounds as planners, We are migrants from Barisal. architects, engineers, ving drainage systems, and them attempting to close Our husbands died in 2007 garment factory and our increasing vertical develop- down the yards. Where can fathers in construction and economists, sociologists, and cyclone Sidr, they were out on journalists. We meet Tuesday ment to relocate vulnerable we go? their fishing boats as the shipbreaking. Our parents slums. have told us that the storm evenings to discuss storm hit. They call us “those contemporary issues that are with no identity” as we’re not surge in 1991 came to all the In slum upgrading we way up to our roofs! When we affecting the city, and see recognized by any official where we can help. Last week approach spatial issues with a records. We live outside the grow up we want to be human oriented approach. doctors, teachers and we’ve been made a survey of embankment until the the ecological health of the Education is life, and this is government removes us. cricketers! the root of development. Halda river. Right now we work in Micro credit programs can be garbage collection. Where we very harmful to communities. find work we will go! Our greatest disaster is our political hierarchy system. sh metal tal rods crops garments me ken brick bro s led metal roll THE HARBOUR CITY timber bam boo po les bamboo bam boo ma t cotton tin sheeting bricks clay sand cement iimestone
  • 8. MICRO CREDIT CRUNCH DYNAMIC DELTA EVACUATION LINEAR CITIES The micro credit Mohammad Yunus Businesswomen Free market capitalism? The delta of land lost land gained Cyclones put the Everyday travel Cyclone evacuation Traditionally, houses system, born in "If we can come up with a system which allows everybody access to credit In the Grameen model, landless women in Bangladesh, are The free market, combined with the micro credit system, Bangladesh is, unlike transportation network were built around while ensuring excellent repayment - I can give you a guarantee that poverty transformed into businesswomen, albeit with micro results in a gamble for those in need. Either they lose their Bangladesh, aims to will not last long," proclaims Muhammad Yunus, founder of the widely enterprises. The Grameen model does not create jobs, investment, leaving them with a big loan, or they can make the Dutch, still a very of Bangladesh to the agricultural produce alleviate rural poverty. acclaimed Grameen Bank, the Bangladesh bank that lends to poor rural education or training, it just provides the capital to pull use of the investment to make a profit, providing them with dynamic delta. The test. During a cyclone and in proximity of the It operates by lending women. His approach is very practical and simple and hence popular. For the functioning of this system, he calls on the goodness of NGOs in using the women out of poverty. The microloans are secured by the honor and credit lines of a credit group; if one woman a better future. Still, the question remains whether it is socially just for banks to offer this gamble of opportunities to rivers of Bangladesh -20m +20m strong gusts of wind, Bangladeshi ‘pond’. money to the poorest system for the empowerment and improvement of rural communities and defaults, no one in her lending circle will the people. Some banks answer by cancelling loans for are not flowing in fixed blown over trees, high When a cyclone hits, stimulating home based production and self employment. receive another loan. cyclone affected people. Infrastructure and Economy of the poor. The credit paths but are water levels and torn everything outside The evolution from the traditional is provided only to constantly on the off construction embankments is settlement typology to the linear city is women, usually in groups. Disaster is not + move. During the rainy season the country materials turn safe roads into hazards. destroyed, as well as a large area inside the also a consequence of the econonmic role of infrastructure and transport. The fact that the embankment, due to climatological reasons, also functions as taken into account. floods and the rivers These factors make embankment in + the infrastructure, makes it both Many NGOs demand Breaking the cycle change path. The rivers cyclone evacuation proximity of these interesting for economical and safety reasons. loan repayments as can move up to 20 quite a different waterbodies. The only soon as a month after a + meters in a year. All prospect than everyday safe place to be is on disaster, as a bank will remain a bank. When The vicious cycle + + land reclaimed by the moving rivers is commute. the embankment or inside a concrete these interest rates remain too low for too + attributed government. to the cyclone shelter. The reactionary spatial long, there are no loans phenomena following available for new disaster that can be people, and we have a credit crunch. - - observed is the linear city. Pond Village Linear City Boat people Char people NGO field office Model village During the cyclone we We are a local NGO involved We are nomads, estranged Non beneficiary We live on a moving women and children fled to in setting up savings groups from land dwelling society sandbank. In the disaster we the school cum cyclone for the most vulnerable and have lived on boats for I live in a mud house with five lost everything. A local NGO Mixed Hindu centuries. Our women drive daughters, two sons and has built an embankment all shelter 3km away. The men demographic groups like stayed with during storm to beggars, widows, disabled, Muslim the boat while the men and husband. He is a rickshaw around the island for us. But cattle. Almost all our houses and mixed religious groups. children use indigenous puller. He earns 150TK per we have no vehicles here so community techniques to fish. Fish are day (1.50E). We wanted to it’s not used very much. They were damaged. We had to The women save money together, and become decreasing. Our income is wait for 4 days for relief aid to have more children so they also gave us a new ferry port, insurance to their joint We live in a tight knit mixed around 100TK (1E) per day. arrive. Many people died could work. But we only had as we live very remotely. savings. Hindu and Muslim from snake bites. girls. Now my husband community. With help from The day of Sidr was a rainy decided to use contraception. Our new houses are made of After two weeks the water After Sidr, we provided the NGOs and village carpenter and cloudy day. There was no a foreign material; concrete. receeded but there wasn’t villagers with initial relief, but we regenerated quickly after early warning on the river. At Cyclone Sidr destroyed our A contractor who we don’t food. We received seeds from Widow beggar long-term rehabilitation was cyclone Sidr. Our traditional midnight the storm became mud house. The government houses lack storm proof very strong and people took did not think it was destroyed trust built it. There are many cracks already forming and NGOs, these days we keep community only provided to the most bracing, and our foundations seeds stored in a safe in the needy (1 out of 10 households their boats to the small canals enough to receive aid. We it’s like an oven inside. We are not high enough for house. We lost our husbands and of the saving groups). We let and some took shelter in rebuilt it with some banana already started building cyclone surge. were beggars. An NGO many households collect houses. The wind destroyed leaves for roofing. God has verandas. We would like to We have to pay rent to several provides us with credit for materials from us for partial everything in minutes. put me in this situation, and I have back doors for the Due to cooperation and a local government officials. setting up small businesses. reconstruction of their home. hope he will also take me out women. variety of livelihoods we have The next days we received We have moved 7 times We work as maids and in of it. Inshallah! broken our vicious cycle. The clothes and dry food from the already because of river constructing roads. One women and elderly are NGOs. We had lost all our erosion, which takes 25 month after the cyclone, The involved in basket weaving possessions and boats and meters of land per year. Our NGO collected credit, even and poultry farming, and the had to live in temporary land, which gets eroded, though we lost our houses men farm rice together. There shelters on empty land. We becomes government land on and goats. is a school at 1 KM distance could not take shelter in the the other side of the and all children attend. school, as the people living riverbank. there don’t trust us. bricks clay fresh water crops trees t sh sh men eetin ce g ken brick bro s timber ent brick cem s THE DELTA cement iimestone sand sand iimestone cement me tal rods roll led metal metal GENDER ISSUES Women and children are the most Conservative Rural Areas Men as Messengers Fear of Leaving the House SHELTER DESIGN An interesting aspect of Quality and Empowerment top-down bottom-up LEISURE INDUSTRY Currently there is a lack of international SETTLEMENT DESIGN Due to a history of political turmoil Urbanization through Compassion De resultaten van het onderzoek Women are severely marginalised all over Bangladesh Men are traditionally used to disseminate information Women usually have to get their husband's approval to post-disaster shelter The design integration of local climatic, technical, material and This trend has caused the government to take an even more reactive role zijn gepresenteerd door middel (female literacy is 30% next to 50% for men), but the on preparing for disasters but did not share it with leave the home and there are stories of women staying with regard to planning. The Ministry of Food and Disaster and the NGO vulnerable during the problem is magnified in coastal areas where life is more women as they thought that the women didn't need the indoors even as a cyclone approached simply because reconstruction through social aspects (whilst considering cost, material and footprint) tourism in Bangladesh. intertwined with Affairs Bureau register the activities of NGOs, but do not proactively are essential for the successful use of the shelters. There is a natural disaster in conservative and women are fairly house-bound and information on preparing for cyclone their husbands were not around to grant permission. foreign aid is that great lack of research into the actual demands of the user. There is relatively little natural disaster, the coordinate post-disaster reconstruction and preparedness. don't mix with men outside the family. Men are the Rather than fleeing to the nearest shelter, the women Bangladesh because of heads of the families and take responsibility in feared they would be blamed if their home was looted. NGOs have a duty Aside from the design, the process is an aspect that has a wide national tourism government of The super cyclones of 1970,1991 and 2007 wiped out entire coastal lack of information community matters but this leaves women towards their donors to range of possibilities and potentialities, with current solutions within Bangladesh as Bangladesh has grown settlements, especially the vulnerable slum areas (often weak constructions disempowered and extremely vulnerable. NOT WITHOUT ranging from top-down turnkey shelters constructed by built outside the embankment). This results in many NGOs doing parallel about what to do in MY HUSBAND “build back better” external contractor to complete bottom-up methods where an well. This may be as accustomed to the projects of all shapes and sizes according to their own judgment, without a case of an emergency. (with often vague tourism often conflicts influx of foreign aid spatial strategy. Due to the lack of planning and coordination, as well as van een blog (www.bangladesh- NGO simply financially facilitates the process. In between MY BURQA COULD these two extremes there are range of solutions, with the most land scarcity, NGOs often rely on donated land for resettlement areas. Traditionally women FLY AWAY WITH THE WIND standards). There is, successful involving local material construction techniques and with livelihoods, and organizations that have These plots may be logistically disconnected, creating spacious settlements do not leave the house, LOOTING! however, no duty skill through involvement and training of local professionals. environmental risk been pouring in since far away from people’s livelihoods. The plots may also be well-connected but very small, creating unhealthy dense rural slums. particularly in the rural WHERE IS THE towards the users. In reduction methods. the 1970s. With time, areas. They rely on CYCLONE SHELTER? general, the houses However, the coming non-governmental their men to inform received by of many new hotels organizations have them how to act in beneficiaries will also means more been imperceptibly time of disaster. Beside always be stronger potential cyclone taking over many of lack of participation in than what they lived in shelters for those living the government’s tasks, disaster management, before, so in that regard in vulnerable houses. including those in the rural women rely on building back better is On the other hand, the sector of disaster their land for not the greatest hotels are not all too management and risk en een tentoonstelling, sympo- economic well being challenge. pleased to have reduction. 5 and are hence severely squatters in slum affected by it. dwellings living on their doorstep... sium en publicatie die in 2010 zal verschijnen. De tentoon- Mohammad, hotel owner During cyclone Sidr my hotel was used as a cyclone shelter. It is not built to work as a Dulal, restaurant owner During Sidr I was living in my restaurant. I had closed the shop and was ready to sleep. When Sidr came my roof flew stelling zal reizen naar de Ar- cyclone shelter but it saved chitectuur Biennale Rotterdam. off. I saw a bus on the street many lives. During Sidr we and went there to take shelter. had no water or electricity I had no time to go to a there for many days and cyclone shelter. There were many people fell ill. The 25 men in the bus. cyclone was very bad for Khaled, displaced tourism. After the storm, there was no fisherman electricity, ponds had turned Afsana, saline, many trees were destroyed, and dead bodies We’re seasonal workers and make a lot of money in a short beneficiary outside Bipasha, landless were washed on the shore. My shop was completely time but are unemployed for embankment the rest of the year. We used Mizan, umbrella When the NGOs were destroyed. A carpenter helped Matluba, cluster to squat the land on the coast, making a list of beneficiaries, me to rebuild. I could restart but now have moved to an rental We fled from our homes during Sidr. We didn’t go to I was at work. My house was business after 2 weeks. village NGO settlement on donated the cyclone shelter, but to completely destroyed but I government land, 2,5km from I rent out umbrellas and never received anything. My Before Sidr there were only We live here with 80 families. chairs on the beachfront to another nearby concrete the coast and work. family is very poor and I have 300 shops. Now there are 450. We used to live on the beach tourists. During cyclone Sidr building. When we came talked to a reporter about my I lost a lot of money after Sidr after the cyclone, now we all my possessions flew away. back, our whole house was We have extended the plinth situation, but I never heard because a broken town could have been given shelter by an I had to take out a very large gone and only land remained. on our NGO house to create anything. Who will help me? not attract tourism, but now NGO on donated land. This loan to buy new things. Only An NGO has given us a new verandas and a kitchen. We it’s better. Many NGOs have settlement has 80 families now, two years after the house here outside the also planted some extra trees come and provided houses. living closely together. Many cyclone, people are returning embankment. for shade and fruit. My wife I’m not afraid of the next people are suffering from works in the house. here for holidaymaking. storm; I’ll stay in my shop. disease due to poor hygiene. Sometimes she comes to the bazaar with me, but only fully dressed in burqa palm tree sh garments rope ken brick bro s THE RESORT metal roll ed meta l me tal rods bricks cement limestone sand jute cotton tin sheeting trees timber
  • 9. Herontwerp Visfabriek Ijsland
  • 10. Herontwerp Visfabriek Ijsland Prijsvraag ism D A de Koning februari 2008 - april 2008 IJsland is een land met veel ruimte. Het wordt omringt door uitgestrekte zee. Voor de visvangst ontstonden er veel visfabrieken aan de rand van de zee. Het ruimtelijke concept is vergelijkbaar met een steiger die de fabriek verbindt met de zee. Vanuit de steiger stap je in de boot. Alle ruimtes worden ontsloten door een centrale gang die overloopt in het meubilair. (Aangezien de vloer- en plafond afwerkingen moeten worden ver- wijderd voor de vloerverwarming en de 1:100 nieuwe wanden, is gekozen om dit hout her te gebruiken voor de het gangpad.) In het ontwerp is de nadruk gelegd op de policarbonaat bestaande woonkamer. (Traditionele Vikinghuizen dakraam betonwand Oriental Strand Board gebruikten een grote kamer ivm warmte) binnenbekleding plexiglas paneel policarbonaat Door de schaarsheid van bossen in Ijs- natuursteen kap op badkamer wandtegels hoge ruimte voor drijfhout wand houtskelet binnenraam land word voor de wanden OSB gebruikt. binnenwand eventuele inbouwkasten heraklit bekleding golfplaat Door het harde klimaat wordt binnen de schapenwol isolatie sandwich paneel betonconstructie een drijfhout spouw- muur toegevoegd (drijfhout wordt door lucht spouw stromingen vanuit Siberië op de kust zitkozijn met OSB van IJsland gedeponeerd) met vulling afwerking beton van lokale schapenwol. Ook inheems is constructie bijkeuken was/droog badkamer slaapkamer natuursteen. Dit wordt toegepast in de vloerverwarming keuken en natte ruimtes. Voor de akoes- in beton gestort tische binnen wand tussen kantoor en woonkamer is policarbonaat toegepast. Ijslandse gevels ontlenen vaak hun ex- 800 2500 2500 1850 3350 3650 800 pressie uit golfplaten, ook een inter- essant interuiur material. centrale leidingschacht
  • 11. Bezoekers Centrum Seurasaari
  • 12. Bezoekers Centrum Seurasaari Helsinki UT Wood Program februari 2008 - juni 2008 De uitzichten op de lokatie in een bos Het programma van het bezoekerscentrum Het ontwerp ziet er bij entree tot het over het meer worden niet verstoord door is seizoensgevoelig, het park trekt park uit als een van de andere Finse de bomen. Je kan er tussen door kijken. alleen ‘s zomers bezoekers. De typis- historische huizen die er worden ten- De typische Finse hout constructie is che Finse kioski bestaat uit een klein toongesteld. Wanneer men langszij komt zeer massief. Wanneer je deze opbreekt schuurtje met een overkapping met grote is het een gang met allerlei vistas over en begint te schuiven ontstaat er een overstek over de straat waar iedereen het meer. De materialisatie is als te- spel van zichtlijnen. Dit maakt het ge- kan schuilen tegen harde weersomstan- genstelling een modern materiaal; Leno- bouw bijna afwezig en subtiel in een digheden. Dit overstek betrekt mensen tec van gekruislamineerde panelen, met zeer gevoelige historische setting van bij een gebouw en creert een tussenstap oertraditionele shingle gevel met teer- het openlucht museum. tussen prive en publieke ruimte. afwerking.
  • 13. Hybride Ruimte op Westblaak
  • 14. Hybride Ruimte op Westblaak TU Delft Bachelor Eindwerkstuk november 2007 - januari 2008 Openbare ruimte is belangrijk voor de toevallige ontmoeting en de uitwissel- ing van verschillende culturen. Doordat de stad is volgebouwd met prive ruimtes is er weinig plaats voor het openbare. De delen van de stad die worden ge- bruikt voor infrastructuur zouden nieu- we mogelijkhede kunnen bieden als deze een dubbele functie zouden hebben. Hybriditeit van het gebruik van deze openbare ruimte heeft een meerwaarde omdat het van een goed functionerende infrastructuur een plek maakt waar men elkaar ontmoet in plaats van zo snel mogelijk van een prive ruimte naar de volgende prive ruimte te komen. Hoe ontwerp ik een publiek gebouw met twee functies die elkaar versterken?
  • 15. Xylotheek
  • 16. Xylotheek Prijsvraag Botanische Tuin Delft september 2007 - november 2007 In de botanische tuin van de Technische Universiteit Delft wordt een veelvoud aan houtsoorten in de bestaande bebou- wing toegepast. De oude pergola con- structie wordt gesloopt om plaats te maken voor een xylotheek. Om continu- iteit in de tuin te creeren en vanuit ecologisch oogpunt is er voor gekozen om het hout en het doek van de pergola te hergebruiken voor het nieuwe pavil- joen van 50 m2. Binnen het programma van xylotheek, presentatie kamer, en vier tentoonstellingsruimtes onstaan er spannende ruimtes door het overlappen van het programma binnen de beperkte ruimte. Het hergebruik van de materialen wordt zover mogelijk doorgezet (balken, gordingen, vloerplaten en ankers.)
  • 17. Eyecatcher Hardenberg Het ontwerp voor de nieuwe in het land liggende zwerfkei de wereld zijn. Het ontwerp voor de nieuwe Eyecatcher in Hardenberg is zo in het land liggende zwerfkei als ook door de bouwvorm van de wereld zijn. Het ontwerp voor de nieuwe Eyecatcher in Hardenberg is zowel geïnspireerd doo in het land liggende zwerfkei als ook door de bouwvorm van de gestapelde keie
  • 18. Eyecatcher Hardenberg 1e prijs ism Onix Architecten februari 2007 - juni 2007 In een land waar geen rotsen voorko- men vormden de gestapelde hunebedden al vanaf een ver verleden orientatiepun- ten, ‘eyecatchers’, in het landschap. Tot op de dag van vandaag worden bijzon- dere keien op straat verkocht in Hard- Door de stapeling van de keien ontstaat er overdag een mooi lichtschimmenspel in het interieur. enberg. Het ontwerp voor de ‘eyecatch- s’ Avonds lijken de keien voor de voorbijganger te gloeien. er’ in Hardenberg is zowel geïnspireerd door eigenwijs in het land liggende zw- erfkei als ook door de bouwvorm van de gestapelde keien die uniek in de wereld zijn. In de stapeling van keien ontluikt zich een nieuw werklandschap waarin het interieur af en toe naar buiten komt. De grote openingen geven licht aan inter- ieur, zicht op omgeving en buitenruimte. Het contrast tussen de beglazing en het ruwe beton creert een edelsteen beeld.
  • 19. Natuur Licht
  • 20. Natuur Licht Ontwerp en Bouw Prototype Lamp september 2007 - november 2007 Het mooiste licht is zonlicht. Licht creert ruimtelijkheid. Voor warmte en licht als het donker is maakt men kun- stlicht. Een lamp is een vertaling van een sfeer. Een lamp laat licht bewegen en veranderen. In het ontwerp voor een lamp was het doel om een lamp te ontwerpen die mee kan bewegen met verschillende sferen in een dag. De hoeveelheid licht kan worden aangepast door het uit en in klappen van de lamp. De electriciteit beweegt mee doordat de bedrading met de kap is ingestort. Voor zacht licht word een natuurlijke vezel (jute) in composi- et met een hars gebruikt. Er wordt een transformator van 230V - 12V geburikt.
  • 21. Lodi Garden: Necropolis tot Oase Landschaps Architectuur Analyse Site Data New Delhi : The City of Contrast april 2008 - juni 2008 The City of Tombs New Delhi has been the site of over 17 ancient and medieval cities. It’s location on the banks of the Yamuna River, and strategic position along the trade routes between north- west India and the indo-Gangetic plains made it an ideal site for cities. The �rst descrip- tions from Hindu scriptures, where it is referred to as Indraprastha, date back to 1450 BC. “Near Khandava forest the Pandavas built the city of Indraprastha with a wall as high as heaven and as white as silver. And within, mirrored lotuses began to grow in the ponds; people came to live in the city, and songbirds came to live in the gardens and parks.” (Mahabharata in White 1993:103) ast The Lodhis, a pashtun Muslim tribe, ruled most of India from 1451 to 1526 AD between the Tughlak and Mogul dynasties. Successive Lodhi emperors built the tombs, collectively named Bag-I-Jud, that are located in what is nowadays known as Lodhi Gardens. Lodhi Garrett Eckbo staat bekend om zijn ar- Road marks the edge of the Lodhi necropolis. chitectonische aanpak van landschappen, “The Lodhis built square or octagonal buildings for their tombs that precursors to the spectacular Mughal buildings of Humayun’s Tomb at Delhi and the Taj Mahal at Agra.” (INTACH) als ‘outdoor places for living’. Door The Lodhis probably selected the site for its natural scenic value and proximity to the the zijn opleiding door Church op Berkeley River Yamuna. The Athpula (eight-piered) bridge in the park testi�es that a river tributary f over 17 ancient and medieval cities. It’s location on the once ran through the park. en Gropius op Harvard is er een human- istische aanpak in zijn ontwerpen. In d strategic position along the trade routes between empire, which In 1526 Babur defeated the last Lodhi emperor and founded the Mughal north- reigned northern India for more than three centuries. In the 17th century they shifted their 1963 maakte Eckbo een zeer contextueel etic plains made it from Agra to Delhi site for cities. The �rst descrip- capital an ideal and Shah Jahan founded Shahjahanabad (now Old Delhi), to the gebonden herontwerp voor Lodi Gardens north of the Lodhi tombs which at this time were desolate and left in ruin. here it is referred to as Indraprastha, date back to 1450 BC. in New Delhi India. De 15e eeuwse tomb- India came under British rule in 1857, who at the beginning of the 20th century shifted their capital from Calcutta to New Delhi. Sir Edward Lutyens designed the masterplan for the es werden herontworpen tot een groene davas built the city of Indraprastha with a wall as high as heaven new capital of the British Raj. It was laid out to the south of Old Delhi, and incorporated the Lodhi tombs as the borders of the new city. oase in een stedelijke omgeving van de hin, mirrored lotuses began to grow in the ponds; people came s came to live in the gardens and parks.” Lodhi Gardens nieuwe hoofdstad van het onafhankelijke (Mahabharata in White The Role of Garrett Eckbo in Connecting Necropolis and Urban Oasis India. Het contrast dat ontstond door de moderne benodigdheden van de stedel- ing te plaatsen in een historisch land- tribe, ruled most of India from 1451 to 1526 AD between schap was een gedurfde ontwerp aanpak. es. Successive Lodhi emperors built the tombs, collectively Eckbo’s theorie “landscape is an art of ated in what is nowadays known as Lodhi Gardens. Lodhi continuity” (1969) werd waarschijnlijk dhi necropolis. pine forest pond mede gevormd door dit ontwerp. Het feit dat de tombes van Lodi Garden zo goed gonal buildings for their tombs that precursors to the spectacular bewaard zijn gebleven is uniek in een Tomb at Delhi and the Taj Mahal at Agra.” (INTACH) rose garden terrace stad waar meestal de architectuur van voorgaande beschavingen met de grond he site for its natural scenic value and proximity to the the gelijk werd gemaakt door nieuwe heers- ght-piered) bridge in the park testi�es that a river tributary pine forest pavillion ers. Doordat de tombes ten zuiden la- gen van de Moghul stad van Shah Jahan zijn ze bewaard gebleven. Pas tijdens maintenance de Britse colonolisatie en het plan van st Lodhi emperor and founded the Mughal empire, which Lutyens werden ze in de stad geinteg- playground e than three centuries. In the 17th century they shifted their eerd als tuinen. Ondanks de positieve Shah Jahan founded Shahjahanabad (now Old Delhi), to the kritiek die het stadspark ontvangt, is h at this time were desolate and left in ruin. er vrij weinig geschreven het ontwerp. 1857, who at the beginning of the 20th century shifted their
  • 22. Introduction Siegfried Giedion is one of the world’s most renowned architectural historians. In his writings Mechanization Takes Command Mechanization Takes Command was published eight years after the publishing of Space, Einstein was seen as a symbol for modernity, and Giedion references several articles of his work concerning relativity in Space, Time and Architecture, the title of which itself is directed at this work. Despite this, Giedion drew most of his ideas from modern buildings, paintings, Giedion: Wrtings of a Modern Man during the two great wars in the first half of the 20th century, he aimed to define the direction Essay Architectuur Theorie Time and Architecture and was written largely during Giedion’s asylum in the US during the sculptures and writings of friends from the world of art and architecture. of architecture in a modern society. Giedion’s Space, Time and Architecture of 1941 was a Second World War. In Giedion’s own words, if Space, Time and Architecture aimed to show very influential work, and brought many architects and new buildings which had previously a split between thought and feeling, Mechanization Takes Command tried “to go a step Both books are very much to be seen as an integrated effort by Giedion to provide insight to been unknown or under appreciated to the attention of the general public. In Mechanization further: to show how this break came about, by investigating one important aspect of our life the modern world. “Space, Time and Architecture and Mechanization Takes Command were Takes Command of 1948 Giedion tried to explain the roots of modern architecture with regard to modern standards of comfort and industrialized production methods. Both books aimed to paint a coherent picture of modernism in architecture, and to link the architectural – mechanization.” The title implies the study of effects of the entire industrial age. Giedion, however, mainly concerned himself with housing and the mechanization of the household. conceived in tandem. During the early 1930s Giedion had laid plans for a multivolume work, The Origins of Modern Man, a sociopsychological exploration of art, technology, and the machine in historical perspective.” (Mollela 2002: 374) april 2008 - juni 2008 profession to modern theory in other disciplines. Giedion believed that the relation between Mechanization Takes Command commences with an introduction to “Anonymous History” technology and man was in a state of imbalance, and that it was the duty of the historian to and Giedion’s aim to further develop the role of the architectural historian in unveiling point out the origins of the problem in order to find continuity and restore the balance. His relationships rather than facts. In order to “inquire into the tools that have molded our Giedion’s predecessors method for achieving this very ambitious goal cannot be regarded as scientifically objective, present day living,” (Giedion 1948:2) Giedion deals with seemingly insignificant everyday as his selection of projects and industrial methods was highly personal, however, the books objects, which only the ‘objective’ historian can place in relation to each other. “The sun is Born in 1888 in Bohemia, Giedion was predominantly educated in Switzerland by art are a very important part of written architectural history as they demonstrate the search for an mirrored even in a coffee spoon.” (Giedion 1948:3) Giedion’s central argument here is that historian Heinrich Wölfflin. Giedion’s search to unite different disciplines can be explained by architecture that responds to both human scale and the demands of a modern society. history should provide a general insight into the roots of the present time by showing the this backgound. “From two other Swiss historians, his mentor Heinrich Wölfflin and Wölfflin's simultaneity of thought between disciplines to replace parallelism with an integrated whole. own teacher, Jakob Burckhardt, the renowned scholar who virtually invented the notion of the Renaissance, Giedion inherited the concept of the zeitgeist as a unifying cultural Space, Time and Architecture He clearly felt that this lack of an integrated culture was arresting development of the relation principle.” (Mollela 2002: 374) On the one hand a romantic, in Space, Time and Architecture between the mechanized world and “the unalterable laws of human nature”. (Giedion 1948:v) Giedion argues that the ‘boundaries’ between art and science had not existed during the Space, Time and Architecture was written to demonstrate new modes of perception in Giedion blames man’s obsession with movement for the industrial age and its associated Greek and Baroque times, and that the interaction between disciplines had to be restored in architecture. During the 19th century, critics like Ruskin had rejected the industrial world and chaos: “The urge to explore movement – that is, the changing in all its forms – determined order to avoid parallel developments. He is critical of specialization and believes in the many of its potentialities. The need to seek a relation between man and the industrial world the channels through which flow our scientific thought an ultimately our emotional renaissance ideal of man as scientist, artist, and mathematician all in one. On the other hand was the raison d’être of the modern movement. The new production methods and the expression.” (Giedion 1948:14) Giedion’s subsequent analysis of mechanization’s effect on a rational thinker, in Mechanization Takes Command Giedion demonstrates that the schism movement that industrialization brought forth with it in the form of transportation, bridges, farming, notions of comfort, taste, furniture, the structure of a household, and bathing between thought and feeling was a product of the age, and hence represented zeitgeist. He and buildings had yet to be embraced by architecture. Giedion structured his investigation culture, aims to show this contradiction between man and the effects of his manmade world. sees the future as one of integration rather than division of labor, so that every man must with an introduction to the relation of a historian to his age. Giedion strongly believed that bear responsibility for his actions in a greater context. the historian should see relations between different disciplines in order to pinpoint a specific Giedion ends with a chapter on Man in Equipoise, implying a counterbalance to state of spirit of time, zeitgeist, a unity of culture that was perhaps not visible to the untrained eye. affairs. He discusses the equilibrium of previous civilizations; the static world of the Greeks with constants and eternal ideas and the integration of science, art and mathematics of the Analysis of Giedion’s Selections By uniting this culture, the balance that, according to Giedion, existed during Greek and 17th century Roman Baroque. Constantly expressing his concern that means have outgrown Baroque times between art and science, could be restored. The self-awareness of the man, Giedion differentiates between man and his surroundings. In Space, Time and Architecture, Giedion selected several Western architects, who, architectural profession was essential to this balance. Giedion referenced some of the first according to him, represented the modern movement. Playing an active role in the efforts in building engineering in the industrial age to demonstrate the potentials of “The human organism can be regarded as a constant. It is by nature confined within narrow Siegfried Giedion is one of the world’s architectural profession himself, many of these were friends of Giedion. He realized that limits of tolerance. It can adapt itself to a variety of conditions and it is physically in a perpetual industrialization in architecture. He compared the transformations in the scientific and artistic absence of objectivity in history, but felt, however, that his selection painted a valid image of state of change; but the physical pattern has changed very little, as far as science can record … world in order to bridge the gap between the different disciplines and hence arrive at a On the other hand, the relations between man and his environment are subject to continual and the time. His chapters on urbanism span from Da Vinci’s Italian baroque regional planning, to means to apply these transformations to architecture. In doing so, he drew from a very broad spectrum of references ranging from Einstein’s theory of relativity to Picasso’s art. restless change; from generation to generation, from year to year, from instant to instant, they are in danger of losing their equilibrium.” (Giedion 1948:712) Hausmann’s Paris, to Garden Cities, the example of Amsterdam, to the question of high-rise. His chapter on new potentialities of engineering includes the early effects of iron and steel on anonymous market halls, department stores and exhibitions, with the Eiffel tower most renowned architectural historians. Giedion also offered solutions; the final pages of Mechanization Takes Command offer rules Space, Time and Architecture is a product of its time, however over the years many chapters about contemporary architects have been added. Many architects of the Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne, of which Giedion was the first secretary general, are for society to achieve equipoise; the reader is reminded that “Every generation must carry both the burden of the past and the responsibility for the future. The present is coming to be crowning this period. The architectural use of concrete is accredited to Perret and Garnier. Drawing closer to his own time frame, he discusses the rise of morality in architecture. In his writings during the two great included in the work. Giedion emphasizes the positive direction towards universality of spatial conception that modern architecture was taking where regionalism was expressed through dialogue with the unchanging “cosmic and terrestrial elements” (Giedion seen more and more as a mere link between yesterday and tomorrow.” (Giedion 1948:723) According to Giedion this is embodied by van de Velde’s rational architecture, Horta’s architectural link to decorative arts, Berlage’s social architecture, and Wagner’s architectural realism. The American developments are emphasized; especially the production industry of wars in the first half of the 20th cen- 1941:xxxvii) of a place. Giedion’s additions also include the third generation of modern architects, embodied by Jørn Utzon, and his relation to the founders of the modern movement. Giedion used examples of Utzon’s sculptural work to place the new architecture The Historical Context of Giedion’s Writings Siegfried Giedion published both Space, Time and Architecture and Mechanization Takes the US and the use of the balloon frame. Sullivan and the Chicago School clearly played a crucial role in the architectural interpretation of the new engineering possibilities. The chapter ends with the work of Frank Lloyd Wright and the beginnings of organic architecture. tury, he aimed to define the direction of form into his chronological theory of spatial conceptions: from space; to interior; to form. Command in the 1940s. This period in Western history was characterized by the Second World War in the first half and the Cold War in the second. The 1930s had been a radical period in architecture, with the establishment of the CIAM (Congrès International The chapter on Space-Time in art and architecture is perhaps where Giedion accredits most of architecture in a modern society. Space, Time and Architecture tried to provide a sense of continuity in architectural history, of his contemporaries with the importance of their work. He starts with the influence of as well as connect modern architecture to other disciplines. This search for an explanation of ‘zeitgeist’ is justified by Giedion as a necessity in “a period of transition.” (Giedion 1941:11) d’Architecture Moderne) in 1928. The successive 1950s were more dominantly conservative. movement on cubism in arts. The formation of the Bauhaus and the work of Gropius in embracing industrial production are discussed at length. Giedion continues with the efforts Giedion’s Space, Time and Architecture He continually addressed the issue of restoring equilibrium, and the need to do this by Giedion was strongly influenced by the Frankfurt School, which challenged the objective of Le Corbusier’s to create international standards for living. A chapter is devoted to Mies uniting all aspects of society. “We need some objective guide to what is going on in the depths of the period, some sign by which we can determine whether or not its dispersed science of the Nazi movement. His repetitive call for a more social and human approach to science reflects this. The wars had made many lose their absolute faith in progress. van der Rohe’s perfection of detail and his timeless modern architecture. Aalto’s humanism and regionalism and Utzon’s architecture of form are classified as new ideals. The book (1941) was very influential, and brought energies are being brought into united action.” (Giedion 1941:12) ends with CIAM’s role in promoting simultaneously universal and regional architecture. many architects and new buildings which had previously been unknown or under appreciated to the attention of the In Mechanization Takes Command, Giedion selected several areas of industrial production which he felt had a direct effect on modern life. Being an architectural historian, these Giedion’s Historiography Picasso once wrote, “The Artist is a receptacle for emotions, regardless of whether they spring from heaven, from earth, from a scrap of paper, from a passing face, or from a spider’s web. That is why he must not distinguish between things. Quartiers de noblesse do not exist among general public. In Mechanization Takes products are mostly associated with the household and the house. Giedion tries to go Command (1948) Giedion tried to explain objects.” The historian has to take the same attitude toward his material: he wants to know the deeper by analyzing the modern ‘tools’ of man, to explain living standards, which relate to truth about life, and he must take it where he finds it. It will not do for him to study only the spatial demands. Giedion starts with classical and medieval use of tools, and then skips to highest artistic realizations of a period. Often he can learn more about the forces that shape its the transition from handicraft to mechanical production. He includes lengthy chapter about In Space, Time, and Architecture, Giedion tried to write history whilst it was occurring. He life from the common objects and utensils which are the undisguised products of its industry. the effects of mechanization on food production in agriculture, bread-making and meat, poultry and dairy farming. tried to capture the spirit of the time by selecting and classifying architects as part of a movement that sought to regain balance between thought and feeling. In Mechanization These considerations formed the stepping stones to my later investigation of the Janus-headed influence of mechanization, which I developed in Mechanization Takes Command. (Giedion 1967:28) the roots of modern architecture with Takes Command, Giedion tried to get to the root of the problem; to understand how man Giedion proceeds to analyze the effect of increased levels of comfort on concepts such as ‘taste’ over the time period from medieval, to 18th and 19th century upper class demands of had lost this equilibrium of thought and feeling. His goal was to understand modernity and its effects on human emotions by analyzing the industrial tools of the time. The first book Despite lack of scientific research methods, many of Giedion’s predictions of the future of sciences flowing into the arts have come true in the digital age. “Computer-aided design regard to modern standards of comfort comfort in the house. It is mainly the upper and ruling classes of civilization that can afford to had a major influence on the design world; it compared modernism in different fields of and industrialized production methods. would have fit perfectly into Giedion's vision for modern architecture. The Worldwide Web be critical in their use of furniture. The change from furniture as symbols of wealth to knowledge to come to an understanding of architecture. The second book had a more has become an artistic space as well as a mode of communication. Incredible images from furniture accessible for all is where the modern movement begins to enter the scene, and analytical approach in trying to assess the effects of industrialization on mankind. the Hubble telescope, images that we can now log on to at home, allow us almost to touch aspects such as posture, adaptability, production and transport become important. Giedion includes many detailed examples of the use and role of different household items, Mechanization Takes Command ended with an ambitious set of guidelines for mankind to achieve the dynamic equilibrium that Giedion believed was appropriate for sustainable living Giedion's stunning cosmos.” (Molella 2002:376) According to Space, Time, and Architecture, the future of architecture was in organic Giedion believed that the relation be- tween technology and man was in a state including a great variety of kitchen appliances, such as tools for cleaning, washing, cooking, in an age of movement. The manifesto-like guidelines call for a balance of the individual and structures with dynamic, interpenetrating spaces and constantly shifting perspectives. The and refrigeration. He also briefly discusses feminism and the effects of societal changes on collective spheres, the psychic spheres within the individual, the spheres of knowledge, and mimesis of the Greeks would finally dominate mechanization, where machines would mimic the layout of households. There is a very long chapter on hygiene and the adaptations of the the human body and cosmic forces. (Giedion 1948:721) In Space, Time and Architecture the organic world. “His idea of organic, immaterial machines remarkably prophetic. Artificial bath; from steam bath to shower with the coming of running water, to standardization that became common in 20th century. Mechanization Takes Command end with the conclusion that there one cannot speak of progress if man has not come to a dynamic equilibrium in his Giedion provides guidelines by giving examples of ‘good architecture’. For a historian, this is quite a biased way of portraying a movement. intelligence is blurring the distinction between humans and machines, while the Internet seems to liberate our minds from our bodies. New ideas of quantum computing may build uncertainty into the very heart of machines. Innovations in cloning hold the promise of of imbalance, and that it was the duty relation to the machine and a synthesis between thought and feeling has been formed. Writing and directing history as it was occurring was a new concept in architectural historiography. Giedion claimed that “The historian must be intimately a part of his own period to know what questions concerning the past are significant to it.” (Giedion 1941:6) manufactured organs. With nanotechnologies that may soon insinuate themselves into human systems and DNA-generated computer chips, we have certainly moved closer to a world of "organic mechanism." (Molella 2002:379) of the historian to point out the ori- Value of Giedion’s Writings Giedion was definitely intimately part of his own period as the knowledge he was transmitting was obtained through his first hand experience as secretary of CIAM, as well as his many intimate friendships with architects of his selected works of Space, Time and gins of the problem in order to find Giedion’s attempts to link artistic and scientific disciplines in Space, Time and Architecture Bibliography at times appear forced. They definitely do not follow scientific approaches to prove theories. “Space-time" surely meant something different in physics than in architecture, however, Architecture. The choice of material for Mechanization Takes Command was done through his single-handed research during the Second World War. Although historical facts were his Giedion, S. (1967) Space, Time and Architecture 5th ed., Boston: Harvard University Press. continuity and restore the balance. His Giedion brought the concept to an intermediate realm of meaning. Einstein’s own response ultimate goal, he embraced the subjectivity of his historical inquiry into everyday objects. to Giedion’s work was: “It is simply bull without any rational basis.” (Mollela 2002: 375) His arguments in Mechanization Takes Command about the connections between Giedion, S. (1948) Mechanization Takes Command, Oxford: Oxford University Press. method for achieving this very ambi- At the time of writing, both books had an important conceptual influence on the members of technology and society are not always backed up by evidence. In line with Gestalt theory, Hauser, A. (1952) Sigfried Giedion, “Mechanization Takes Command” (Book Review), New the Independent Group at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in the 1950's era. Giedion’s sphere of influence also extended into the highbrow universities where he taught, including they serve more to show connections of society as a whole rather than a sum of its parts. They reflect his frustration with parallelism rather than integration between disciplines. He York: Art Bulletin 34n251. tious goal cannot be regarded as sci- idealizes the Greek and Baroque time periods, rather than concerning himself with the real entifically objective, as his selection Zürich University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard. Giedion’s theory that Mollela, A.P. (2002) Science Moderne: Sigfried Giedion’s Space Time and Architecture and “History isn’t static but dynamic” was expressed in the many editions of Space, Time and forces behind mechanization. Mechanization Takes Command, Iowa: Technology and Culture 43.2. Architecture over the years. Giedion believed that it was his duty to point out the errors of “The romantic tinge of his thinking is revealed at every turn … He professes romantic views on the time, as “cultural consciousness may awake suddenly, but never unless we begin to become ‘absorbed by these things,’ never without a strong will for an inner change, and never without forward-looking preparation,” (Giedion 1941:881) which he felt he was the Greeks, the mediaeval guild system, the nineteenth century … It is this romantic propensity which prevents the author from realizing the extent to which the technical development of the last two hundred years was determined by such factors as capital investment, new markets, Ogburn, W.F. (1948) Review Mechanization Takes Command by Sigfried Giedion, Washington: The American Historical Review Vol. 54 No. 1. of projects and industrial methods was providing with his writings. The connections Giedion makes between ‘parallel’ theories in disciplines, although perhaps not always rational or relevant, did provide future grounds for the relations between painting, construction and architecture. price and wages, the differentiation of society and the class struggle, the formation of new groups of producers and consumers – in a word, by the real forces behind technical efficiency and scientific management … ” (Hauser 1952:1) Turpin, B.C. (1944) Sigfried Giedion, “Space Time and Architecture” (Book Review), New York: Art Bulletin 26:2. highly personal, however, the books are However, in a book that deals with modern architecture, it must be noted that several elements are missing from work. There is no in-depth analysis of modern structural theory or This search for zeitgeist through understanding the tools of a time is not always valid. “Just as there is no individual who is not a member of a society and who does not express a Whiffin, M. (1962) Books: Space, Time and Architecture, Washington: Journal of Architectural Education. a very important part of written ar- specific historic condition, so there can be no society and no historic form of existence that new uses of timber and masonry. In this respect the book is lacking in technical argument. is not embodied in individuals. The only concrete psychological reality is the individual …” (Hauser 1952:2) The arguments aim only to support the thesis, rather than being evidence. chitectural history as they demonstrate With Space, Time and Architecture Giedion mainly attempted to provide an image of his period. His services as secretary of the CIAM provided him insight into the methods, principles and work of its members. Mechanization Takes Command was perhaps more The selections and omissions of his writings testify to this. By leaving out of Space, Time and Architecture in depth analysis of new building technologies makes the argument of the effect the search for an architecture that re- aimed at societal change. Giedion did not believe that society would ever go back to the state of equilibrium of the Greeks: “We are little concerned with the question whether man will ever attain a state of infinite perfection. We are closer to the ancient wisdom that saw in of industrialization on architecture weaker. In Mechanization Takes Command, Giedion ignores several ‘tools’ of modernity. “Apart from one or two short references, Dr. Giedion never speaks of the film (…) Film means the mechanization of our leisure, of our sponds to both human scale and the de- a possible moral evolution the course the world would take.” (Giedion 1948:723) entertainments, our artistic experiences, daydreams, fantasies, ideals, of our conception of beauty and success in life.” (Ogburn 1948:3) Giedion defends himself by a simple reference: mands of a modern society.
  • 23. Professional Maqeutte Building ism In-Vorm Architecten februari 2007 - june 2007 Voor een ontwerp van Onix Architecten in Stavanger moest een professionele handgebouwde maquette worden gemaakt. Dit is gedaan met mdf en fineer. Het ge- bouw is inmiddels opgeleverd (zoz).
  • 24. Free Form Workshop Lyon ism TU Delft / ENSA Montpellier november 2008 - december 2008 nepenthe cecilia cairoli / laura van santen november 2008 / les grand ateliers In samen werking met l’école nationale supérieure d’architecture de Montpel- lier organiseerde de TU Delft een work- shop in les Grands Ateliers Lyon waar de vrije vorm werd onderzocht. In een week kregen studenten een crash course in het ontwerpen en bouwen met parabolen. Het resultaat was een ontwerp waarvan met behulp van AutoCAD 3d een bouwpakket kon worden gemaakt dat binnen een week kon worden gebouwd met lichtgewicht ma- terialen zoals karton en foam. In feite zijn er geen verbindingen nodig omdat de constructie zichzelf in stand houd.