Professional ethics with values education week 6


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Professional ethics with values education week 6

  1. 1. Ethics - Origin• Ethics is derived from the Greek word ethicos or that which pertains to ethos the English translation of which is “custom”, “characteristic way of acting”, or “habit”• The Latin equivalent is mos, mores from which come the word moral and morality
  2. 2. Ethics - Origin• It was the Greek Philosophers who started the study of Ethics. Among those notable are  Socrates – “knowing what is right is doing what is right”; a person can act correctly and well if he knows what is a good life; evil is done out of ignorance  Plato – the life of reason is the happiest and the best form of life; if one wants to be happy, one should be a harmonious man: a man of virtue; ethics is a matter of nature --- virtues are innate to us  Aristotle – ethics is a matter of planning, purpose and decision: a matter of character  Socrates was regarded as the Father of moral Philosophy  Aristotle has greatly influenced ethical thinking with three important treatises – The Nicomachean Ethics, the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia (Great Ethics)
  3. 3. Definition of Ethics• There are several definitions of Ethics• Ethics is defined as – The practical science of the morality of human conduct – The philosophical science dealing with the morality of human acts – The science of the morality of human acts – The study of man as a moral being, one who is rationally able to distinguish between right and wrong – Ethics is concerned with morality, the quality which makes an act good or evil, correct or wrong – Ethics is concerned with the norms of human behavior
  4. 4. Ethics: The science of the Morality of Human Acts  Human act – are actions done intentionally and freely like walking, reading, working, playing, shopping, joining a contest or signing a contract  Acts of man – are instinctive, such as the physiological and psychological movements like breathing, feeling happy, or falling in love  Ethics does not study what man cannot control, but they look at acts of man as factors affecting man’s judgment and violations  Ethics examines how man is accountable for his actions and its consequences.  Ethics proposes how man ought to live his life - meaningfullyProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 1
  5. 5. Ethics: The Art of Correct Living  Art provides what is orderly and harmonious in an art work, Ethic does the same for our everyday lives  Ethics is the art of correct living for Ethics teaches us how we may put order and harmony in our lives.  It is a practical science – it is beneficial only when its truths are put into practice as rules of conducts  Every one is expected to be decent and trustworthy, deviating from it causes chaos and disarray  Morality is not only necessary to a person but also to a society “Without civic morality, communities perish; without personal morality their survival has no value”(Bertrand Russell) – when people do not accept the rule of law society crumblesProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 1
  6. 6. Ethics and Religion  Ethics and religion are both concerned with moral education but they differ from each other  Ethics is a science and relies on reasons for its conclusion  Religion is a system of beliefs and practices based on faith and revelation or truths revealed to Man by God.  Ethics teaches the value of religion, presenting it as a duty of man towards the Supreme being  Religion as an organized church or institution, contributes to the development of ethical thought.Professional Ethics with Values Education Week 1
  7. 7. Ethical Norms and Laws  Laws  Human laws regulate external actions, but not thoughts or feelings  Sometimes legalizes immoral acts hence “what is legal is not necessarily moral”  Ethical norms  Covers thoughts and feelings thus a person could sin because of what he thinks or desires.  It is not sufficient to do good, one must be sincere in doing what is goodProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 1
  8. 8. Ethical Approaches  ATHEISTIC APPROACH  Assumes that only matter exists and man is responsible only to the State since there is no God who rules the universe  Morality is an invention of man to suit his requirements and to preserve the society  Moral truths are temporary and changeable depending on the situation  Some of its tenets are as follows  Matter is the only reality  Man is a matter and does not have spiritual soul  Man is free and must exercise his freedom to promote the welfare of society  There is no life after death  Man is accountable only to the stateProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 1
  9. 9. Ethical Approaches  THEISTIC APPROACH  Assumes that God is the Supreme Lawgiver  Everything must conform to God’s Eternal Plan of creation  Man must exercise his freedom in accordance with God’s will  There are absolute principles of morality which are not changeable  Man is accountable for his actions and deserves rewards or punishments in this life or the next  Some of their tenets are as follows  God is the Supreme Creator and Law giver  Man is free and must use his freedom to promote his personal interest among with that of others  Man has an immortal soul  Man is accountable for his actions, both good and EvilProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 1
  10. 10. General and Special Ethics  General Ethics – about the principles of morality. It explains the norms with which the moral significance of human act is determined  Special ethics – the application of the principles of General ethics into the problems and issues confronting a person on account of his circumstances in life, for instance as a citizen, neighbor, worker, wife, husband or childProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 1
  11. 11. Reading: WHAT IS ETHICS by: Jovito R. Salonga  Points raised  Ethics is the discipline dealing with the right and wrong  Common sense tells us that things that are right are the things that help the people and the society at large  It has a practical dimension – reciprocity; as reflected in the Golden rule “Do unto other what you want others to do unto you” or its negative “Do not do unto others what you do not want others to do unto you”  It has a spiritual dimension – why we feel shame or guilt ; conscience  Abe Lincoln said “ When I do good I feel good. When I do bad I feel bad”  Our best moments are not the times when we are a lot of money but moments when what we did meant a lot good to othersProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 1
  12. 12. Man as A Person  Moral Character  Character  is the will of the person directing him towards a recognized idea  is not the product of a moment’s inspiration, but a disciplined tendency to choose the right thing in any given circumstance  When a person falls below the expectation he is said to have bad character  A person who lives up to the ideals of his humanity is said to have good character or moral integrityProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  13. 13. Social Dimension of a Person  Society is but an extension of the person  George Hegel teaches that man is fully developed in his participation in family life, civic community and in the State  Thomas Hill Green expressed the conviction that a person’s morality must identify itself with public welfare  Paul Tillich said that natural law is the demand for us “to be a person in the community of other persons”Professional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  14. 14. Social Dimension of a Person  Society is but an extension of the person  George Hegel teaches that man is fully developed in his participation in family life, civic community and in the State  Thomas Hill Green expressed the conviction that a person’s morality must identify itself with public welfare  Paul Tillich said that natural law is the demand for us “to be a person in the community of other persons”Professional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  15. 15. Reading : Be Proud you Are Human  From the beginning we found ourselves alone in this universe – we realized this and turned our attention to making something practical and useful out of this unprecedented situation  We found a Light, a God and we got a sense of direction and a goal to work on  We set up a standard for living together  We created for ourselves governing systems covering vast geographical spaces  We have conceived the ideal of justice and plan it all for men  we are persistent – we find ways to browse the water, air and our neighboring planetsProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  16. 16. HUMAN ACTS  Performed by a person who is acting knowingly, freely and willfully  These actions are deliberate, intentional or voluntary  These are differentiated from acts of man which are instinctive and are not under the control of the free willProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  17. 17. Attributes of Human Acts  Human act is done knowingly  The doer is conscious and aware of the reason and the consequences of his actions  Every normal person of age is presumed to act knowingly  Children below the age of reason, the senile and the insane – are considered incapable of moral judgementProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  18. 18. Attributes of Human Acts  Human act is done freely  The doer acts by his own initiative and choice without being forced to do so by another person  An action done under duress is not considered voluntaryProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  19. 19. Attributes of Human Acts  Human act is done willfully  The doer consents to the act, accepting it as his own and assumes accountability for its consequencesProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  20. 20. Kinds of Human Acts  Elicited Acts – those performed by the Will but are not bodily externalized (no external manifestation)  Commanded Acts – those mental and bodily actions performed under the command of the WillProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  21. 21. Elicited Acts  Wish – the tendency of the Will towards an object without considering whether it is attainable or not  Intention – the tendency of the will towards an object which is attainable without necessarily committing oneself to get it  Consent – the acceptance of the will to carry out the intention  Election – the selection of the will of those means necessary to carry out the intention  Use – the command of the will to make use of the means elected to carry out the intention  Fruition – the enjoyment of the will due to the attainment of the intetionProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  22. 22. Commanded Acts  Internal action  Those performed mentally such as reasoning, recalling, imagining, and reflecting  External action  Those performed bodily, such as walking, dancing, talking and writingProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  23. 23. In summary Philosophers speak of Human acts as “being first in intention, but last in execution”Professional Ethics with Values Education Week 3
  24. 24. Moral Accountability  Human acts, being voluntary acts are accountable acts  Actions are attributed on the doer as its pricipal cause and therefore deserving of either rewards or punishmentsProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 6
  25. 25. Subject of Human Acts  The subject of a human act is any person who is capable of acting intelligently and freely  Business organizations, institutions, associations or unions which are constituted by law as juridical person are also subject of human actsProfessional Ethics with Values Education Week 6
  26. 26. Modifiers of Human Acts A voluntary act is under the control of the intellect and will of a person however there are factors that may influence the intellect and the will so that actions are not perfectly voluntary The Moral Axiom is: “The Greater the knowledge and the freedom, the greater the voluntariness and therefore the accountability”
  27. 27. Ignorance Ignorance - The absence of knowledge which a person ought to possess  Everyone normal person who has attained the age of reason approximately seven years old is expected to know the general norms of proper conduct and behavior  Vincible Ignorance – one which can easily be corrected through ordinary diligence  Not knowing time or your seatmate’s name
  28. 28. Types of Ignorance Ignorance  Vincible Ignorance – one which can easily be corrected through ordinary diligence  Not knowing time or your seatmate’s name  Invincible ignorance – the person is either not aware of his state of ignorance or being aware of it does not have the means to rectify such ignorance  A waiter who served contaminated food because he is not aware  Affected ignorance – a vincible ignorance which is intentionally kept in an effort to escape responsibility  An employee who refuses to heed the instruction of his supervisor
  29. 29. Principles of Ignorance• 1) Invincible Ignorance renders an act involuntary• - a person is not liable or cannot be culpable if he is not aware of his ignorance or when there is no means of rectifying his ignorance•• 2) Vincible Ignorance does not destroy but lessens voluntariness and the corresponding accountability over the act• - when a person becomes aware of one’s ignorance, he/she has the moral obligation to rectify it- and to act with this is a form of imprudence•• 3) Affected Ignorance though it decreases voluntariness, increases the accountability over the resultant act• - it interferes intellect – decrease voluntariness• - it is willed to persist – increases accountability• - refusing to rectify ignorance is malicious – and malice is graver if ignorance is used as an excuse for not doing the right thing
  30. 30. Passion• - Either tendencies towards desirable objects (positive emotions like love, desire, delight, hope, bravery etc) or tendencies away from undesirable or harmful things (negative emotions like horror, sadness, hatred, despair, fear, anger etc)
  31. 31. Types of Passion (related to Action)• 1) Antecedent Passions• - precedes the act• - predisposes a person to act•• 2) Consequent Passions• - those that are intentionally aroused and kept• - voluntary in cause; the result of the will playing the strings of emotion
  32. 32. Principles of Passion• 1) Antecedent Passions do not always destroy voluntariness but they diminish accountability for the resultant act• - they weaken the will power without obstructing freedom completely• - therefore, crimes of passion are always voluntary although accountability is diminished because it interferes with the freedom of the will•• 2) Consequent Passions do not lessen voluntariness but may even increase responsibility• - consequent passions are direct results of the will which fully consents to them instead of subordinating them to its control
  33. 33. Fear• - disturbance on the mind of the person – being confronted by an impending danger or harm to himself, to his loved ones or to his property• - one is compelled to decide to perform an act so as to avoid threat of future or imminent evil
  34. 34. Types of Fear• 1) Act done with fear• - certain actions which by nature are dangerous or risky• - in theses cases, fear is a normal response to danger• - these actions are voluntary because the doer is in ful control of his faculties and acts inspite of fear• - fear here is an instinct for self-preservation (we even fear new experiences or situations) ex. Being left alone in a strange place, being asked to speak before a group of people•• 2) Act out of fear or because of fear• - fear here becomes a positive force compelling a person to act without careful deliberation• - fear modifies the freedom of doing, inducing the person to act in a certain predetermined manner, even without his full consent• Ex. A child – studies/reads his books – out of fear of his mother• A man – stops smoking – fear of contracting cancer
  35. 35. Principles of Fear• 1) Acts done with fear are voluntary• - acting inspite of his fear and is in full control of himself•• 2) Acts done out of fear are simply voluntary although conditionally involuntary• - simply voluntary = person remains in control of his faculties• - conditionally involuntary = if it were not for the presence of something feared, the person would not act or would act in another way• - Intimidating or threatening as person with horror is an unjust act• - Legally speaking, acts done out of fear – invalid acts• Ex. Contract – made out of fear – voidable – later be annulled•• 3) Acts done because of intense fear or panic are involuntary• - panic – obscures the mind – in this mental state, the person is not expected to think sensibly
  36. 36. Habit• - permanent inclinations to act in a certain way• - lasting readiness and facility born of frequently repeated acts or for acting in a certain manner• - acquire the role of second nature – moves a person to perform certain acts with relative ease
  37. 37. Habit• Voluntary Habits• - those caused by the repetition of voluntary acts• Involuntary Habits• - a habit becomes such if the will is resolved to remove it and there is a struggle to overcome it
  38. 38. Principles of Habit• 1) Actions done by force of habit are voluntary in cause, unless a reasonable effort is made to counteract the habitual inclination• - Bad Habits – voluntary in cause because they are results of previously willed acts done repeatedly• - as long as the habits are not corrected, evil acts done by force of habit are voluntary and accountable• - can be not accountable – if a person decides to fight his habit. For as long as the effort towards this purpose continues, actions resulting from such habit may be regarded as acts of man because the cause of such habit is no longer expressly desired
  39. 39. Violence• - any physical force exerted on a person by another free agent for the purpose of compelling the said person to act against his will• Ex. Bodily torture, maltreatment, mutilation, etc
  40. 40. Principles of Violence• 1) External actions or commanded actions performed by a person subjected to violence, to which reasonable resistance has been offered, are involuntary and are not accountable• - active resistance should always be offered to an unjust aggressor• - if resistance is impossible and there is a serious threat to one’s life, a person confronted by violence cab offer intrinsic resistance•• 2) Elicited acts, or those acts done by the will are not subjected to violence and are therefore voluntary• Will – a spiritual faculty – therefore, not within the reach of violence