SMWP. day two_ppt_ERWC.Oceanside7-11.lps.2.14.final

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ERWC Day 2 with Oceanside 7-11 on Feb. 11, 2014

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  • As you can see from your perusal of the ERWC modules, they provide students the opportunity to engage in writing designed with a genuine purpose. Talk in table groups about how this is different from the type of writing included in your adopted programs and/or current practice.
  • Scaffolding is essential in writing instruction; formulaic writing can serve a purpose. The key is to gradually remove the scaffolds and to teach when it is appropriate to use formulas.
  • Teacher asked student to write at least a page and a half for a journal. This was how the student filled the last half page.
  • Both the ERWC and the CCSS place argument at the center of college and career readiness. Many of the habits of mind, intellectual practices, and abilities referred to in Academic Literacy are developed through the careful study of and engagement in academic argument.
    It will be important for participants to be prepared to help their students understand the difference between an academic argument and the arguments they generally engage in between and amongst themselves and their families. The following set of slides is designed to prepare them for those conversations.
    Because it is critical that all presenters understand and communicate the special role of argument in Common Core expectations, the following excerpt from Appendix A of the Common Core Standards, pages 24 and 25 is provided. Emphasis added.
    The Special Place of Argument in the Standards
    While all three text types are important, the Standards put particular emphasis on students’ ability to write sound arguments on substantive topics and issues, as this ability is critical to college and career readiness. English and education professor Gerald Graff (2003) writes that “argument literacy” is fundamental to being educated. The university is largely an “argument culture,” Graff contends; therefore, K–12 schools should “teach the conflicts” so that students are adept at understanding and engaging in argument (both oral and written) when they enter college. He claims that because argument is not standard in most school curricula, only 20 percent of those who enter college are prepared in this respect. Theorist and critic Neil Postman (1997) calls argument the soul of an education because argument forces a writer to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of multiple perspectives. When teachers ask students to consider two or more perspectives on a topic or issue, something far beyond surface knowledge is required: students must think critically and deeply, assess the validity of their own thinking, and anticipate counterclaims in opposition to their own assertions.
    The unique importance of argument in college and careers is asserted eloquently by Joseph M. Williams and Lawrence McEnerney (n.d.) of the University of Chicago Writing Program. As part of their attempt to explain to new college students the major differences between good high school and college writing, Williams and McEnerney define argument not as “wrangling” but as “a serious and focused conversation among people who are intensely interested in getting to the bottom of things cooperatively”:
    Those values are also an integral part of your education in college. For four years, you are asked to read, do research, gather data, analyze it, think about it, and then communicate it to readers in a form . . . which enables them to assess it and use it. You are asked to do this not because we expect you all to become professional scholars, but because in just about any profession you pursue, you will do research, think about what you find, make decisions about complex matters, and then explain those decisions—usually in writing—to others who have a stake in your decisions being sound ones. In an Age of Information, what most professionals do is research, think, and make arguments. (And part of the value of doing your own thinking and writing is that it makes you much better at evaluating the thinking and writing of others.) (ch. 1)
    In the process of describing the special value of argument in college- and career-ready writing, Williams and McEnerney also establish argument’s close links to research in particular and to knowledge building in general, both of which are also heavily emphasized in the Standards.
    Much evidence supports the value of argument generally and its particular importance to college and career readiness. A 2009 ACT national curriculum survey of postsecondary instructors of composition, freshman English, and survey of American literature courses (ACT, Inc., 2009) found that “write to argue or persuade readers” was virtually tied with “write to convey information” as the most important type of writing needed by incoming college students. Other curriculum surveys, including those conducted by the College Board (Milewski, Johnson, Glazer, & Kubota, 2005) and the states of Virginia and Florida, also found strong support for writing arguments as a key part of instruction. The 2007 writing framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (National Assessment Governing Board, 2006) assigns persuasive writing the single largest targeted allotment of assessment time at grade 12 (40 percent, versus 25 percent for narrative writing and 35 percent for informative writing). (The 2011 prepublication
    framework [National Assessment Governing Board, 2007] maintains the 40 percent figure for persuasive writing at grade 12, allotting 40 percent to writing to explain and 20 percent to writing to convey experience.) Writing arguments or writing to persuade is also an important element in standards frameworks for numerous high-performing nations.
    Specific skills central to writing arguments are also highly valued by postsecondary educators. A 2002 survey of instructors of freshman composition and other introductory courses across the curriculum at California’s community colleges, California State University campuses, and University of California campuses (Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates of the California Community Colleges, the California State University, and the University of California, 2002) found that among the most important skills expected of incoming students were articulating a clear thesis; identifying, evaluating, and using evidence to support or challenge the thesis; and considering and incorporating counterarguments into their writing. On the 2009 ACT national curriculum survey (ACT, Inc., 2009), postsecondary faculty gave high ratings to such argument-related skills as “develop ideas by using some specific reasons, details, and examples,” “take and maintain a position on an issue,” and “support claims with multiple and appropriate sources of evidence.”
    The value of effective argument extends well beyond the classroom or workplace, however. As Richard Fulkerson (1996) puts it in Teaching the Argument in Writing, the proper context for thinking about argument is one “in which the goal is not victory but a good decision, one in which all arguers are at risk of needing to alter their views, one in which a participant takes seriously and fairly the views different from his or her own” (pp. 16–17). Such capacities are broadly important for the literate, educated person living in the diverse, information-rich environment of the twenty-first century.
  • Now that we’ve seen a module up close and thought about the development of academic literacy, it is logical to ask why argument plays such a central role in the ERW modules.
    This section is designed to help teachers understand the importance of argument as not only a college and career readiness issue, but also as an essential life skill for any citizen of a democracy.
    Return to academic literacy. Define academic argument
  • We are not intending to look backward, but acknowledge that many districts and school sites are holding fast to the 1997 standards until the transition to new assessments for accountability. This slide should be deleted if you are working with systems that are embracing the transition to common core. It may also be helpful to note that this is not a new expectation. Argument has always played a central role in our standards. Unfortunately, it was not well supported in our curriculum and thus many teachers do not have much of a background.
  • We see the language of argument peppered throughout the CCSS. Appendix A (see previous slide) provides a great deal of background why the writers of the common core place so much value here.
  • Have participants read over the slide. These skills aren’t any less important for our students who are going straight to work. If anything, they are more critical as those students do not have the additional time of college study to refine these skills. They must be prepared to apply them them on the job immediately.
  • To “change a reader’s understanding of a topic” requires the skills of argument.
    Rhetoric is another concept that teachers may have little experience with. The term will be defined on another slide, but it is important for teachers to understand the concept of rhetoric in context of what we need students to accomplish. It is not simply a philosophy to study in isolation, but a concept that underlies all of the work of the Expository Reading and Writing modules.
  • These concepts will be defined in the following slides.
  • The idea of text as something beyond words on a page is not a difficult one, but may be one that teachers have not considered before. Smarter Balanced is taking a similar view when interpreting the idea of text for the purposes of assessment. Students will be asked to view video, photographs, cartoons, or listen to audio to gather evidence to support their claims and assertions. Most of the ERW modules focus on written text, but teachers should not feel so constrained when developing their own materials (in collaboration with colleagues) for use in their classrooms.
  • As we roll out common core, teachers can expect students arriving in their classrooms with little experience with the rhetorical definition of argument as “a course of reasoning.” Even with common core, the standards focus on “opinion” in grades K-5, only transitioning to actual argument in grade six.
  • Students will need guidance in developing their understanding of this concept and harnessing their intellectual skills to craft effective courses of reasoning that are grounded in actual evidence from credible sources, rather than reasoning focused on opinion with which they’ve had the most experience. The last two bullets are particularly sophisticated ideas, and depend on students developing some understanding and awareness of the historical, social, and political contexts around them.
  • Developing a healthy skepticism in students can be a tricky business. Many of our students tend to accept, without question, the authority of the written word. When reading rhetorically, students must examine all aspects of the issue under consideration, and consider the authority and truthfulness of the author as open to question (within reason). This means that they have a great deal of work to do—a concept not always warmly welcomed by students. That is why it is so very important that the issues we bring to students for consideration be worthy of their hard work and have a payoff in terms of a greater understanding of the world around them.
  • This works within the modules on multiple levels. Students analyze at the word, sentence, paragraph and whole text levels. This is slow and methodical work. Teachers (and their students) are not used to investing this kind of time in a single text or group of texts. It is going to require the development of stamina for all involved to do this type of analysis.
  • Audience and purpose are terms that play a central role in any argument. Few of us create arguments as an intellectual exercise. We have a real world audience and what is usually an urgent purpose—whether that be our own kids at home (“you need to pick up your shoes or someone is going to fall and break their necks!”) or our administrator (“I can’t serve on one more committee—you’ve got be on six different committees already!”)
    Unfortunately, most of the writing or speaking assignments we have given our students in the past have only pretend audiences (“Imagine you are writing a letter to your favorite sports hero or movie star”) or audiences that are obscure or unstated (“write an autobiographical essay about an event that changed you in a significant way or helped you to see the world differently”), and purposes that may be completely mysterious to them. These “school” assignments have little relation to the kinds of writing that happens outside of school.
  • When writing an argument, the purpose is generally clear: a writer is trying to convince a reader that his/her position on a topic is valid and reasonable, backed up by convincing evidence, and worthy of consideration by the reader. The reader may choose not to agree with the writing, but if a writer has fulfilled their purpose, the reader must acknowledge their position.
  • Most students don’t give much thought to the type of language they use when writing. When we bring it to their attention, it can change the way they see their writing and help move them beyond the types of formulaic work that they’ve done in the past. When we give students dictums such as “all paragraphs have five sentences” or “all essays have five paragraphs,” we lesson their opportunity to use language effectively. Examining the language choices of professional writers can help to open their eyes to the possibilities. A one sentence paragraph has great power when wedged between two longer ones. Fragments be appropriate in particular contexts. It is a students’ mastery of language that makes this possible, and the power that rests in such mastery gives students a reason to strive to attain it.
  • It can be helpful to provide examples of each of these types of appeals or have participants brainstorm examples from popular media. Many pharmaceutical ads contain white-coated actors masquerading as doctors in order to lend ethos to their product. Many low fat or low calorie foods show smiling, skinny women joyously consuming their yogurt or cereal product as a way of appealing to a viewers emotions (pathos). Car advertisements may provide safety ratings or talk about what awards they’ve won in order to convince you that anyone who is reasonable and logical will buy their particular brand of automobile (logos).
    Many of our students may instinctively recognize these appeals, but don’t have the language to talk about them. Nor do they often consider the impacts of these appeals on their beliefs of decision making.
  • at is claim? (zombies make cool parents) Evidence? The reasons. Warrant? (what we know of zombies) Are there any counter-arguments?
  • the Literacy Design Collaborative (through a grant provided by the Gates Foundation)
  • It is important to communicate that these are not habits and practices we expect their students to have now. They take time and lots of practice and feedback to develop. Many of their most struggling students come from homes where these practices are not necessarily supported. Even those who do may not have a mindset that values persistence and stamina. (See the work of Carol Dweck for more on mindset.)
  • Ask participants to have a table conversation about how these two ideas are major components of critical reading and thinking. Have them share out pertinent comments.
    Some background from Reading Rhetorically:
    “Whereas the previous chapter focused on listening to a text with the grain in order to understand it as fully as possible, in this chapter we focus on questioning a text, which involves reading it analytically and skeptically, against the grain. If you think of listening to a text as the author’s turn in a conversation, then you might think of questioning the text as your opportunity to respond to the text by interrogating it, raising points of agreement and disagreement, thinking critically about its argument and methods, and then talking back.”
    --Reading Rhetorically, pg 69
  • Have participants go answer these questions and discuss how they would introduce their students to the assignment. This will be the first time many of their students will be asked to write in this fashion. They will need overt instruction on how to bring forward much of the information they have developed and use it in their writing. This is where a careful review of the assignment and the expectations will pay great dividends. The assignment is written as an on-demand essay, yet there are activities for pre-writing and revision.
    One way to approach this is to spend a class period or two reading the assignment, gathering evidence and preparing to write. The give the assignment as an on-demand writing, and hold them accountable for what they can produce in a single sitting. Students need to develop their ability to write in this fashion, as our new Smarter Balanced assessements will expect on demand writing from every student every year.
  • Provide participants time for this discussion in table groups. In Social Networking, students must write an argument and craft a response.
  • There is a key difference between editing and revising. Revision changes are substantive and change the meaning of the writing. Teachers may blend these two distinct processes. Have participants read through this section, and talk about why revising their writing is a good investment of their time. Remember common core encourages us to slow down and do more with less. It’s not about the number of stories and articles our students can read, but about what skills they can develop.
  • It is only after students have developed their ideas to the extent possible that we move toward polishing the piece for publication. This is a student-centered activity. It is not up to us to edit the work for students—only, as it says in bullet #4 above, help them see the most serious and frequent error they are making at this time.
  • Have participants engage in a table conversation about this activity and the modules in general. You could have tables generate examples and chart them at the front of the room. This will help participants understand all the various skills and abilities that the modules encourage. What will teachers do differently based on this conversation? Share.
  • Here are some examples from Achieve the Core that compare text dependent to non text dependent questions. Teachers should be familiar with these non text dependent questions. We often would see them in post reading activities in our instructional materials.
  • Activity 1 grounds the students in the topic at hand and helps them make explicit connections between what will be a research-driven article and their own experiences. The process of creating statistics from the survey results emphasizes the tension between actively engaging with the text while still maintaining a critical distance.
  • Provide some quiet, independent reading time. Then refer participants back to the handouts on text complexity and creating text dependent questions. Have them work together in table groups to identify the reader and task and issues of complexity. Have them chart their findings, with examples, on chart paper, and post them around the room. Allow participants time to do a quick gallery walk and compare.
  • Walk teachers through marking of the module. Each cell must be thoroughly discussed. Shared ways to teach the content discussed in groups.
  • Post chart paper around the room-- each labeled with elements of the Assignment Template (reading rhetorically, writing rhetorically, connecting reading to writing). Assign each table group one of the sections. Have them read through the questions to consider on the Assignment Template in Appendix A. What is important to think about when adapting existing curricular units to the ERWC model? What must be considered during instructional planning? We will revisit this activity on day three to specifically discuss differentiating for students with special needs, advanced learners, and ELs.
    Participants move from poster to poster in small groups, conversing with colleagues about what is important or noteworthy. At the end of the gallery walk participants return to their table groups and discuss what know about the modules based on their experience and how the modules fit in with what they know about teaching and learning in the common core era.
  • Emphasize copies with no names only—they shouldn’t bring the work they need to return to students. These should be culminating activities rather than mid-point assignments. Papers should not be marked with grades or feedback, and participants should try to get papers from mid-range students. For purposes of illustration we don’t want work from the high or low ends.
    If you provide either of the two texts, you may want to add some homework asking them to investigate a section or chapter and come back ready to share what they’ve learned.
    If you have additional time, give teachers a chance to start the planning process together in grade level teams.
  • SMWP. day two_ppt_ERWC.Oceanside7-11.lps.2.14.final

    1. 1. Middle School Professional Learning: Expository Reading and Writing Modules
    2. 2. Overview of our three days together December 11, 2013 February 11, 2014 February 25, 2014 Overview and background of ERWC Debrief homework; Debrief homework; Review ERWC outcomes Status check Alignment of the CCSS standards and ERWC outcomes What writers need, effective writing practice and writing argument Integration of reading and writing to support academic literacy Effective readers, academic literacy, close reading Continued work with academic literacy Differentiating ERWC for ELs, SPED, and advanced learners Experience with a module and the assignment template Adapting the assignment template to your own curriculum Planning time 2
    3. 3. Agenda: February 11, 2014  Debrief of “homework” Laurie & Erika  What writers need, effective writing practice Laurie & Erika – Supporting the development of habits of mind  Argument in writing Laurie  Academic literacy, close reading, text complexity Erika – Connections to the Assignment Template  Examination of an 8th grade module: Social Networking Erika  Adapting the assignment template to your own curriculum Erika  Homework: Teach all or part of one of the existing modules – OR Adapt one of your current unit’s to the Assignment Template 3
    4. 4. Writing in the Common Core Writing activities and assignments should be designed with genuine purposes and audiences in mind in order to foster flexibility and rhetorical versatility. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing, co-authored by the Council of Writing Program Administrators, NCTE and NWP, as quoted in the Content Specifications for the Summative Assessment of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy , pp. 45
    5. 5. Writing in the Common Core Standardized writing curricula or assessment instruments that emphasize formulaic writing for non-authentic audiences will not reinforce the habits of mind and the experiences necessary for success as students encounter the writing demands of postsecondary education” [and the world of work and career]. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing, co-authored by the Council of Writing Program Administrators, NCTE and NWP, as quoted in the Content Specifications for the Summative Assessment of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy , pp. 45
    6. 6. Timeline of writing experiences  Create a timeline of your writing experiences in (and out) of school from when you first remember writing to now. Put positive experiences above the line and negative below the line. 6
    7. 7. Writing: What works? 7
    8. 8. Hillocks Meta-analysis 8
    9. 9. Effective Writing Instruction for Grades 6-12 Writing Next: http://www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNe  Carnegie report that identified 11 elements of current writing instruction found to be effective for helping students in grades 4-12 learn to write well and use writing as a tool for learning. All eleven elements are supported by rigorous research but even taken together do not constitute a writing curriculum. 9
    10. 10. 11 Elements:  Writing strategies • Prewriting  Inquiry activities • Study of models  Collaborative writing •Summarization  Word processing • Process writing approach  Sentence combining  Specific Product goals  writing for content learning 10
    11. 11. Quickwrite: What do writer’s need? 11
    12. 12. What writers need:  Time • Room Structure:  Predictability basic structure  Choice procedures for solving  Immersion in writing problems  Response circulate & conference  Demonstration: Models/Mentor texts  Process centered approach  Direct Instruction  Expectation of success 12
    13. 13. Ralph Fletcher:  Mentors  A love of words  Voice  A significant subject  Beginnings, endings  Safe place to take risks  The art of specificity  Unforgettable language 13
    14. 14. Knowledge writers need:  According to Hillocks, all writers must have five kinds of knowledge to write effectively: 1.Declarative knowledge of form 2.Declarative knowledge of substance 3.Procedural knowledge of form 4.Procedural knowledge of substance 14 5.Knowledge of context
    15. 15. How do we create these conditions for effective writing? 15
    16. 16. The Special Place of Argument Argument is, “a serious and focused conversation among people who are intensely interested in getting to the bottom of things cooperatively . . . -Joseph M. Williams and Lawrence McEnerney as quoted in Appendix A of the CCSS 16
    17. 17.  Neil Postman (1997) called argument the soul of an education because argument forces a writer to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of multiple perspectives 17
    18. 18. From Appendix A of CCST “While all three text types are important, the Standards put particular emphasis on students’ ability to write sound arguments on substantive topics and issues, as this ability is to critical to college and career readiness. English and education professor Gerald Graff (2003) writes that ‘argument literacy’ is fundamental to being educated. The university is largely an ‘argument culture,’ Graff contends; therefore K-12 18 schools should ‘teach the conflicts’ so
    19. 19.  “A 2009 national curriculum survey of postsecondary instructors of composition, freshman English and Survey of American literature courses (ACT, Inc., 2009) found that ‘write to argue or persuade readers’ was virtually tied with ‘to convey information’ as the most important type of writing 19 needed by incoming college
    20. 20. Why argument? because . . .  “argument” is a significant part of the English/ Language Arts Content Standards, the recently adopted Common Course Standards (across disciplines) and college readiness.  “argument” is the central aspect of “reading rhetorically” and each of the modules (grades 7-10) – which have been designed – expressly – to be standards based AND to increase AP and college readiness  we and our students are not necessarily familiar with the language of “argument” used in this context
    21. 21. Why argument? Grade 7 “argument” is a significant part of the English/ Language Arts Content Standards Reading Comprehension 2.0 Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. Reading Comprehension 2.4 Identify and trace the development of an author’s argument, point of view, or perspective in a text Reading Comprehension 2.5 Assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness to support claims and assertions, noting instances of bias and stereotyping Speaking Applications 2.4 a. State a clear position or perspective in support of an argument or proposal b. Describe the points in support of the argument and employ well-articulated evidence. Writing Strategies 1.0 Support all statements and claims with anecdotes, descriptions, facts and statistics, and specific examples Writing Applications 2.4 2.4 (Write persuasive compositions)c. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments
    22. 22. Why argument?  “argument” is a significant part of the cross disciplinary California Common Core State ELA/Literacy Standards Grade 7 Reading 1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Reading 6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. Reading 7 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. Writing 1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence . . . Speaking and Listening 2 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, and attitude toward the subject, evaluating the soundness of reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence Speaking and Listening 4a Plan and present an argument that: supports a claim, acknowledges counterarguments, organizes evidence logically, uses words and phrases to create cohesion, and provides a concluding statement that supports the argument presented
    23. 23. Theories underpinning CCSS  Different kinds of writing work differently. Writing requires task specific knowledge as opposed to the position that believes writers work in essentially the same way regardless of the kind of writing they are doing.  . Note the sequence and introduction of complexity in argument in the CCSS. Become familiar with the way the complexity of argument builds through the standards. It’s not enough to know the expectation of your particular grade level. As teachers we must 23 be familiar with the anchor standard and how
    24. 24. Why argument?  “argument” is a significant part of college readiness “Those values [of argument] are also an integral part of your education in college. For four years, you are asked to read, do research, gather data, analyze it, think about it, and then communicate it to readers in a form . . . which enables them to assess it and use it. You are asked to do this . . . because in just about any profession you pursue, you will do research, think about what you find, make decisions about complex matters, and then explain those decisions—usually in writing—to others who have a stake in your decisions being sound ones.” ~ Joseph M. Williams and Lawrence McEnerney as quoted in Appendix A of the CCSS
    25. 25. Why argument?  “argument” is the central aspect of “reading rhetorically” “ ‘reading rhetorically’ [is defined] as attending to a writer’s purposes within a rhetorical situation by examining both what the author says and how he or she says it. “In most cases, a writer’s goal is to change a reader’s understanding of a topic in some way . . . . and their efforts to do so involve both direct and indirect means. . . .” ~ Bean, Chappell, Gilliam, Reading Rhetorically, xii
    26. 26. Why argument?  we and our students are not necessarily familiar with the language of “argument” used in this context Essential Concepts  Text  Argument  Claim  Analysis  Audience  Purpose  Rhetoric / Persuasive Strategies  The Two Components of Critical Reading and Thinking
    27. 27. The Language of Argument: Text "By reading . . . we mean something more than simply lifting information out of books and articles. To read a text or event is to do something to it, to make sense out of its signals and clues . . . . Reading is thus not something we do to books alone. Or, to put it another way, books and other printed surfaces are not the only texts we read. Rather, a ‘text’ is anything that can be interpreted, that we can make meaning out of or assign value to. In this sense, all culture is a text and all culture can be read." ~ Joseph Harris and Jay Rosen, eds, The Media Journa l
    28. 28. The Language of Argument: Argument ar • gu • ment [ahr-gyuh-muhnt] a. A discussion in which disagreement is expressed; a debate. b. A quarrel; a dispute. c. A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood Latin root – arguere – to make clear Our Simple, Straightforward, and User-Friendly Definition A claim an author makes about how things are and/or ought to be.
    29. 29. The Language of Argument: Argument Arguments are:     explicit (clearly stated) or implicit/implied supported by reasons and evidence rooted in an author’s philosophical beliefs/assumptions placed in particular contexts – historical, social, political, religious, etc – and therefore respond to, are informed by, and shape what’s happening around them Some argue that all writing is an argument!
    30. 30. The Language of Argument: Claim For students to engage in this way, they must accept certain beliefs about the nature of knowledge: that knowledge is created; that they themselves are capable of creating knowledge; that authors present knowledge in the form of claims rather than truths; that the knowledge claims of one author often conflict with those of another; and that they can test knowledge claims and decide which are worthy of acceptance because they’re backed by good reasons. ~ Carolyn Boiarsky, Academic Literacy in the Classroom: Helping Underprepared and Working Class Students Success in College
    31. 31. The Language of Argument: Analyze an • a • lyze [an-l-ahyz] to examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
    32. 32. The Language of Argument: Audience au·di·ence [aw-dee-uhns] 1. the group of spectators at a public event; listeners or viewers collectively, as in attendance at a theater or concert: The audience was respectful of the speaker's opinion. 2. the persons reached by a book, radio or television broadcast, etc.; public: Some works of music have a wide and varied audience.
    33. 33. The Language of Argument: Purpose pur·pose [pur-puhs] 1. the reason for which something exists or is done, made, used, etc. 2. an intended or desired result; end; aim; goal.
    34. 34. The Language of Argument: Rhetoric rhet  o  ric [ret-er-ik] o the art or study of persuasion o the art or study of using language effectively and persuasively
    35. 35. The Language of Argument: Persuasive Strategies Ethos Logos the use of logic, which appeals to the audience’s reason and intellect the speaker’s attempts to project his or her character as wise, ethical, and practical Pathos appeals to the emotions or sympathies of the audience
    36. 36. Persuasion • Ethos (author credibility) • Pathos (emotional appeals) Argument • Logos (logical appeals) • Reason 36
    37. 37. Argument and persuasion  With its roots in orality, rhetoric has a bias for viewing audiences as particular. Aristotle said, ‘The persuasive is persuasive to someone.’ In contrast to rhetoric, writing has a bias for an abstract audience or generalized conception of audience. . . . For this reason, a particular audience can be persuaded, whereas the universal audience must be convinced; particular audiences can be approached by way of values, whereas the universal audience (which transcends partisan values) must be approached with facts, truths, and presumptions.” ~Miller & Charney 37
    38. 38. Argument or persuasion 38
    39. 39. 39
    40. 40. Teaching argument writing 40
    41. 41. What is a good leader? 1. Pass out copies of “The Voluptuary” and ask students what they think of the man. 2. Ask students what a voluptuary is and why this man might be labeled one. 3. Ask, “What makes a good king?” and encourage them to justify their responses. Record their thinking. At the end of the discussion, you have a list of criteria for your question. 41
    42. 42. What makes a good king? 4. Work with the class to apply one of their criteria to the prince pictured in “The Voluptuary”. Record: Claim Evidence Warrant (Explanation) Prince is not good money manager. on Book on the floor called “Debts of Honor” which means gambling. Anyone with gambling debts is probably not a good manager of money because spending money gambling results in debt. It is common knowledge you lose money gambling. 42
    43. 43. 5.Put students in groups of 3-4 and ask them to work with the remaining criteria established by the class. 6.Students write an argument of judgment. 43
    44. 44. What is courage? Developing and supporting criteria for arguments of judgment. 44
    45. 45. Slip or trip? Puzzles from Crime and Puzzlement : Solve them yourself picture mysteries by Lawrence Treat Solving mysteries to teach 45
    46. 46. Resources for teaching argument  See student samples in Appendix C of CCSS. They have samples for every grade. Go to:  http://www.corestandards.org/ass  Download ELA Appendix C 46
    47. 47. iCivics In 2009, Justice Sandra Day O’Connor founded iCivics to reverse Americans’ declining civic knowledge and participation. iCivics prepares young Americans to become knowledgeable, engaged 21st century citizens by creating free and innovative educational materials. http://www.icivics.org/curriculum/persuasive-writing In this language arts unit, students learn how to “argue on paper” using a fictional case about a school dress code rule against band t-shirts. The lessons take them through the process of writing two persuasive essays: 47 one supporting the rule and one opposing it.
    48. 48. Free Resources  ASCD worked with the Literacy Design Collaborative to develop these resources. These modules, written by educators working through LDC, are designed to support core content teachers in implementing the Common Core State Standards. A standard format provides clarity and support for teachers as well as the flexibility for them to be creative. Each module focuses on a specific teaching task and includes the skills students need to be successful, a set of minitasks to guide instruction, and a scoring guide/rubric to help assess student performance. 48
    49. 49.  Sample argumentation modules can be found at: http://educore.ascd.org/channels/c8920746-9ae8-49bf(These are for grades 6-12)  Sample informational modules can be found at: http://educore.ascd.org/channels/c8920746-9ae849bf-bae3-f8b6cac46173 49
    50. 50.  Hillocks, G. (2011) Teaching argument writing grades 6-12. Heinemann.  iCivics: http://www.icivics.org/curriculum/persuasive-writing  Lapp & Fisher, Persuasion = Stating and arguing claims well. English Journal. April 2012  Smith, M., J. Wilhelm & J. Redricksen. (2012) Oh Yeah?! Putting argument to work both in school and out. Heinemann. 50
    51. 51. LUNCH!! 51
    52. 52. Academic literacy—developing habits of mind Text complexity, close reading, text-dependent questioning are part of academic literacy. Academic literacy is really about habits of mind. Read through the three handouts (habits of mind, students who are college and career ready, classroom discussion strategies). Annotate to note the big ideas, interesting concepts, and important points. Make notes about what habits do your students already exhibit and what habits they are working toward. Put the big ideas onto sticky notes (one idea per note). Create a concept map to represent your thinking about the concepts. www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/AcademicLiteracy/main.htm
    53. 53. Generate-Sort-Connect Concept Map
    54. 54. The Language of Argument: Critical Reading and Thinking Analysis Evaluation an  a  lyze: to examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelationships e  val  u  ate: to examine carefully for the purpose of determine value  rough synonyms: listen, observe, understand, break down, deconstruct  rough synonyms: judge, conclude, decide  facilitated by “listening to the text,” “trying to understand it on its own terms . . . trying to consider the ideas fairly and accurately before rushing to judgment”  facilitated by “questioning the text” and “carefully interrogating a text’s claims and evidence and its subtle forms of persuasion” in order to “make sound judgments and offer thoughtful responses” (Bean et all, Reading Rhetorically 70). (Bean et all, Reading Rhetorically 52).  involves:  Argument Analysis  Rhetorical Analysis The Two Major Components of Critical Reading and Thinking
    55. 55. Writing Review the “Reading the Assignment” section of the module, and answer the questions together in table groups. 55
    56. 56. Writing Review the writing prompt from Social Networking. Discuss the following: What appears to be the key learning objective of this prompt/assignment? What is the expected product? How does this kind of writing task prepare students to meet Common Core standards? Report to the group. 56
    57. 57. Writing Review the expectations for revision. How will you support your students in this work? Why is this work a good investment of your time? 57
    58. 58. Writing Editing happens only when revision is complete. How can you help your students see these as separate processes? 58
    59. 59. Writing Academic Literacy states that students should “demonstrate initiative and develop ownership of their education” How does this activity develop that skill? 59
    60. 60. Non-Examples & Examples Not Text-Dependent In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something. In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote? Text-Dependent What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous? Give some examples of the humor from text. What can you infer from King’s letter about the letter that he received? Explain to whom he was addressing in this letter and give examples of how you know this. What year was “The Gettysburg Address,” and according to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? 60
    61. 61. 8th Grade Module: Social Networking  Read pages 1 & 2 from the module. Annotate the text through your teacher lens. – What is important to know about this module? – How do the module objectives connect to academic literacy and habits of mind?  Do activity 1: Getting Ready to Read 61
    62. 62. Social Networking—Reading the text Read the text: Teenage Social Media Butterflies May Not Be Such a Bad Idea. Prepare to discuss what makes it complex using both qualitative and quantitative criteria (day 1). Identify the reader and task considerations that might be posed for YOUR students. 62
    63. 63.  When you look at a module like Social Networking, with what aspects of it would your students be ready to engage and where would they require more support?  What moves will you make to – construct opportunities for students to do the hard work of analyzing the text? – support students who are unprepared for this work? – assess students along the way  What do you need to do to prepare for instruction of this module? Mark the module with your instructional notes. 63
    64. 64. Assignment Template 64
    65. 65. Homework for Day 3  Teach a module.  Please bring in three copies each of two students’ papers with the writing prompt attached. 65

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