ERWC day 2.SMHS.12th.grade.5.28.14.[3]final
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ERWC day 2.SMHS.12th.grade.5.28.14.[3]final Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Professional Learning: Expository Reading and Writing Curriculum
  • 2. Professional Learning Outcomes In the broadest terms and toward this aim, this series has been designed for you to: Recognize your role in college readiness Become familiar with the modules Get a sense of the pacing, pedagogy, and instructional practices that support effective literacy instruction Deepen essential conceptual knowledge Examine your students’ and your own processes as readers and writers 2
  • 3. Agenda: Day 2  Explore first semester modules  Identify habits of mind that develop thinking, reading, and writing  Close reading, academic literacy and text complexity  Introduce supplementary resources  Effective strategies for teaching Vocabulary  Teaching Rhetorically 3
  • 4. ERWC Principles 1. The integration of interactive reading and writing processes; 2. A rhetorical approach that fosters critical thinking and engagement through a relentless focus on the text; 3. Materials and themes that engage student interest; 4. Classroom activities designed to model and foster successful practices of fluent readers and writers; 5. Research-based methodologies with a consistent relationship between theory and practice; 6. Built-in flexibility to allow teachers to respond to varied students' needs and instructional contexts; and 7. Alignment with California’s Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy 4
  • 5. Effective implementation of ERWC:  I do, we do, you do (modeling and release of responsibility)  Time  Collaborative conversations  Ongoing professional development and support  Moving to a student-focused, skill based pedagogical orientation 5
  • 6. Research from Initial ERWC implementation  High degree of engagement  High degree of student satisfaction with the materials  High percentage of students in 12th grade course passing EPT 6
  • 7. More Recently…. Preliminary findings from i3 grant on ERWC indicates that ERWC methodology was not being well implemented:  Students were not engaged in enough rich collaborative conversations in small groups  Student versions were being duplicated with the expectation that they were to work through the packets independently.  Teacher re-does annotation after students have already completed the annotation task  Not enough evidence that teachers trust student abilities 7
  • 8. ERWC  Modules are designed so that teachers can make choices about what activities their students need, based on formative assessments that occur throughout each of the modules.  However, rhetorical reading activities, critical thinking questions, integration of reading and writing, and substantial writing assignments are essential features of ERWC and should not be omitted. 8
  • 9. Introducing Students and ourselves) to ERWC  Read the key student learning outcomes in the Introduction on pp. xx and xxi.  Discuss at your tables: Why do people need this knowledge (rhetorical reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and these dispositions (habits of mind)? ….in other words…..What’s the point? So What? 9
  • 10. Binder and Grade Level Curriculum Walkthrough  For this activity, you will need to sit in grade level groups  Select a grade level module you will present to the group.  You will have 20 min. to peruse the module and make a mini poster to present the module to the whole group in a 2 min. presentation. 10
  • 11. Module Mini Poster and Presentation  Title of Module and grade level  What is the essential question?  What are the skills, knowledge, and grammar?  What is the conversation of the module?  What are interesting/important activities?  How do activities support student success with the writing assignment?  What do you want to modify?  What challenges will you need to address for EL and special needs students? How will you address them? 11
  • 12. Module Presentations (2 minutes each)  Beginning with the earliest grade, pay attention to the scaffolding of skills and the building of habits of mind. 12
  • 13. Gallery Walk/Break During the walk, what do you notice about… The sequence and scaffolding of skills and knowledge? The topics and essential questions? The nature of the writing assignments? How the habits of mind are developed? You can take pictures of the posters for quick reference later. 13
  • 14. Grade level small group discussions continued  Debrief the module or part of the module that you used in your classroom  Share a resource from the online community that you liked and/or used. 14
  • 15. Erika and Jason  Decisions, choices, and how you use the modules and resources 15
  • 16. Issues of Text Complexity There is only one way to acquire the language of literacy, and that is through literacy itself. Why? Because the only place students are likely to encounter these structures and patterns is in the materials they read. And that is possible only if the texts they read in school are written in such language. Complex texts provide school-age learners reliable access to this language, and interacting with such texts allows them to discover how academic language works. Filmore & Filmore UC Berkeley/Stanford University Understanding Language Project
  • 17. Issues of text complexity Simply put, the easy texts schools give to English Learners and Language Minority students – given prophylactically as a safeguard against failure – actually prevent them from discovering how language works in academic discourse. Filmore & Filmore UC Berkeley/Stanford University Understanding Language Project 17
  • 18. What makes text complex?  2 minute partner discussion 18
  • 19. What makes texts complex? Quantitative measures Qualitative measures Matching readers to texts 19
  • 20. What makes texts complex:  Quantitative: words, sentence length, syntactic complexity and lexile level  Qualitative: Knowledge demands, concepts, levels of meaning, organization and structure of text, language conventionality, coherence (pronoun references, etc.), clarity  Matching reader to text: background knowledge, experience, motivation, task variables like author’s purpose and complexity of the task (like types of questions posed)  (Common Core Appendix A) 20
  • 21. What is your definition of “close reading?”  Write a definition with your partner.  Share out. 21
  • 22. Close Reading  “A close reading is a careful and purposeful rereading of a text. It’s an encounter with the text where students really focus on what the author had to say, what the author’s purpose was, what the words mean, and what the structure of the text tells us” (Doug Fisher). 22
  • 23. What does the text say? (They Say, I Say) Text Dependent Questions: The Common Core State Standards for reading strongly focus on students gathering evidence, knowledge, and insight from what they read. Indeed, eighty to ninety percent of the Reading Standards in each grade require text dependent analysis; accordingly, aligned curriculum materials should have a similar percentage of text dependent questions. www.achievethecore.org23
  • 24. Citing evidence from the text: What does the text explicitly state? What is your evidence from the text? What can you infer from the text? What is your evidence from the text? 24
  • 25. Developing Text Dependent Questions: 25
  • 26. Smarter Balanced analysis: (from Linda Darling Hammond) Questions DOK level 3 Questions DOK Level 4 Current CA test 20% 2% Smarter Balanced 43% 25% 26
  • 27. What do I say? (They Say, I Say) Close and critical reading is preparation for developing opinions and writing argument. Important elements of argument: Logos: What does the text state and what is my evidence? Pathos: How do other people feel about the topic (They say) and how do I feel (I Say)? Ethos: What is my credibility, knowledge, on the topic? (building knowledge from close reading) 27
  • 28. Close Reading  Erika Wanczuk lesson demo  Jason Charles lesson demo  High School Close Reading lesson on informational text:  t=PLF6454392DC2AFF6C 28
  • 29. Dear John, I’ve been so lonely since you went away. I’ve missed you so much. I don’t know how I ever could have stood it without Bill. He’s been over every evening since Jill left town. He seems to understand so well. I hope you are doing well at school and are meeting lots of interesting people. Did you say you would be back in November or December?  Love, Jane 29
  • 30. LUNCH!! 30
  • 31. Supplementary Resources 31
  • 32. Reading Rhetorically, Silent Reading Spot Check Read the following pages silently to get a good overview  Joining the Conversation (Kenneth Burke's parlor metaphor) 6  A Spectrum of Purposes 19-20  Questions for Reading Rhetorically 10  Listening to a Text 39  Descriptive Outlining 56  Questioning a Text 69 (Chapter summary, 98)  Believing and Doubting Game 89-90  Summary Checklists 60-61  Using Question Analysis to Plan a Research Strategy 105  Do's and Don'ts with Summaries, Paraphrases, and Quotation 130 32
  • 33. Teaching Vocabulary 33
  • 34. Relationship of vocabulary knowledge and academic language necessary for close reading  Knowledge of vocabulary is strongly related to reading comprehension.  Direct instruction is more effective than incidental learning for acquisition of specific vocabulary  Instruction using contexts is more effective for teaching new vocabulary than instruction using definitions.  Vocabulary instruction is more effective when it involves the learner in the construction of the meaning through interactive processes rather than memorization. 34
  • 35. Best practice in Vocabulary instruction:  Extensive, varied reading increases vocabulary knowledge.  Instruction that engages students in construction of word meaning using context and prior knowledge is effective for learning specific vocabulary.  Understanding of word parts (root, prefixes and suffixes) increases vocabulary knowledge.  Compare and contrast activities aid in concept development. (word sorting & word webbing) Teach word relationships. (critic, critique, criticize.) 35
  • 36.  Connect new with the known.  Different types of words require different types of instruction.  Effective vocabulary instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures.  Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and nonlinguistic ways.  Instruction should focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancing academic success. 36
  • 37. Components of Vocabulary Instruction: Depth  several exposures in different contexts. (kind of like learning to write a lesson plan)  goal is ownership of the word.  By the time students graduate from H.S., they need to know 88,500 word families or 500,000 words.  d-student-vocabulary
  • 38. Ineffective Vocabulary Instruction  Word learning is not exposing students to a word list and requiring them to memorize it.  Retention, use, and ownership of the word does not occur after studying a list of words and their meanings.
  • 39. Isabel L. Beck, Margaret McKeown and Linda Kucan (2002, 2008) have outlined a useful model for conceptualizing categories of words readers encounter in texts and for understanding the instructional and learning challenges that words in each category present. They describe three levels, or tiers, of words in terms of the words’ commonality (more or less frequently occurring) and applicability (broader to narrower). Common Core State Standards, Appendix A, page 3339
  • 40. Academic vocabulary and Common Core 40
  • 41. Academic Vocabulary … is not unique to a particular discipline and as a result are not the clear responsibility of a particular content area teacher. What is more, many Tier Two words are far less well defined by contextual clues in the texts in which they appear and are far less likely to be defined explicitly within a text than are Tier Three words. Yet Tier Two words are frequently encountered in complex written texts and are particularly powerful because of their wide applicability to many sorts of reading. Teachers thus need to be alert to the presence of Tier Two words and determine which ones need careful attention. (Common Core State Standards (English Language Arts, Appendix A) 41
  • 42. How do I determine that a word is Tier 2? Word Is this a generally useful word? Does the word relate to other words and ideas that students know or have been learning? Is the word useful in helping students understand text? If you answer “yes” to all three questions, it is a Tier 2 word. If not, it is probably a Tier 3 word. 42
  • 43. What does the concept of “routines” mean in your teaching? 43
  • 44. Vocabulary Routines  Table discussion: What are your routines for teaching vocabulary? Process: Front loaded, in context, deliberate use in reading, writing, speaking, etc. Strategies: Vocabulary notebook, graphic organizer, work knowledge, etc. How does ERWC teach vocabulary? 44
  • 45. Components of Vocabulary Instruction: varied connotations  Words mean different things in different content areas.  Use the word, “resistance” in a sentence related Social Studies, then Science, then English.
  • 46. Routines of effective teachers (Lapp, Fisher, Jacobson, 2008) Routine I. Wide reading  What are the types of readings in ERWC? What do you need to add?  Table Share: What are accessible texts/resources you could use with one of the modules? (EL and Special Needs students)
  • 47. Resources for additional readings  Kelly Gallagher’s Article of the week: List of current articles he has used this year and previous years. • Information is beautiful has one page informational text, graphics, etc. on a variety of subjects for information, close reading, facts, etc. • Daily news in engaging nonfiction passages: (You can change the reading levels) 47
  • 48. Routines of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Routine II. Manipulating Words Words Sorts: Can be done individually or in pairs. 1. Students are provided with a series of words 2. Students categorize within the predetermined themes, providing a conceptual framework for the new knowledge.
  • 49. Word Sort (1984 module) Example: Make a 3 column organizer and place the following words in the category you and your partner think they best fit. Centralization, public ownership, competition, profit, regulation, free enterprise, one-party rule, classless, individual self-interest, one-party rule, individuals, government ownership, oligarchy-like, tyranny Democracy Socialism Communism Don’t know
  • 50. Word Sort  Pairs then report out where they placed words and their rationale for doing so.  What can you tell (assess) about students’ knowledge by observing a word sorts?
  • 51. Routines of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Routine III. Framing Words  Writing frames (templates) provide students with practice in academic language and discourse.  Writing frames provide students with using vocabulary in their writing.  They Say, I Say and Kinsella use frames.
  • 52. Prompts for Word Frames How does this type of association help students to own the word? 1.____is similar to __________. 2.____is different from _________. 3.____is easier to understand than____. 4.____is more difficult to understand than__. 5.____is a word I have used more than___. 6.____most closely reflects_____. 7.____best reflects the meaning of ______.
  • 53. Sentence Frames  What do word frames allow students to do?  What do you find out as a teacher from the students’ responses?  Use paragraph frames for learning logs and short answer essays
  • 54. Use the following words to complete the sentence frame: Centralization, public ownership, competition, profit, regulation, free enterprise, one-party rule, classless, individual self-interest, one-party rule, individuals, government ownership, oligarchy-like, tyranny _____is important to understand because it helps to convey information about……. Additionally, the words _____ helped me to understand……... In my essay, I think I will use the words ______to explain……... I recognize that _______ is a key word phrase from the reading because it conveys the concept that ………. This concept connects to another important word phrase from our reading, which is _____. This word phrase conveys the idea that ………... In conclusion, if I told a friend what he/she needs to know about this topic, I would tell him or her that……….
  • 55. Routines of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Routine IV. Playful Words  Engagement in social interaction  Developing oral fluency  Observing models of conventional English  Games like bingo, Jeopardy, Wheel of Fortune  The Talk show. Teacher Interviews students as if they are experts, e.g. politician, scientist, character, etc. guiding them to use vocabulary.
  • 56. Routines of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Routine V. Word Consciousness (Brave New World)  Prior routines depend upon the teacher’s list, but we aren’t always around.  Students need to be aware of and notice words they do and do not understand and recognize.  The first parts of Brave New World have lots of biology vocabulary. Students could even ask their biology/science teacher about some of the words they keep in this graphic organizer. This is a living document. The idea is to move all of the x’s to the “I know it” column. New word I don’t know it. I might know it. I know it. I think it means…. gamete x Cells and reproduction? freemartin x viscosity x Liquid thickness
  • 57. Summary of Routines  Accessing students’ background/prior knowledge  Provide meaningful contexts and connect new words to meaning in a text.  Blooms’ Taxonomy: comprehend, organize, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, and develop associations  Designed to move from declarative knowledge to procedural (more automatic) knowledge.
  • 58. General principals of routines instead of just strategies  Schema-building  Vocabulary learning  Teach higher utility words  Exploration of words and language  Ownership and use of words in various contexts  Routines increase the propensity for long-term retention and independent usage
  • 59. Finally….Overall instructional goals  Development of specific linguistic knowledge associated with text types (structure of text)  Development of conceptual knowledge clustering through repeated, meaningful, instructional strategies.
  • 60. Academic literacy—developing habits of mind Text complexity, close reading, text-dependent questioning are part of academic literacy. Academic literacy is really about habits of mind. Read through the three handouts (habits of mind, students who are college and career ready, classroom discussion strategies).  Annotate to note the big ideas, interesting concepts, and important points.  Make notes about what habits do your students already exhibit and what habits they are working toward.  Put the big ideas onto sticky notes (one idea per note).  Create a concept map to represent your thinking about the concepts. 60
  • 61. 61
  • 62. Assignment Template 62
  • 63. Homework  Read Reading Rhetorically and They Say, I Say. We will do an activity based on the readings when we meet again in the fall.  Read “Theoretical Foundations”  Explore Two Important Online Resources (online resources) Modifying Instruction for English Language Learners Teaching for Transfer Take a look at the writing in the modules. What questions do you have in terms of supporting students. Where are the gaps? Where will students need more support? 63