Developing MetacognitiveSkills in Your StudentsBy Jane Sutton
Strategies for Teachers• Model the thought process while teaching the subjectmatterThis will show the students the process that you areusing when thinking• Verbalize what are you as a teacher is thinking while youare explaining the ideas to the studentsThis reinforces for the students the thinking skills thestudents should also be using• Say it out loud to model what the students should bedoing to think about a problemAgain this will model to the students the thought processinvolved and what they should also do
More Strategies• Teachers should help students to connect the newinformation to what the students already know• How?– Do this in beginning of a lesson– Link what is being taught to what students alreadyknow– Teacher should identify what students will be learning– Teachers should explain why it is meaningful orimportant what the students will be learning by givingrelative examples
• Before a class the teacher can briefly describewhat will be taughtThis will help the students to know what toexpect in the lesson• At end of class students can write down 3 thingsthat they learned (collected by teacher) andteacher writes on board what he/she felt the 3things the students should have learnedThis will help the students know if theyunderstood the lesson or if they should domore on their own or seek additional instructionOther Strategies
More strategies• HomeworkBefore student does homework - teacher explainswhat should be learned from the assignmentThis gives the students what their goal for doinghomework is (not just busy work)After homework is completed - teacher asks studentshow they would do on an assessment dealing with thehomeworkThe student here assesses his knowledge on his ownStudents would then either review what they did orpractice more of the same to better understand thesubject
Tools for Learning• Teachers should provide students with tools (ortricks) to help them learn when teaching lessons• Examples:First letter association technique - acronymsex. Order of operations in mathPlease Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally(Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiply, Divide, Add,Subtract)Rhyme Techniques – Make a rhyme to remember afactEncourage students to use these techniques whenlearning new material – this will help them rememberlonger when information is relative to something else
Self-regulationFor teachers to help students become self-regulated learners teachers need to make thestudents aware of:– What the student knows about the subject (use KWL)– What is the goal of the lesson or project– What are the resources available to the student– What is the student’s anxiety level (how does thestudent feel about learning or doing this assignmentor taking this test)
• Teachers must facilitate the following toencourage the student to be self-regulated– Time required to complete the taskTeacher sets time frame– Plan study time(teacher could set different mile stones for theassignment to assist the students in this area– Organize materialsmake software available for the students – outlining,flowcharting, etc.– What strategies will be used by the studentstudents discuss strategies with partners and/or ingroups to make sure they are on track – setup by theteacher
• Teacher needs to help monitor progressand then to help the students reflect onthe assignment– What is working – are the students on task– Change strategies if needed – give studentsdifferent strategies if students experiencingdifficulty with task– Self test on what is being learned – teacherneeds to encourage students to self test theirknowledge
Using technology to facilitatemetacognition skills• A graphic organizer for students to use as they aredoing a project (KWL)KWhat I KnowWWhat I Want to LearnLWhat I Have Learned
Inspiration (software product)• To help students organize thoughts• To do timelines to plan out projects (planning –students learn to plan)• To compare informationBlogging• Students write what they already know and whatthey are learning• Students working together on projectscomparing information
Examples of Metacognition in theClassroomIn these examples a math teacher is teaching Rules ofOrder to middle school students. I used Bubblebye toadd comments to the videos.The original videos were fromhttp://coe.jmu.edu/Mathvids2/strategies/tms.html1. Video2. Video3. Video
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