Personality includes an individuals characteristics, ways of

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Personality includes an individuals characteristics, ways of

  1. 1. Personality includes an individuals characteristics, ways of thinking and behaving in a variety of situations
  2. 2. Personologist – psychologist who study personality
  3. 3. Personality – organization of an individual’s characteristics, attitudes and habits. - it includes the individuals unique ways of thinking, behaving, or otherwise experiencing the environment TRAITS VS. SITUATION
  4. 4. FIVE PERSONALITY FACTORS 1. EXTRAVERSION – interest is directed to other person rather than to oneself. 2. AGREEABLENESS willingness to consent, helpfulness
  5. 5. 3. CONSCIENTIOUS – showing care and precision doing what one thinks is right 4. EMOTIONAL STABILITY – being relatively free of anxieties and other mood variations 5. INTELLECT – ability to reason, understand and perceive relationships among variables
  6. 6. THEORY – is an organized and systematic set of principles that describe or explains a phenomenon.
  7. 7. FREUD PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY TWO SOURCES OF INSTINCTUAL ENERGY 1. LIFE INSTINCT – (eros) including sexual impulses -accounts for feelings and behavior related to self-preservation
  8. 8. 2. DEATH INSTINCT – (THANATOS) impels the person toward aggression and destruction According to Freud:Primitive people had no restrictions on the expressions of their instinct. Social norms did not restrict them from expressing their sexual urges.
  9. 9. Contemporary civilized people however place fairly rigid restrictions on sexual expression. CIVILIZATION limits the expression of our aggressive instincts.
  10. 10. Defense mechanisms 1. DENIAL – a defense similar to repression, in which a person denies the reality of something that has happened. EXAMPLE: Parents who have lost a child may continue to behave for a time as if the child were still alive, by keeping the child’s room exactly as it was and speaking as if the child were still with them
  11. 11. 2. DISPLACEMENT – use of a substitute object as the target for an impulse. The substitute is often linked to the real target by some association. EXAMPLE: A man who who has been treated unfairly at work by a superior may take his anger and frustration out on his children.
  12. 12. 3. INTELLECTUALIZATION - dealing with psychological conflicts in an intellectual rather than overt behavioral or emotional manner. The aim is to gain mastery over instinctual impulses. EXAMPLE: A teenager who has conflicts over sexual expression intensely studies medical textbooks on human sexuality.
  13. 13. 4. IDENTIFICATION – taking the attributes of another person and making them part of oneself as a protective defense. Example: Prisoners of war who are beaten by their captors may take on some of their captor’s characteristics in an attempt to reduce their own punishment.
  14. 14. 5. PROJECTION – attributing to someone else a impluse that in reality one is experiencing oneself. Example: People who are hostile or aggressive towards others may view the world as hostile and aggrresive.
  15. 15. 6. RATIONALIZATION – a defense for dealing with something that has already happened by constructing a false but plausible explanation for the behavior. EXAMPLE: a student who plagiarizes a paper may excuse the behavior by saying that the teacher’s assignment was unreasonable and anyway, everybody does it.
  16. 16. 7. REGRESSION – a return to an earlier, more childlike form of behavior when a current pattern of behavior appears inadequate or satisfactory.
  17. 17. 8. REPRESSION – forcing unpleasant or emotional material out of conscious awareness Example: a child who was sexually abused by a familoy member has no memory of the incident in adulthood.
  18. 18. 9. SUBLIMATION – transforming frustrated urges, especially sexual urges into more socially accepted forms of behavior.

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