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Victory and peace updated
 

Victory and peace updated

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  • -the Second Battle of the Marne, with 2 million more American troops, the Allies were able to push Germany back.

Victory and peace updated Victory and peace updated Presentation Transcript

  •  By March 1917, Russia was facing many internal issues. The Tsar had given up his throne.
  •  At first, Russia wanted to remain in the war, but they had already suffered 5.5 million casualties.
  •  When there was another revolution and Vladimir Ilyich Lenin took power, he insisted on ending the war.
  •  In March 1918, Lenin signed the treaty of Brest – Litovsk which ended the war for Russia, but also took a lot of their land.
  •  After the Treaty of Brest – Litovsk, the Germans were finally able to focus on the western front.
  •  By May 1918, German troops were within 40 miles of Paris, and it seemed like they had a chance of victory. However, they were considerably weakened.
  •  With the help of fresh American troops, the Allies were able to hold the Germans back.
  •  After the Allies pushed Germany back, the Central Powers began to crumble.
  •  Germany’s allies quit and German soldiers refused to fight, and on November 9, 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced to step down.
  • A representative of the new Germany met with the Allies in Paris and signed an armistice, an agreement to end the fighting at 11:00 November 11, 1918.
  •  After the war was over, the peace still needed to be worked out.  Beginning January 18, 1919 a conference took place at the palace of Versailles. The conference lasted for a year, and there were often disagreements and debates.
  •  Delegates from 32 countries were present, but ultimately it was the Allies/the big four who decided what would happen to post war Europe.
  • Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States. Georges Clemenceau, ministe r from France.
  • David Lloyd George, minister from Great Britain. Vittorio Orlando, minister from Italy.
  • Going into the Treaty of Versailles, the big four had various goals. Woodrow Wilson and Georges Clemenceau pushed their agendas the most.
  • Woodrow Wilson was very idealistic and wanted to create a lasting peace. (Bismarck would say he didn’t practice realpolitik.)
  • Georges Clemenceau was much more realistic and wanted to see that Germany was punished as much as possible. He believed they were responsible for the war.
  • 1. 2. 3. 4. Open Diplomacy – no secret treaties. Freedom of Navigation – open seas in war and peace. Free trade – customs barriers and taxes/duties should be removed. Multilateral disarmament – all countries should reduce their armed forces to the lowest levels possible (limited military power).
  • 5. Colonies – people in European colonies should have a say in their future. 6. Russia – should be allowed to have whatever government they want. 7. Belgium – should be restored to how they were before the war.
  • France – should get Alsace – Lorraine back and any other land taken during the war. 9. Italy – their borders should be readjusted according to nationality. 10. National self – determination – the nations in Europe should be given their own countries whenever possible. 8.
  • 11. Romania, Montenegro & Serbia – should be restored and Serbia should get sea access. 12. Turkey – people of Turkey should have a say in their future. 13. Poland – should become independent and have sea access. 14. League of Nations – a group of nations should come together to meet and solve conflicts peacefully rather than by war.
  •  The final treaty looked very little like Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points.  Germany was not happy with the treaty, but they had no choice but to sign it.
  •  Germany had to return Alsace – Lorraine to France. The French border was extended to the Rhine River.  Germany had to surrender their overseas colonies in Africa and the pacific.  Anschluss – Germany was not allowed to form an alliance with Austria – Hungary.
  •  International Peace Organization was formed. It would include 32 Allied and neutral nations.  Germany and Russia were not included.
  •  When Woodrow Wilson returned home, he was unable to convince Congress that the US should participate in the League of Nations.
  •  Limited the size of Germany’s army.  Germany prohibited from importing or making weapons/war material.  Germany forbidden is build or buy submarines or have an air force.
  •  Sole responsibility for the war is placed on Germany’s shoulders.  Germany must pay Allies $33 billion in reparations over 30 years.
  • The other nations in the Central Powers suffered some consequences too, but not as bad as Germany:  Hungary lost land and had a limited army. They were also told they had to pay reparations, but an amount was never set.
  •  Bulgaria lost land and had a limited army. They had to pay $90 million in war reparations.  Turkey lost land in Greece and the League of Nations took Turkey’s colonies.
  • Europe Before WWI Europe After WWI
  •  New nations were created such as: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland.  Russia felt alienated from the Allies and lost land to Poland, and Romania. Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania used to be part of Russia and became independent countries.
  •  Ottoman Turks were forced to give up most of their former empire, all that remained was Turkey. The Allies took their land and divided it up into mandates under British and French control. Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan went to the British. Syria and Lebanon went to France.
  •  The Treaty of Versailles was known as the “peace built on quicksand.” The treaty set the world up for a lot of problems later down the line.
  •  Many countries felt bitter with the outcome. US didn’t accomplish its goals. Germany was stuck with the war guilt. Japan and Italy had both entered the war to gain territory and neither had truly been successful.
  •  Even though the League of Nations had been formed the US wasn’t a member and they were weak.  World War I was the first total war on a global scale that made use of new technology.
  •  8.5 million soldiers died, 21 million were wounded and many civilians died as well.  The war had a devastating economic impact on Europe, and it shook European society as never before.