Overview part one reading


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Overview part one reading

  1. 1. Part One: The Creation of Saint-Domingue (Overview of Reading--Review Tool)
  2. 2. Tainos -The Tainos were the original inhabitants of Hispaniola. (They were also present in modern day Jamaica, Puerto Rico, & the Virgin Islands.)
  3. 3. Five Taino Kingdoms (Caciquats), c. 1492
  4. 4. Tainos -They lived in villages governed by chiefs (caciques).
  5. 5. Tainos -They were experienced in various trades such as woodworking, weaving, pottery, etc. -They utilized sophisticated fishing and farming techniques.
  6. 6. Arrival of the Europeans -The arrival of Columbus in 1492 had disastrous consequences for the Tainos. -Settlers mistreated the Tainos and though they tried to fight back, they were eventually put down.
  7. 7. Arrival of the Europeans -The Spanish enslaved the Tainos and used them to mine gold. -Overwork and European disease killed much of the native population.
  8. 8. African Slavery -After exhausting the gold in the mines, settlers turned to growing crops like sugar, coffee, and tobacco. -These crops took a lot of work to grow and to harvest. -Since plantation owners could no longer use the native population, they imported slaves from Africa to work the land.
  9. 9. French Settlement -After Columbus’ voyage, many European nations were very interested in gaining colonies and the wealth that came with them. They actively began to compete for land in the “new world.” -The French established permanent settlements in the West, challenging Spanish domination of the island. -In 1697, the Spanish ceded (or gave up), the Western part of the island to the French.
  10. 10. French Settlement and Slavery -The French established plantations growing, indigo, sugar, etc. -Often, French plantation owners did not live on the island, choosing to hire managers to oversee their properties. -By 1791, there were about 32,000 (free) white individuals compared to 500,000 enslaved individuals. (As production boomed, they needed more and more laborers, so they kept importing slaves.)
  11. 11. French Settlement and Slavery: Question for Consideration What problem do you see with this population imbalance (32,000 whites to 500,000 enslaved individuals)?
  12. 12. Life for Enslaved Individuals -Life for enslaved people consisted of dangerous work in the mills or back- breaking work in the field. - They worked long days. -Some owners did not provide adequate food.
  13. 13. Diversity of Enslaved People -Enslaved individuals came from many cultures and spoke many different languages. -Many were born in Africa, some on the island ofHispaniola. -Some slaves were considered above others. They were given positions of authority, such as overseers (individuals who supervised groups of workers).
  14. 14. Voodoo -The voodoo religion was created by the diverse enslaved population of Saint-Domingue and combined a variety of African religious traditions. -Voodoo was important for the enslaved people at this time because it it was a way for them to assert some control over their lives and bring people together. -Colonial authorities saw the practice of voodoo as a threat to their authority and tried to suppress it. They were never successful.
  15. 15. Affranchis -The affranchis were free people of color. -Most affranchis were mulatto, or of mixed descent. These individuals were often the illegitimate children of white planters. -Despite significant obstacles, many affranchis began to accumulate considerable wealth. -Some became plantation owners, some served in the colonial militia and the local police force. -Many whites were very intimidated by the growing power and prestige of the affranchis. -After a while, the colonial gov’t placed restrictions on the affranchis that took away many of their privileges and freedoms.
  16. 16. Engraving showing differences between life for free and enslaved blacks
  17. 17. Black Codes (Code Noir) -By 1791, the number of affranchis and enslaved individuals vastly outnumbered the whites on the island. -The French gov’t created the Black Codes (Code Noir), a set of codes that outlined France’s position on slavery in its colonies.
  18. 18. Controlling Saint-Domingue’s People of Color -It stated that slaves were the property of their masters and placed strict limits on the behavior of slaves. -The Code also established some minimum standards for the treatment of slaves-setting limits on the number of hours slaves could work and the type of punishment their owners could use. -However, these provisions were rarely followed and slaves continued to be treated poorly.
  19. 19. Slave Resistance -Enslaved people found many ways to resist slavery. -Infanticide, suicide, and plots to kill the master/overseer were some ways individuals resisted. -They also participated in cultural activities that reaffirmed their dignity and sense of self, which their master’s tried to take from them. -Many also chose to run away. These individuals were called maroons. They established their own communities.
  20. 20. Makandal’s Revolt -As time progressed, slaves became less and less willing to accept their position. -In 1757, a maroon leader, Francois Makandal, organized a plot to poison all of the whites in the North of the colony. -Makandal was caught and executed, but the plot terrified whites who took drastic measures to ensure that they would not become victims of a similar plot.
  21. 21. Makandal’s Revolt -Makandal’s plot established networks of resistance among enslaved people on different plantations. -These networks would become very important during the Revolution later on. -The story of the revolt was told and retold among enslaved individuals and made them believe that resistance could be successful.
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