Educational Psychology

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Educational Psychology

  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY February 13, 2009
  2. 2. Educational Psychology Studies how people learn in educational settings. Tends to focus on the classroom. May often focus on specific groups such as gifted students or those with disabilities.
  3. 3. An analogy perhaps? Educational Psychology : Psychology :: Medicine : Biology :: Engineering : Physics
  4. 4. Aspects We Won’t Address Today Individual differences (too much!) Social, moral, or cognitive development (we’ve touched on this!) Research methodology (we’ll talk about this later)
  5. 5. Four Important Ideas Behavioral Cognitive Social cognitive Constructivist Connectivist (a bonus!)
  6. 6. Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning (late 1890s) BF Skinner’s radical behaviorism (1930-1950s)
  7. 7. Behaviorism Focus on behavior outcomes Systematic rewards Operant Conditioning
  8. 8. Behaviorism How do you use this? When might it be useful?
  9. 9. Cognitivism The idea that traits, beliefs, memories, motivations, and emotions can determine how information in perceived, processed, stored, retrieved, and forgotten. Dual coding theory Cognitive load Spaced Learning Effect Mnemonics Problem solving as fundamental to learning Involves long term memory, mapping between problem and pre-existing schema
  10. 10. Cognitivism Allan Paivo’s Dual-Coding Theory (1970s-80s) John Sweller’s Cognitive Load Theory
  11. 11. Cognitivism How do you use this? When might it be useful?
  12. 12. Social Cognitivism (Social Learning Theory) Blends behavioral, cognitive, and social thinking Observational learning: watching others and change own behavior as a result of observation Last few decades: self-regulated learning and metacognition These both hypothesize effective learners are active agents who construct knowledge by setting goals, analyzing tasks, planning strategies, and monitoring understanding Those who are better at goal setting and self- monitoring have a greater intrinsic task interest and self-efficacy
  13. 13. Social Cognitivism (Social Learning Theory) NE Miller and J Dollard’s Social Learning Theory (1941) Albert Bandura (1977)
  14. 14. Social Cognitivism How do you use this? When might it be useful?
  15. 15. Constructivism Lev Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning focuses on internalization based on interaction with adults, more capable peers, and cognitive tools.
  16. 16. Constructivism Places emphasis on agency and prior knowledge of the learner and often on social/cultural determinants of the learning process Related to Piaget’s individual/psychological constructivism from social constructivism Learners socialized through social interactions within community of practice
  17. 17. Constructivism How do you use this? When might it be useful?
  18. 18. Connectivism George Siemens (2000s!) Learning in a digital age Builds on previous models Community of Learning
  19. 19. Connectivism How do you use this? When might it be useful?
  20. 20. Four Important Ideas Behavioral Cognitive Social cognitive Constructivist Connectivist (a bonus!)
  21. 21. MOTIVATION!
  22. 22. Motivation Internal state that activates, guides, and sustains behavior. Will, interest, intrinsic motivation, personal goals, belief about the causes of their success or failure
  23. 23. Motivation Bernard Weiner’s Attribution Theory: Focuses on students’ beliefs about their success level
  24. 24. Motivation Goals: Mastery goals increase ability and knowledge Performance approach goals strive for high grades and seek opportunities to demonstrate their abilities Performance avoidance goals driven by fear of failure and where abilities are exposed
  25. 25. Motivation Issues in motivation?

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