An Hedonomic Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated System-Exposure on Pleasurable Human-System Experience Lauren L. Murphy, Ph.D. , Ernst & Young Kip Smith, Ph.D. , Linköping University Peter A. Hancock, Ph.D. , University of Central Florida
Challenging Activity that Requires Skills
Clear Goals and Feedback
Concentration on the Task at Hand
The Transformation of Time
Loss of Self-Consciousness
Loss of Sense of a Self Separate from the Environment
The Merging of Action and Awareness
Feeling in Control
(Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Jackson and Marsh, 1996)
Concluding Remarks about the Findings
Recommendations for the Application of Hedonomics
Suggestions for Future Research Directions in Hedonomics
The purpose of experiment 1 was to investigate the mere exposure effect on Flow
The logic of the study is that by increasing the exposure to technology, positive affect (or liking) toward the technology will increase as well.
Positive affect has been linked strongly to the occurrence of flow, therefore by increasing the exposure to the technology the result should be an increase of positive affect toward the technology and the occurrence of flow.
1) What is the effect of repeated exposure on flow?
Flow State Scale
Jackson and Marsh, 1996
Flow was expected to increase linearly with each exposure.
These words were collected from different sources such as:
advertisements, web sites, customers in arcade rooms, game chat rooms, customers in game stores, and ‘gamers’ in order to achieve the most complete semantic description possible.
Video games were described in short phrases or one-word adjectives.
Over 60 semantic descriptions were collected
Step Two: Reduction of the Number of Words.
Using an affinity diagram:
The semantic descriptions were grouped according to their affinity (Bergman and Klefsjo, 1994)
This was done by a panel of four expert gamers that were graduate students in Human Factors, Simulation and Training, and Computer Science at University of Central Florida
Affinity Diagram of Kansei Words
The affinity diagram conveyed groups of words belonging together in several aspects. From this, representative words were chosen and are called Kansei words.
Collection and Reduction of Kansei Words
The final set resulted in a total of 12 Kansei words for video games
Each Kansei word was rated on a Likert scale.
Identification of Product Properties Partial- World 3D High Detail 32 colors New Entire-World 2D Low Detail 6 colors Old Perspective Graphics Frogger
Frogger Original 1981
Frogger 3D 1991
Frogger 3D 1991
Collection and reduction of semantic descriptions resulting in 12 Kansei words.
Indentifying the product properties.
58 Participants (30 F, 28 M)
Participants played both versions of the game counterbalanced
FSS (Jackson and Marsh, 1996)
Rated the Kansei Words using a Likert scale
Findings from experiment three revealed that:
The incorporation of three-dimensional graphics, increased color variety, and partial-world perspective increased user’s feelings of ‘depth,’ ‘immersion,’ ‘challenge,’ and ‘engagement’ during video game play.
The habituation effect can be used as an indicator of (or criteria to distinguish between) good and poor design.
A poor design reveals an habituation of flow
A good design reveals a minimum habituation, indicating a relatively linear increase of flow over time
Designers should use data from Kansei Engineering to inform them on how different product properties elicit certain feelings in the users.
During the ‘collection of Kansei words’ stage, designers should:
Collect the descriptors only from users that fit the user profile, in order to better gage the needs of the users.
Survey the profile users by asking them to provide descriptors on what their needs are for the product and using these as kansei words.
Principle of Aesthetic Longevity
Hancock et al, 2005
(Cziksentmihalyi, 1997; Hancock, 2003; Hancock et al, 2005; Jordan, 2000)
Hancock, 2003; Hancock et al, 2005
Future research should focus on:
Ways of mitigating the effect of habituation of flow.
The effect of repeated exposure on flow, when the technology is disliked and/or unpleasant to use.
Improving the Kansei Engineering method
Making Hedonomics a Reality
It must be demonstrated numerically that by incorporating these guidelines and principles at the early stages of design that it will:
Ensure a pleasurable experience with our work applications