Response to Intervention
        (RTI)

             Amy Piper, Ed.S., NCSP
                   School Psychologist
       ...
Introduction
• Overview of school background
• Overview of professional experiences
Agenda
• Introduction
• Overview of RTI—some practical guidelines
• BREAK
• Problem Solving Teams and Research Based
  Int...
Learning Disabilities
• 50% of students in Special Education are eligible under
  LD category (2.9 million nationwide)

• ...
Changing School Demographics
Diverse SES status: School learning is affected




Hart, B., & Risley, R. T. (1995). Meaning...
Learning Disabilities

• Recent studies have shown that when students with severe
  reading problems are given early, inte...
The Science of Reading
The Importance of Reading
• The key to realization of dreams for many children
• Essential for academic success
• Reading ...
THE Best Way to Monitor
        Curriculum-Based Measurement
•   SCIENTIFICALLY-BASED
•   Relies on ongoing measurements o...
CBM-Reading
• Growth or lack of growth is clearly visible
• Can track fluency rates as an objective measure to
  identify ...
CBM-Reading
• Growth is greatest in early school years
• Growth is at max at beginning of year

• Fluency is the critical ...
Rate of Expected Weekly
       Reading Growth
   (Increase in Correct Words per Minute)
Grade         Realistic           ...
Fluency


Reading a word accurately, quickly,
smoothly, and with good expression.
Fluency
• Fluency is acquired by practice, by reading
  a word over and over again.
     A reader must have four or more
 ...
Fluency


Once a word can be read fluently, the reader
  no longer has any need to rely on context
Fluency
• Studies in which eye movements of readers are
  tracked have shown that a skilled reader pauses at
  between 50 ...
Fluency
• In addition to reading words accurately and
  quickly, a skilled reader understands what
  he read.
• Reading Co...
Poor Readers
• Inability to read fluently
• Devote their full concentration to decoding words
  instead of attending to is...
Poor Readers
• Must devote all their attention to decoding the
  words on the page
• More vulnerable to any noises or move...
Testimony to the President’s
Commission on Excellence in
        Education

When teachers use progress monitoring
 to info...
President’s Commission, cont.
• More than 200 empirical studies published
  in peer-review journals
  – Provide evidence o...
President’s Commission, cont

AT PRESENT, CBM is the MOST
conceptually sophisticated,
technically sound, and thoroughly
re...
Research demonstrates that when
 teachers apply decision rules to
  CBM graphs, they raise goals
 more often and develop h...
they modify their instructional
programs more frequently


    (e.g., Fuchs, Fuchs, and Hamlet, 1989b),
And they effect stronger student
        achievement

  (e.g., Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, and Stecker, 1991).
Naysayers of CBM

Some practitioners remain unconvinced of
CBM as a valid measure of general reading
achievement
Teacher Resistance
• Expressed presumption that R-CBM is
  solely a measure of decoding skills
• Lacks face validity
• Arg...
Teacher Resistance
• Reading-CBM most highly related measure
  (.91) to reading comprehension on Stanford
  Achievement Te...
Anti-CBM???
• Is there a type of student, i.e, the “word
  caller”?
• Can these students read text aloud fluently,
  but d...
Word-Callers
Word calling occurs when the words in the
text are efficiently decoded into their
spoken forms without compre...
Word-Callers
• Research results did not confirm that
  students that word-call
  and similarly fluent peers
  read equally...
Word Callers
Word callers read fewer correct words per
 minute and were significantly different on
 the 3 other comprehens...
Word-Callers

Teachers are most inaccurate in prediction
 of “word-caller” students’ oral reading
                 scores....
Teacher Perception
• Teachers using terms accuracy and fluency
  synonymously
• Accuracy is critical in the early grades, ...
Fluency
• Fluency is acquired word by word, reflecting the
  words a child has read and fully mastered
• Accuracy is a nec...
English Language Learners
• There is a strong relation of R-CBM as a
  measure of general reading proficiency with
  Engli...
Using CBM in the classroom
• Consider setting up one area of the
  classroom for assessment
• Material for probes should b...
Resources
• Fuchs, L. and Fuchs, D. (2002) Progress
  Monitoring, Accountability,and LD Identification
  Testimony to the ...
All laws not created equal…
•    There are 50 state definitions in addition to the federal definition for LD.

•    Attemp...
All laws not created equal…
•    There are 50 state definitions in addition to the federal definition for LD.
            ...
Identifying Key Concerns with
            Previous IDEA Law
•   For years, researchers have
    advocated for a change to ...
Changing the way we ID…LD!
New flexibility with IDEIA:

  “In determining whether a child has a specific learning disabili...
IDEIA REQUIRES:
Assessment tools and strategies are provided that
directly assist in determining the educational needs of ...
Proposed Regulations in IDEIA:
The criteria to be considered for adoption by the States:
•   May prohibit the use of a sev...
• “Team members” has been replaced with the term “group
  members”

• The group is collectively qualified to:
  1) conduct...
• “Team members” has been replaced with the term “group
  members”

• The group is collectively qualified to:
  1) conduct...
So…
…now what
do we do?
Setting up the
 RTI Model in
   Schools

What an RTI Model looks like in schools.
How to make RTI work.
Comparing Old and New
               Paradigms:
Discrepancy Model                       RTI Model
• Discrepancy between IQ...
RTI Learning Objectives:
•   Review What Design Elements Must Be In Place for
    Successful RTI

•   Describe the Role Th...
Early Intervening Services Provision:
             What IDEIA Now Provides
 • Greater emphasis on use of early interventio...
RTI: Official
Permission for
Needs-Based Service
Delivery
One approach to RTI—
     4 Tier Model
         Tier 4—CSE or 504 students
         Monitored several times
         weekl...
CLCS’ approach to RTI—
          4 Tier Model
      Tier One—Universal Screening
Fall--All students pre-kindergarten throu...
Tier One
• Sample Picture Naming Stimulus
  Card
• Front




• Back
Tier One
• Pre-Kindergarten
  – Alliteration sample cards

  – Rhyming sample cards


Dog                         Frog
Get it, Got it, Go!
Get it Got it Go! is part of the
 Center for Early Education Development
 in the
 College of Education...
Get it, Got it, Go!

How to access more information and
        download materials:
  http://ggg.umn.edu/
Tier One
Fall-Kindergarten Universal Screening
 AIMSweb Early Literacy Assessments:
         www.aimsweb.com

One Minute L...
Examiner Copy:
AIMSweb® Letter Naming Fluency - Benchmark
Assessment #1 (Kindergarten - Fall)
Given To:            Given B...
Examiner Copy:
AIMSweb® Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
- Benchmark Assessment #1 (First Grade -
Fall)
Given To:           Gi...
Tier One
     Fall-First Grade Universal Screening

     AIMSweb Early Literacy Assessments:

    One Minute Letter Naming...
Tier One
 Fall--All students kindergarten through 1st
  grade receive early numeracy assessment

 AIMSweb Early Numeracy A...
Tier One
 Winter and Spring--All students in
kindergarten receive early numeracy
              assessment

        www.aim...
Early Numeracy Cover Sheet

          Quantity Discrimination

            7 4                 1 4

“Look at this piece of...
Tier One
  Fall, Winter, and Spring Benchmark—All
  students grade 2nd through 8th grade receive
        oral reading flue...
Tier One
Winter--All students pre-kindergarten and
    kindergarten receive early literacy
                assessment
  Pr...
Tier One
  Spring--All students pre-kindergarten and
 kindergarten receive early literacy assessment

Pre-K: Picture Namin...
Tier One
  Fall, Winter, and Spring Benchmark—All
  students grade 2nd through 5th grade receive
     math computation flu...
Tier One
Winter, and Spring Benchmark—All students
    in 1st grade receive math computation
              fluency assessm...
Tier Two
           Strategic Monitoring
 Each elementary classroom teacher does monthly
 progress monitoring in reading o...
Tier Two
If children indicate at Tier One that they
   are below expectations for their grade
       level, they move to T...
Tier Two
 Small Group instruction
     Remedial reading, AIS, AST
    With research-based interventions

     Monitored bi...
Tier Three
               If children indicate at Tier Two
  (through progress monitoring of reading or math skills)
 that...
Tier Three
     1:2 or 1:3 instruction

    Remedial reading or AIS
With research-based interventions
            Monitore...
Tier Four
              If children indicate at Tier Three
  (through progress monitoring of reading or math skills)
 that...
Tier Four
         CSE or 504 students
Research-based interventions implemented
    through resource room, Consultant
    ...
Tier Four
  If the student continues
      to have difficulty
      making progress,
Case Manager refers them to
Instructi...
Design Elements Integral to RTI
                Process
•     Proactive System Design: A blueprint or model
•     Effectiv...
Critical Components of
         Initial Referral
–   Documenting/Describing Referral
–   Parental Notification
–   Problem...
Critical Components of Intervention
– Plan Intervention schema
– Support and Implement Intervention
– Observe Implementati...
RTI Begins with Using CBM in
    Benchmark Assessment
Frequent Evaluation (3 times per year) of Growth and Development Usi...
Formative Assessment


Formative Assessment: Process of assessing student achievement
during instruction to determine whet...
Systematic formative evaluation requires the use of:


Standard assessment tools…

•   That are the same difficulty
•   Th...
Using Benchmark Assessment for
SYSTEMATIC Proactive, Early Identification
          of At Risk Students
Benchmark (Universal)
Monitoring of Progress for All Students
Benchmark (Universal)
     Screening:
    Educational Need?
Billy: Benchmark (Universal)
          Screening
       Educational Need?
Benchmark Assessment Supports
    Identifying “Dual Discrepancies”

    Data-Based Decision Making Begins by Looking for D...
Benchmark Progress Monitoring:
        Educational Need?
Benchmark Progress Monitoring:
DUAL DISCREPANCY & Educational
           Need?
Dual Discrepancy and Need for
            RTI?
Dual Discrepancy and Need for RTI?
Benchmark Progress Monitoring:
       Educational Need?
Educational Need?
Using CBM at the Point of
            Referral
• Benchmark Assessment Brings Existing Data to
  the Student Support Team/C...
John         John         John
                        3rd grade  4th grade    5th grader:
Conducting a Survey   Level Ass...
Use SLA to Prioritize
         How Students Can Be Managed

Can We
Provide
Interventions
to Allow
Student to
Benefit from
...
About a Year Behind — Can We Provide Support to Allow Student
              to Benefit from General Education?
More Severe Educational Need
Determining intensity-of-need for RTI:
                 Referred Students

  • Keep It Simple for Less Severe Problems — U...
Benchmark Can Document RTI (mild)
Benchmark Insufficient:
Move to Strategic Monitoring (1x/month)
Intensive Progress Monitoring
        & Goal Setting
Current Goal Setting Practices Are Unsatisfying!

      Do you like these IEPs?
      I do not like these IEPs
      I do ...
Need Shift to Few But Important Goals


Often Ineffective Goal Smorgasboard!
  ●
      Student will perform spelling skill...
Comply with RTI & IDEIA:
Ensure the Goals are Measurable and Linked to Validated
Formative Evaluation Practices

• Have fe...
Reduce the Number of Goals to a Few Critical Indicators


Reading            In (#) weeks (Student name) will read (#)
   ...
When Strategic Monitoring Insufficient…
Move to Intensive Progress Monitoring
Formative Evaluation: Are data and a goal enough?
Formative Evaluation: Are data, goals & trends enough?
Formative Evaluation is Impossible without all data:
Goals Make Progress Decisions Easier
Positive Response to Intervention
Not Responding to First Intervention
Better Response to Intervention
A common approach to problems:
   Our Beach Ball Analogy to
         remediation.
Sometimes we
know there’s a
hole…



   ...
So we throw
 patches at the
 problem…
…But we wind up using
a lot of expensive
patches and spend a lot
of time patching…

...
Sometimes we’ve found the
         hole…
..but we don’t
know how to
fix it.
We need to
identify where the
hole is first…
…and patch it
properly.
This means that the
intervention is the right size
an...
Interventions—Some
               thoughts…
Interventions/instruction: Proper
   diagnostic work must be done
   first. Th...
Special Education Eligibility
“We’ve tried ‘everything’ and               (Doesn’t this
                                  ...
SUMMARY: Interventions,
            Instruction, and
    Eligibility for Special Programs
             “Referral is often ...
Thank you!
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  1. 1. Response to Intervention (RTI) Amy Piper, Ed.S., NCSP School Psychologist CSE Chairperson Certified AIMSweb Trainer Fredonia Central School Fredonia, NY
  2. 2. Introduction • Overview of school background • Overview of professional experiences
  3. 3. Agenda • Introduction • Overview of RTI—some practical guidelines • BREAK • Problem Solving Teams and Research Based Interventions • LUNCH • Classification of students through RTI • SUMMARY
  4. 4. Learning Disabilities • 50% of students in Special Education are eligible under LD category (2.9 million nationwide) • 80% of those are eligible in the area of Reading. • Numbers grown over 300% since 1975 • Most reading difficulties originate from poor instruction, lack of reading readiness, and/or cultural differences…
  5. 5. Changing School Demographics Diverse SES status: School learning is affected Hart, B., & Risley, R. T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
  6. 6. Learning Disabilities • Recent studies have shown that when students with severe reading problems are given early, intensive instruction, nearly 95% can reach the national average in reading ability!
  7. 7. The Science of Reading
  8. 8. The Importance of Reading • The key to realization of dreams for many children • Essential for academic success • Reading problems have consequences all across development • Reading is acquired and must be taught • Progress must be monitored frequently and effectively to ensure success (Shaywitz, 2003)
  9. 9. THE Best Way to Monitor Curriculum-Based Measurement • SCIENTIFICALLY-BASED • Relies on ongoing measurements of reading fluency • Establishes how fast student is acquiring new knowledge • Measures how well a child has learned what he has been taught (Shaywitz, 2003)
  10. 10. CBM-Reading • Growth or lack of growth is clearly visible • Can track fluency rates as an objective measure to identify if a child is responding to a particular instructional approach • Rate of growth compared to norms • Don’t have to wait for end of school year to learn about progress (Shaywitz, 2003)
  11. 11. CBM-Reading • Growth is greatest in early school years • Growth is at max at beginning of year • Fluency is the critical marker for permanency • A fluent reader has formed permanent and perfect models of words in his automatic word form system for reading. (Shaywitz, 2003)
  12. 12. Rate of Expected Weekly Reading Growth (Increase in Correct Words per Minute) Grade Realistic Ambitious 1 2.00 3.00 2 1.50 2.00 3 1.00 1.50 4 .85 1.10 5 .50 .80 6 .30 .65 (Shaywitz, 2003)
  13. 13. Fluency Reading a word accurately, quickly, smoothly, and with good expression.
  14. 14. Fluency • Fluency is acquired by practice, by reading a word over and over again. A reader must have four or more successful encounters with a new word to be able to read it fluently. (Shaywitz, 2003)
  15. 15. Fluency Once a word can be read fluently, the reader no longer has any need to rely on context
  16. 16. Fluency • Studies in which eye movements of readers are tracked have shown that a skilled reader pauses at between 50 and 80 percent of the words in a text. • He needs to fixate on the words,essentially to scan them in, but does so very, very quickly because the words—their spelling patterns and pronunciations—are well known to him. (Shaywitz, 2003)
  17. 17. Fluency • In addition to reading words accurately and quickly, a skilled reader understands what he read. • Reading Comprehension develops gradually so that, over time, the balance tips from learning mostly from listening to learning through reading. (Shaywitz, 2003)
  18. 18. Poor Readers • Inability to read fluently • Devote their full concentration to decoding words instead of attending to issues of comprehension • Reflecting lack of fluency, they read slowly. • Fluency binds a reader to text—if can’t read fluently, cannot engage the text. (Shaywitz, 2003)
  19. 19. Poor Readers • Must devote all their attention to decoding the words on the page • More vulnerable to any noises or movement • Reading is fragile, so any sound or movement threatens ability to maintain reading • Relies on brute memorization of words due to lack of mastery of phonetic code (Shaywitz, 2003)
  20. 20. Testimony to the President’s Commission on Excellence in Education When teachers use progress monitoring to inform their instructional planning, students make greater academic gains.
  21. 21. President’s Commission, cont. • More than 200 empirical studies published in peer-review journals – Provide evidence of CBM’s reliability and validity for assessing the development of competence in reading – Document CBM’s capacity to help teachers improve student outcomes at the elementary grades (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2002)
  22. 22. President’s Commission, cont AT PRESENT, CBM is the MOST conceptually sophisticated, technically sound, and thoroughly researched progress monitoring system available. (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2002)
  23. 23. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply decision rules to CBM graphs, they raise goals more often and develop higher expectations (e.g., Fuchs, Fuchs, and Hamlet, 1989a),
  24. 24. they modify their instructional programs more frequently (e.g., Fuchs, Fuchs, and Hamlet, 1989b),
  25. 25. And they effect stronger student achievement (e.g., Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, and Stecker, 1991).
  26. 26. Naysayers of CBM Some practitioners remain unconvinced of CBM as a valid measure of general reading achievement
  27. 27. Teacher Resistance • Expressed presumption that R-CBM is solely a measure of decoding skills • Lacks face validity • Argue that R-CBM will overestimate reading skills and not be sensitive to reading difficulties
  28. 28. Teacher Resistance • Reading-CBM most highly related measure (.91) to reading comprehension on Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) • R-CBM correlated significantly higher to SAT comprehension than SAT decoding!
  29. 29. Anti-CBM??? • Is there a type of student, i.e, the “word caller”? • Can these students read text aloud fluently, but don’t understand what they read?
  30. 30. Word-Callers Word calling occurs when the words in the text are efficiently decoded into their spoken forms without comprehension of the passage taking place (Stanovich, 1986)
  31. 31. Word-Callers • Research results did not confirm that students that word-call and similarly fluent peers read equally well (Hamilton, Shinn, 2002)
  32. 32. Word Callers Word callers read fewer correct words per minute and were significantly different on the 3 other comprehension measures (Hamilton, Shinn, 2002)
  33. 33. Word-Callers Teachers are most inaccurate in prediction of “word-caller” students’ oral reading scores. (Hamilton and Shinn, 2002)
  34. 34. Teacher Perception • Teachers using terms accuracy and fluency synonymously • Accuracy is critical in the early grades, but fluency gains importance as a child matures • Children learn to read a word accurately and then, after much practice, fluently • Fluency describes how a skilled reader reads aloud
  35. 35. Fluency • Fluency is acquired word by word, reflecting the words a child has read and fully mastered • Accuracy is a necessary precursor to fluency, accuracy does not necessary evolve into fluency • Fluency is the ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with good understanding. • It is the hallmark of a skilled reader. • Children who are fluent readers love to read. (Shaywitz, 2003)
  36. 36. English Language Learners • There is a strong relation of R-CBM as a measure of general reading proficiency with English Language Learners. • Correlations are comparable for both ELL and English-only students on R-CBM and criterion reading measures (Baker and Good, 1995)
  37. 37. Using CBM in the classroom • Consider setting up one area of the classroom for assessment • Material for probes should be organized and available • People other than the teacher may administer the probes (Pemberton, 2003)
  38. 38. Resources • Fuchs, L. and Fuchs, D. (2002) Progress Monitoring, Accountability,and LD Identification Testimony to the President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education. • Hamilton, C. and Shinn, M. (2002). Characteristics of Word Callers: An Investigation of the Accuracy of Teachers’ Judgments of Reading Comprehension and Oral Reading Skills.US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Research, Washington, DC. • Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia. NY:Alfred A. Knopf Press.
  39. 39. All laws not created equal… • There are 50 state definitions in addition to the federal definition for LD. • Attempts to assess for LD involved a vast array of methods used to determine intelligence. • James Yssseldyke, a researcher at the University of Minnesota, concluded that 80 percent of all school children in the United States could qualify as learning-disabled under one definition or another. (Shapiro et. al., 1993) • Eligibility rules often appeared class-based. Though unintentional, they sadly discriminated against low SES groups whose learning problems originated from "environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage." • Though Federal regulations from 1970’s mandated use of the Discrepancy Mode, it was essentially poorly researched, if at all. • Used as a method to create a criteria for eligibility for LD and cap the number of students who were eligible for services. Shapiro, J. P., Loeb P., Bowermaster, D. (1993, December 13). Separate and unequal. U.S. News & World Report, 47.
  40. 40. All laws not created equal… • There are 50 state definitions in addition to the federal definition for LD. “According to the Children's Defense Fund, • Attempts to assess for LD involved a children starting firstused to have middle-class vast array of methods grade determine intelligence. been exposed to 1,000 to 1,700 hours of one- on-one reading, while their low-income • James Yssseldyke, a researcher at the University ofexposed to concluded that 80 counterparts have been Minnesota, only 25 percent of all school children in the United States could qualify as learning-disabled under one definition or hours. It's littleet. al., 1993) that so many of these another. (Shapiro wonder kids get referred to special ed.” • Eligibility rules often appeared class-based. Though unintentional, they sadly discriminated against low SES groups whose learning problems originated from (Washington Monthly, June 1999) "environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage." • Though Federal regulations from 1970’s mandated use of the Discrepancy Mode, it was essentially poorly researched, if at all. • Used as a method to create a criteria for eligibility for LD and cap the number of students who were eligible for services. Shapiro, J. P., Loeb P., Bowermaster, D. (1993, December 13). Separate and unequal. U.S. News & World Report, 47.
  41. 41. Identifying Key Concerns with Previous IDEA Law • For years, researchers have advocated for a change to the “discrepancy model” (a.k.a. “wait to fail model.”) • Misidentification of LD = greater # of students in special education services (300% + since 1975) • “Sympathy” eligibility • Eligibility as a “back-up plan” for limited reg. ed. services
  42. 42. Changing the way we ID…LD! New flexibility with IDEIA: “In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, an LEA shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability.” • Law now provides districts/LEAs the option to eliminate IQ-discrepancy requirements • Embraces model of prevention—not failure • Students with disabilities are considered general education students first with interventions beginning in the general education classroom. • Mandates that students cannot be identified as LD if they have not had appropriate instruction in reading, meaning research-based, scientific interventions. IMPLICATIONS: • General ed. must assume active responsibility for delivery of high-quality instruction, interventions, and prompt ID of at-risk students collaboratively. • Special Ed must partner with gen. ed. to provide those interventions early on.
  43. 43. IDEIA REQUIRES: Assessment tools and strategies are provided that directly assist in determining the educational needs of the child.
  44. 44. Proposed Regulations in IDEIA: The criteria to be considered for adoption by the States: • May prohibit the use of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement • May not require the use of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement • Must permit the use of a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation procedures • May permit the use of other alternative research- based procedures for determining SLD
  45. 45. • “Team members” has been replaced with the term “group members” • The group is collectively qualified to: 1) conduct individual diagnostic assessments in speech and language, academic achievement, intellectual development, and social-emotional development; 2) interpret assessment data, and apply critical analysis to that data
  46. 46. • “Team members” has been replaced with the term “group members” • The group is collectively qualified to: 1) conduct individual diagnostic assessments in speech and language, academic achievement, intellectual development, and social-emotional development; 2) interpret assessment data, and apply critical analysis to that data Assessment data will involve pre-referral RTI procedures + other diagnostic tests. (I.E., CBM/DIBELS and traditional tests as needed)
  47. 47. So… …now what do we do?
  48. 48. Setting up the RTI Model in Schools What an RTI Model looks like in schools. How to make RTI work.
  49. 49. Comparing Old and New Paradigms: Discrepancy Model RTI Model • Discrepancy between IQ and • Funding for intervention services Achievement scores increased. • “Magic Number” eligibility • Provision for some special • Geographic eligibility education services to be provided to reg. ed students (i.e., Resource • Inconsistent regression staff “ok” to work with reg. ed. • Discriminatory for some Kids during RTI process.) students • Dual discrepancy model applied • Difficulty with ELL’s • Instructional integrity • Attendance discrimination • No broad-scope attendance discrimination • Ideal for ELL eligibility determination • Geographic Eligibility phenomenon reduced.
  50. 50. RTI Learning Objectives: • Review What Design Elements Must Be In Place for Successful RTI • Describe the Role That Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Can Play In Determining: • Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring • Dual Discrepancies: Educational Need Rate of Progress for Students Entering the RTI Process • Evaluating the Effects of Intervention  Eligibility determination
  51. 51. Early Intervening Services Provision: What IDEIA Now Provides • Greater emphasis on use of early interventions (research-based) • School districts will be able to use up to 15% of their total IDEIA federal funds for early intervening services These services are to be provided BEFORE they are identified as having a disability. LEAs have option to conduct this activity. • Funding may be used for professional development, academic and behavioral supports.
  52. 52. RTI: Official Permission for Needs-Based Service Delivery
  53. 53. One approach to RTI— 4 Tier Model Tier 4—CSE or 504 students Monitored several times weekly Tier 3—1:2 or 1:3 instruction (remedial reading, AIS, AST) Monitored weekly Tier 2—Small Group instruction (remedial reading, AIS, AST) Monitored bi-weekly or monthly Tier 1—Universal screening General Education Curriculum
  54. 54. CLCS’ approach to RTI— 4 Tier Model Tier One—Universal Screening Fall--All students pre-kindergarten through 1st grade receive early literacy assessment Pre-K: Get it, Got it, Go! Assessment: One minute Picture Naming task to measure vocabulary knowledge Two minute Alliteration task to measure oral recognition (with visual cue) of initial sounds Two Minute Rhyming task to measure oral rhyming skills (with visual cue)
  55. 55. Tier One • Sample Picture Naming Stimulus Card • Front • Back
  56. 56. Tier One • Pre-Kindergarten – Alliteration sample cards – Rhyming sample cards Dog Frog
  57. 57. Get it, Got it, Go! Get it Got it Go! is part of the Center for Early Education Development in the College of Education and Human Developmen at the University of Minnesota. Get it Got it Go! is funded by the U.S. Department of Education.
  58. 58. Get it, Got it, Go! How to access more information and download materials: http://ggg.umn.edu/
  59. 59. Tier One Fall-Kindergarten Universal Screening AIMSweb Early Literacy Assessments: www.aimsweb.com One Minute Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) One Minute Letter Sound Fluency (LSF)
  60. 60. Examiner Copy: AIMSweb® Letter Naming Fluency - Benchmark Assessment #1 (Kindergarten - Fall) Given To: Given By: Date: U D P S R A X y l n / 10 (10) C V g W A G J z c E / 10 (20) Student Copy: u D P S R A X y l n C V g W A G J z c E / Copyright 2003 Edformation, Inc. All rights reserved.
  61. 61. Examiner Copy: AIMSweb® Phoneme Segmentation Fluency - Benchmark Assessment #1 (First Grade - Fall) Given To: Given By: Date: sort /s/ /or/ /t/ weight /w/ /ai/ /t/ / 6 (6) match /m/ /a/ /ch/ touch /t/ /u/ /ch/ / 6 (12) meal /m/ /ea/ /l/ bee /b/ /ea/ / 5 (17) put /p/ /uu/ /t/ trees /t/ /r/ /ea/ /z/ / 7 (24) / Copyright 2003 Edformation, Inc. All rights reserved.
  62. 62. Tier One Fall-First Grade Universal Screening AIMSweb Early Literacy Assessments: One Minute Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) One Minute Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) One Minute Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) One Minute Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)
  63. 63. Tier One Fall--All students kindergarten through 1st grade receive early numeracy assessment AIMSweb Early Numeracy Assessments: One minute Oral Counting Fluency One minute Number Identification Fluency One minute Missing Number Fluency One minute Quantity Discrimination Fluency
  64. 64. Tier One Winter and Spring--All students in kindergarten receive early numeracy assessment www.aimsweb.com
  65. 65. Early Numeracy Cover Sheet Quantity Discrimination 7 4 1 4 “Look at this piece of paper in front of you. The box in front of you has two numbers in it (demonstrate by pointing). I want you to tell me the number that is bigger.”
  66. 66. Tier One Fall, Winter, and Spring Benchmark—All students grade 2nd through 8th grade receive oral reading fluency assessment AIMSweb Reading-Curriculum Based Measurement: (measured by words read correct and errors in one minute)
  67. 67. Tier One Winter--All students pre-kindergarten and kindergarten receive early literacy assessment Pre-K: Picture Naming, Rhyming, Alliteration Kindergarten: Letter Naming Fluency, Letter Sound Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
  68. 68. Tier One Spring--All students pre-kindergarten and kindergarten receive early literacy assessment Pre-K: Picture Naming, Rhyming, Alliteration Kindergarten: Letter Naming Fluency, Letter Sound Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, Nonsense Word Fluency
  69. 69. Tier One Fall, Winter, and Spring Benchmark—All students grade 2nd through 5th grade receive math computation fluency assessment AIMSweb Math-Curriculum Based Measurement: (measured by digits correct in two minutes on grade-level computation problems)
  70. 70. Tier One Winter, and Spring Benchmark—All students in 1st grade receive math computation fluency assessment AIMSweb Math-Curriuculum Based Measurement: (measured by digits correct in two minutes on grade-level computation problems
  71. 71. Tier Two Strategic Monitoring Each elementary classroom teacher does monthly progress monitoring in reading of 1-2 children that are borderline average range based on national AIMSweb data. We don’t want to wait for benchmark assessment to ensure that they are making the progress they need to make!
  72. 72. Tier Two If children indicate at Tier One that they are below expectations for their grade level, they move to Tier Two! Referral typically is made by classroom teacher…
  73. 73. Tier Two Small Group instruction Remedial reading, AIS, AST With research-based interventions Monitored bi-weekly or monthly By remedial reading teacher or AIS teacher
  74. 74. Tier Three If children indicate at Tier Two (through progress monitoring of reading or math skills) that they continue to remain below expectations for their grade level, despite research-based interventions and monthly IST meetings, they move to Tier Three! Referral is typically made by classroom teacher through IST process….
  75. 75. Tier Three 1:2 or 1:3 instruction Remedial reading or AIS With research-based interventions Monitored weekly By reading teacher or AIS teacher
  76. 76. Tier Four If children indicate at Tier Three (through progress monitoring of reading or math skills) that they continue to remain below expectations for their grade level, despite research-based interventions and monthly IST meetings, they move to Tier Four! Referral is typically made by classroom teacher through IST process….
  77. 77. Tier Four CSE or 504 students Research-based interventions implemented through resource room, Consultant Teacher model, AIS, or Remedial Reading Monitored several times weekly
  78. 78. Tier Four If the student continues to have difficulty making progress, Case Manager refers them to Instructional Support Team Or CSE review
  79. 79. Design Elements Integral to RTI Process • Proactive System Design: A blueprint or model • Effective and Efficient Teams • A Range of Evidence-Based Interventions/Instruction • Procedural Standard Protocols-- Organizing and Documenting Critical Tasks • Initial Planning • When Intervention is Required • Efficient and Economical Assessment That Provides • Preventive Progress Monitoring • Universal Screening • Identifying Educational Need • Sensitive Progress Monitoring 6. Reports Documenting/Summarizing the Process and Outcomes
  80. 80. Critical Components of Initial Referral – Documenting/Describing Referral – Parental Notification – Problem Identification Interviews w Teacher(s) and Parents – Describing and Observing Current Intervention – Observing Student-Teacher Interactions – Collecting Information on Current Educational Need • Performance Discrepancies • Rates of Progress – Data-Based Decision on Need for Revised Intervention
  81. 81. Critical Components of Intervention – Plan Intervention schema – Support and Implement Intervention – Observe Implementation and Fidelity of Treatment – Develop/Implement Progress Monitoring System – Implement Progress Monitoring Decision – Data-Based Decision on Response to Initial Intervention, Severity of Educational Need, or Need for Revised Intervention
  82. 82. RTI Begins with Using CBM in Benchmark Assessment Frequent Evaluation (3 times per year) of Growth and Development Using R-CBM: Initial Performance Assessment (IPA) or “Taking Inventory” at the Beginning of the School Year 1. Identify Students At Risk 2. Instructional Planning 3. Initial Data Point for Progress Monitoring Accountability – NCLB and AYP – Linkages to State Standards
  83. 83. Formative Assessment Formative Assessment: Process of assessing student achievement during instruction to determine whether an instructional program is effective for individual students. ● When students are progressing, keep using your instructional programs. ● When tests show that students are not progressing, you can change your instructional programs in meaningful ways. ● Has been linked to important gains in student achievement (L. Fuchs, 1986) with effect sizes of .7 and greater.
  84. 84. Systematic formative evaluation requires the use of: Standard assessment tools… • That are the same difficulty • That are Given the same way each time.
  85. 85. Using Benchmark Assessment for SYSTEMATIC Proactive, Early Identification of At Risk Students
  86. 86. Benchmark (Universal) Monitoring of Progress for All Students
  87. 87. Benchmark (Universal) Screening: Educational Need?
  88. 88. Billy: Benchmark (Universal) Screening Educational Need?
  89. 89. Benchmark Assessment Supports Identifying “Dual Discrepancies” Data-Based Decision Making Begins by Looking for Dual Discrepancies: • Educational Need (Discrepancy from Other Students), and • Lack of Significant Improvement with “Standard” Intervention — General Education Program
  90. 90. Benchmark Progress Monitoring: Educational Need?
  91. 91. Benchmark Progress Monitoring: DUAL DISCREPANCY & Educational Need?
  92. 92. Dual Discrepancy and Need for RTI?
  93. 93. Dual Discrepancy and Need for RTI?
  94. 94. Benchmark Progress Monitoring: Educational Need?
  95. 95. Educational Need?
  96. 96. Using CBM at the Point of Referral • Benchmark Assessment Brings Existing Data to the Student Support Team/Child Study Team • Not All Students Must Endure RTI — Severe Problems Warrant Immediate Service Need Decisions • Strategies Other than Benchmark Assessment May Be Required
  97. 97. John John John 3rd grade 4th grade 5th grader: Conducting a Survey Level Assessment passage passage 5th grade passage 62/4 49/7 26/12
  98. 98. Use SLA to Prioritize How Students Can Be Managed Can We Provide Interventions to Allow Student to Benefit from General Education?
  99. 99. About a Year Behind — Can We Provide Support to Allow Student to Benefit from General Education?
  100. 100. More Severe Educational Need
  101. 101. Determining intensity-of-need for RTI: Referred Students • Keep It Simple for Less Severe Problems — Use Next Benchmark • Set Individualized Goals for Progress • Create an Intervention Specific Progress Monitoring Context
  102. 102. Benchmark Can Document RTI (mild)
  103. 103. Benchmark Insufficient: Move to Strategic Monitoring (1x/month)
  104. 104. Intensive Progress Monitoring & Goal Setting
  105. 105. Current Goal Setting Practices Are Unsatisfying! Do you like these IEPs? I do not like these IEPs I do not like them Jeeze Louise We test, we check We plan, we meet But nothing ever seems complete. Would you, could you Like the form? I do not like the form I see Not page 1, not 2, not 3 Another change A brand new box I think we all Have lost our rocks!
  106. 106. Need Shift to Few But Important Goals Often Ineffective Goal Smorgasboard! ● Student will perform spelling skills at a high 3rd grade level. ● Student will alphabetize words by the second letter with 80% accuracy. ● Student will read words from the Dolch Word List with 80% accuracy. ● Student will master basic multiplication facts with 80% accuracy. ● Student will increase reading skills by progressing through Scribner with 90% accuracy as determined by teacher-made fluency and comprehension probes by October 2006. ● To increase reading ability by 6 months to 1 year as measured by the Woodcock Johnson. ● Student will make one year's growth in reading by October 2006 as measured by the Brigance. ● Student will be a better reader. ● Student will read aloud with 80% accuracy and 80% comprehension. ● Student will make one year's gain in general reading from K-3. ● Students will read 1 story per week.
  107. 107. Comply with RTI & IDEIA: Ensure the Goals are Measurable and Linked to Validated Formative Evaluation Practices • Have few, but important goals. • Goals should be based on quality tests like CBM. • Based on validated practices such as how often, how many samples, etc. • Base Goal Setting on Logical Educational Practices
  108. 108. Reduce the Number of Goals to a Few Critical Indicators Reading In (#) weeks (Student name) will read (#) Words Correctly in 1 minute from randomly selected Grade (#) passages. Spelling In (#) weeks (Student name) will write (#) Correct Letter Sequences and (#) Correct Words in 2 minutes from randomly selected Grade (#) spelling lists. Math Computation In (#) weeks (Student name) will write (#) Correct Digits in 2 minutes from randomly selected Grade (#) math problems. Written Expression In (#) weeks (Student name) will write (#) Total Words and (#) Correct Writing Sequences when presented with randomly selected Grade (#) story starters.
  109. 109. When Strategic Monitoring Insufficient… Move to Intensive Progress Monitoring
  110. 110. Formative Evaluation: Are data and a goal enough?
  111. 111. Formative Evaluation: Are data, goals & trends enough?
  112. 112. Formative Evaluation is Impossible without all data: Goals Make Progress Decisions Easier
  113. 113. Positive Response to Intervention
  114. 114. Not Responding to First Intervention
  115. 115. Better Response to Intervention
  116. 116. A common approach to problems: Our Beach Ball Analogy to remediation. Sometimes we know there’s a hole… ..but we don’t know were it is or cannot see it.
  117. 117. So we throw patches at the problem… …But we wind up using a lot of expensive patches and spend a lot of time patching… …yet, it still didn’t fix the hole.
  118. 118. Sometimes we’ve found the hole… ..but we don’t know how to fix it.
  119. 119. We need to identify where the hole is first… …and patch it properly. This means that the intervention is the right size and type to fix the problem. It should also be of quality and monitored over time to ensure that it “sticks.”
  120. 120. Interventions—Some thoughts… Interventions/instruction: Proper diagnostic work must be done first. This is a 2-part process: – Children with academic difficulties have “Swiss cheese” knowledge. Unless we know where the “holes” are, we can never fill them via appropriate instruction. – Unless we understand the purpose and scope of the intervention, we cannot determine if it will “fill the holes” in the child’s knowledge.
  121. 121. Special Education Eligibility “We’ve tried ‘everything’ and (Doesn’t this sound familiar?) I think the only way to fix it …This sounds as if your is….” car is destined for nothing but expensive repairs. But what if your car was simply out of gas? Simple and thorough diagnostics DONE FIRST would have saved you a lot of money and time!
  122. 122. SUMMARY: Interventions, Instruction, and Eligibility for Special Programs “Referral is often more a reflection of teacher stress than a result of carefully diagnosed student learning deficits.” Richardson, Casanova, Placier, and Guifoyle (1989) • Without the proper diagnostics initially, we cannot sufficiently determine whether Special Education or other restrictive programs are the only options. • We need to determine the proper intensity of intervention and feasibility of maintaining that intervention over the long-term in general education setting. • Determine educational benefit of interventions (after proper diagnostic assessment is done) through formative assessment.
  123. 123. Thank you!

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