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Research Training Fall 2011

Research Training Fall 2011

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  • 1. Developing Your Leadership Legacy: The Interpersonal, Communicative, & Attitudinal Aspects of SuccessHeidi SalibaCoordinator of Research Programs and Editor, ON PAR magazinePed-I-Care and the Division of General Pediatrics ©2011-2012
  • 2. About the Author • Degree is in Media, Public Communication, and Professional Writing • Previously worked as a web designer • Has presented media research in Egypt, Germany, Canada, and the United States • Has worked in non-clinical/translational medical research for 3.5 years, with topics including the prevalence of MRSA in community settings, theHeidi Saliba effects of stimulant medications on growth velocity, the use of Facebook™ as relating to medical professionalism, and patient satisfaction relevant to insurance type • Plans to pursue graduate studies in health and international communication • Lifelong Gators fan 2
  • 3. Objectives Develop a framework of understanding of basic leadership concepts Explore the importance of context relative to all portions of this discussion Enhance our understanding of what employees are looking for and how they are motivated Challenge ourselves to continue growing, striving, and improving along the lines of interpersonal communication, cultural competency, and organizational excellence 3
  • 4. OverviewSECTION 1 Understanding Workplace Cultures & Forms of Leadership Workplace Culture; Understanding the Culture of Bureaucracy; The Spectrum of Authority; Are You a Boss or a Leader?; Micromanagement and Multiple Alternatives; Characteristics of Leaders; Components of Professionalism; Understanding Your Leadership Style; Evaluating Leadership in OthersSECTION 2 Understanding Those Whom We Lead What Employees Need from Leadership; Quint Studer’s Flywheel Philosophy; Seeing Problems as Challenges; Choosing Well: How to Select the Right Employees; Factors that Affect MotivationSECTION 3 Building, Bridging, & Moving On: The Legacy Portion of Leadership Developing Your Staff: The Importance of Regular Training; Seeking out Ways to Recognize and Reward; Creating Opportunities; Consistency Creates Credibility; Navigating the Appropriate Intellectual Distance between You and Your Staff; Building Your Organization by Continually Building Yourself; Would You Want to Work for Yourself?; Manage Your Reputation 4
  • 5. Why is This Important? 1. People matter. 2. Medical professionals are held to higher standards than almost anyone. • Professionalism is a core competency in medical education and performance reviews. • Emerging requirement for cultural competency 3. Organizations are only as good as their employees, and good employees are very difficult to replace. 4. People sue doctors and insurance companies they don’t like. Much of this Map source: “don’t like” is rooted in communicationhttps://www.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/cc_legislation.asp1 problems. 5
  • 6. “Sometimes, because we don’t deal withthe cause, we get overwhelmed with thesymptoms. Leadership training is at theheart of why employees want to come towork and why they want to stay. It’sabout the unit work environment and thesupervisor. People don’t leave their job.They leave the work environment…themajority of employees leave their positionbecause their relationship with their Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta 3supervisor is not what they want it to be. Employees want to come to a placewhere they feel that they have a purpose, are doing worthwhile work, and canmake a difference. They want to feel a part of things. And they want to berecognized and appreciated. The supervisor holds the key to high employeeretention.” 2 - Quint Studer, Hardwiring Excellence 6
  • 7. “When an organization commits to excellence, it creates a culture where employees want to work.” - Quint Studer SECTION 1 :Understanding Workplace Cultures & Forms of Leadership 7
  • 8. Workplace Culture ‘Workplace culture’ describes what an organization does and how it does it. • What type of industry? • What level of attention to detail? • What level of efficiency? • Who are the decision makers, Photo credit: James Gathany; content provider CDC/CDC Connects and who influences them? Every organization has one, and this determines their internal and external reputations among other things. • “I hear they have the fastest service in town, and their prices are reasonable, too.” • “Oh, you don’t want to work there…the boss is a real bear!” 8
  • 9. Workplace Culture An organization’s leaders are the authors, drivers, and reinforcers of its workplace culture. • Leaders may or may not be in positions of formal authority. • A cashier, maintenance worker, or entry-level employee may contribute to the business’s culture of friendly, efficient service. •A unit supervisor may contribute to the organization’s reputation as a good place to work. • Unofficial leaders within teams may be the glue that holds the team together. Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta 9
  • 10. Understanding the Culture of Bureaucracy Developed by Max Weber, early 20th century. Designed to address lack of organization and efficiency. • Division of labor • Rules and procedures • Job descriptions • Hierarchical authority • Formal communication4 Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta 10
  • 11. Understanding the Culture of Bureaucracy “Communication in the classical, or traditional, organization is top-down and task-oriented, as well as formal. There is little interest in leader-follower interaction for social purposes; communication’s function is to distribute information for the predominant purpose of task completion.” 5 –Patricia D. Witherspoon“Few things are more frustrating to a good leader than a partner with a bureaucratic mindset.”6 - John Maxwell 11
  • 12. Understanding the Culture of Bureaucracy Benefits of bureaucracy: • Based on logic, order • Highly effective at providing direction in the completion of tasks • Built-in systems of accountability Shortcomings of bureaucracy: • Values tasks and outcomes more than people and perspectives • Communications are often stifled • People often intimidated by those above them on chain of command Essentially: • It is possible to operate respectfully and appropriately within a classically-structured bureaucracy while still demonstrating care and concern for employees at all levels of the organization. 12
  • 13. Understanding the Culture of Bureaucracy Finding the balance • Determine relative importance of procedures and protocols • When do they become inappropriate or irrelevant? • Understand what’s at stake and gauge its importance • What latitude can we allow employees in making their own decisions? • Adapt to the unexpected Photo content provider: CDC Trust, empowerment are built when leaders recognize times that procedures should be modified or nixed altogether. • Micromanagement would be the opposite of this concept. 13
  • 14. The Spectrum of Authority Dictators Bosses LeadersTotalitarian control. People live, They are in charge and proud of it. A Continually investing in other people. Sought out by work, and move in fear. few brave souls may take the chance many for advice on “management.” Respected byEverything rises and falls on the and offer suggestions and ideas. Most everyone. Concerned more with equipping those who dictator. No subordinate just do their jobs and go home, are ready for responsibility than criticizing those who motivation except to survive. resigned to producing the bare have it. Inspiring to others because of their minimum to get by. demonstrated wisdom, respect for others, and proven results which are the fruits of those qualities. Controlling Convincing Micromanagers Managers Controlling over things they don’t Hold things together. Can do all have to control. Suspicious when the work on their own but don’t they shouldn’t be. People regret feel they have to. They know seeing this person come in every how to train new employees. morning and walk on eggshells They fix things. They are because of the scope of the respected by subordinates, but micromanager’s radar. People learn subordinates are not necessarily survival behaviors which include inspired by the manager. lying, hiding, manipulation, and avoidance. 14
  • 15. Are You a Boss or a Leader? Behavioral Characteristics and Distinctions Controlling Convincing A Boss: A Leader:Intimidates InfluencesInterrogates InvestigatesInfuriates InspiresTells ShowsDemands respect Earns respectShames SupportsOrders Offers guidelinesAssumes Seeks clarificationRidicules Reveals opportunitiesCondemns CorrectsMicromanages Educates and empowersPushes PersuadesIs concerned about being Is concerned about beingpopular professional
  • 16. Are You a Boss or a Leader? Behavioral Characteristics and Distinctions Controlling Convincing A Boss: A Leader:Manages MotivatesRequires compliance Builds allegiancesIs more concerned for himself/ Is more concerned about the interests ofherself and their own best interests team members and the organizationShows favoritism; allows politics to Shows fairness; stops gossip and poorrule the office attitudes in their tracksContinually shows signs of stress, Shows continual growth in leadershipanger, and hostility and self-disciplineBuilds power through the use of fear Builds power through encouragement,tactics support, and education of othersContinually chases fires, deals with Enjoys the peace that comes from apreventable emergencies professionally-run office
  • 17. Our Words Tell the Story: Same Scenarios, Different Styles Bosses and Micromanagers1. “I told you in an email last Monday that you weren’t supposed to…”2. “You’re not trained to do that and it’s not any of your business anyway. You need to run things like that by me before taking matters into your own hands. Who told you it was okay to do that?”3. “You’re spending too much time on this.”4. “You have serious issues with your end-of-the-month reports, which by the way have several spelling errors and were routed to only 2 of the 3 supervisors I told you to send them to. Here’s a copy of the procedures and the email in which they were sent.”5. “You need to review the notes I gave you on how to do the quarterly reports. I’ve already explained that it’s the end-of-month reports that get the ___, not the ____. And when you do these, you need to send them to me first so I can check them for mistakes. Did you remember to clock out before going on break? You can just swing by my office on your way back in so I know that you’re back. Make sure when you clock back in that you’ve gotten your coffee, and keep it low on the cream because it might smell offensive to ‘other’ people. Thanks, I like your necklace.” Leaders1. “Did you know…” / “Do you remember how we talked about…”2. “You’re really on top of things! Do you mind if I ask how it went for you?”3. “I’m so impressed with your tenacity and patience. Are you making the progress you’d hoped for? Could you give me a status update?”4. “What we’re looking at is an opportunity to expand our leadership by helping to correct the ____ problem.”5. “You’ve done a great job learning all the procedures and codes, which in and of itself is an accomplishment. What we have to focus on now is the next step, the context. Remember when we talked about the difference between the end-of-month reports and the quarterly reports? That’s where the confusion is coming in. With the quarterly reports we have to ____. But don’t worry, you’ll get it! You’re one of the fastest workers we have and you’re catching on quickly. This is one of the final pieces to mastering the whole process.” 17
  • 18. Understanding Micromanagement Micromanagement: “to manage or control with excessive attention to minor details.” “The micromanager is the manager who must personally make every decision, take a lead role in the performance of every significant task and, in extreme cases, dictate every small step the workers take.” 7 -The National Federation of Independent Businesses According to the NFIB, micromanagement is a form of mismanagement. 18
  • 19. Understanding Micromanagement Examples of micromanagement behaviors include: • Being overly specific and giving no latitude to the employee, when allowing some latitude/independent decision making would be perfectly appropriate • All decisions, no matter how small, must go through the manager • Delegation of authority is restricted, fleeting or absent • Direct reports spend more time reporting on progress than making progress • The manager performs the job of direct reports • The input provided by the manager offers little value8 “Micromanagement…is the opposite of leadership.”9 - www.changingminds.org 19
  • 20. Understanding Micromanagement Micromanagement is, by definition, a form of bullying. Source: www.dictionary.com10 20
  • 21. Understanding Micromanagement“Bullying can create and sustain a toxic work environment. The organizationalramifications of workplace bullying are dangerous and costly. Bullying can erodemorale and job satisfaction, leading to loss of productivity, work absence, and nurseattrition. Termination and turnover are expensive sequelae of bullying because mosthospitals can ill afford to lose nurses.Bullying is also viewed as a risk to patient safety. Bullying interferes with teamwork,collaboration, and communication, the underpinnings of patient safety. Although todate research linking bullying and patient safety is often focused on disruptivephysician behavior, the principles are clearly and immediately applicable to otherhealthcare professionals, including nurses. Intimidation can influence communicationin healthcare, and failed communication threatens patient safety.”11 -Laura A. Stokowski, RN, MS 21
  • 22. Understanding Micromanagement Some leadership positions require high attention to detail. • Micromanagement ≠ paying appropriate attention to details of subordinates’ work • The line is contextualized by understanding and analyzing the situation: • what’s at stake • who it affects • how important something is to the overarching goal and direction of the organization. In most situations, micromanagement Photo content provider: CDC/Dr. William Wagner is counterproductive. • By the time you get done micromanaging someone you could have just done the job yourself. 22
  • 23. Understanding Micromanagement Micromanagement says: • “I don’t trust you to do the job properly.” • “I don’t believe your skills set is sufficient enough that you can make decisions on your own.” • “I’m insecure about my own effectiveness and therefore I need you reporting to me about every move you make to ensure that I maintain full control over what’s going on.” • “I’m going to catch and call to your attention every little thing you do wrong. You can count on me, though, to smile and say please and thank you so as to balance out these demands. The result is that you will begin to hate me. You will not learn anything except that it’s time to find another job.” 23
  • 24. The Effects of Micromanagement When people are micromanaged, it makes them nervous. • Anxiety and over-thinking minor issues much to the detriment of more important items • Begin second-guessing themselves and making other mistakes because of the insecurity and having to answer for every little thing that is done. Photo credit: James Gathany; content provider CDC/Laura R. Zambuto “Just remember…people are not like pigeons. People are more complicated. They are aware, theythink for themselves and they certainly don’t want to be manipulated by another person. Remember that and respect that. It is a key to good management.”12 - The One Minute Manager 24
  • 25. The Effects of Micromanagement People who micromanage others frequently also patronize those they are supervising. • They may do this unknowingly by way of giving little compliments here and there or manufacturing “positive” behaviors to offset what they know is probably offensive – the negative aspects of standing over other peoples’ shoulders all day. “Help people reach their full potential: Catch them doing something right.” - The One Minute Manager 25
  • 26. The Effects of Micromanagement People who micromanage others frequently also patronize those they are supervising. • As a result, the employees feel they are trapped into going along with the happy-go-lucky performance of their boss, and in turn are manufacturing fake attitudes of their own just to get by. This further diminishes morale because now the employees’ own personality traits and tendencies are being regulated as heavily as their overt behaviors, but this is probably happening in indirect/unclear/implied manners, which makes the situation even worse. 26
  • 27. The Effects of Micromanagement If micromanagement is so bad, why on Earth would anyone use it? “Understand that micromanaging behavior is driven by the positive characteristics of conscientiousness, diligence, and responsibility; it’s just that they have been taken to an extreme…Keep in mind that behavior such as constant checking on your progress or reviewing your work has NOTHING to do with how well you perform. It is about your boss, who has gotten so caught up in his or her fears and needs for reassurance that he or she is not aware of how this behavior may be impacting you.”13 - Nahid Casazza 27
  • 28. The Effects of Micromanagement When employees are micromanaged: • They are robbed of intellectual and emotional freedom. Creativity is stifled. • They are deprived of the opportunity to learn from their own mistakes. • They operate in fear, which leads to bad decision-making. • They think in terms of the boss’ opinion, rather than a clearly- defined set of standards. This leads to politicking, positioning, and a set of resultant behaviors designed to tease and appease the interests of the person in power – the micromanager. • No one feels safe, so learning stops. Studies have shown that people must be in an environment which is both physically and intellectually safe if learning is the end goal.“The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they do it.” – Theodore Roosevelt 28
  • 29. The Effects of Micromanagement When employees are micromanaged: • The use of sick days increases, as people begin to dread coming into work. While they may initially be ‘sick’ of the work environment, they will eventually also begin to experience the physical effects of continual stress and job-related anxiety, which fuel the death spiral of a poorly-run office. • The most valuable employees end up leaving, in search of opportunities elsewhere with real leadership in place. • The person doing the micromanaging has put himself or herself in a bad position: if they are in control of every detail of their employees’ work, then the micromanager is the one who will have to take the fall when something goes wrong. After all, they’ve dictated everything. 29
  • 30. In Short… Micromanagement is, by definition, a form of bullying. Micromanagement is disrespectful. Micromanagement kills morale. Micromanagement is NOT your friend! ‘A good supervisor is a catalyst, not a drill sergeant. He creates an atmosphere where intelligent people are willing to follow him. He doesn’t command; he convinces.’ - Whitley Davis 30
  • 31. Alternatives to Micromanagement If someone’s performance is so poor that you feel you have to watch everything that they do, chances are: • You may not have made a good choice in hiring them. • Are they technically qualified? Is their demeanor/interpersonal skill set appropriate? Did you do a thorough background check and test their references? “If you want to attract better people, become the kind of person you desire to attract.” – John Maxwell 31
  • 32. Alternatives to Micromanagement  If someone’s performance is so poor that you feel you have to watch everything that they do, chances are: • You may not have provided adequate training for them. • If there is ever a time to provide highly-detailed, ongoing instruction and close supervision, it is during the initial training period when someone is learning their job. This is especially true for jobs in which there is a lot at stake, such as healthcare, defense programs, public safety, etc. “…the key to training someone to do a new task is, in the beginning, to catch them doing something approximately right until they can eventually learn to do it exactly right…Most managers wait untiltheir people do something exactly right before they praise them. As a results, many people never get to become high performers because their managers concentrate on catching them doing things wrong – that is, anything that falls short of the final desired performance.” - The One Minute Manager 32
  • 33. Alternatives to Micromanagement If someone’s performance is so poor that you feel you have to watch everything that they do, chances are: • You may have identified inter-office conflicts which hinder or handicap your employee from performing at his or her best. • They might have lost their motivation. • Are they bored? This could happen because the job is too easy for them, or it’s too difficult to even attempt to do well. • Is there gossip going on around the office? • Do you give them enough regular, good feedback? “…W. Charles Redding suggested that better supervisors are good listeners, are adept at giving instructions, are open, sensitive and persuasive as opposed to coercive, and like to use oral communication to interact within their organizations.” -Communicating Leadership 33
  • 34. Alternatives to Micromanagement Do your ‘management’ on the front end. • Hire well. • Provide excellent and thorough training. Work to earn your employees’ trust, just as they are working to earn yours. • When employees know they will not be killed for making a mistake, they will seek out the opinions and insights of their supervisor. They will be more forthcoming with ideas, with success stories, and even mistakes. This in turn makes the ‘manager’ more confident, knowing they can relax about the level and amount of management needed for their employee(s). 34
  • 35. Alternatives to MicromanagementProvide regular feedback. • Public praise, private correction. • Catch people doing well. Make sure they understand why their positive behaviors, qualities, and choices are important to the success of the team. • When you have to correct, do it in the right way. • Choose your battles – don’t nit-pick. • Focus on the behavior as opposed to the person. • Make sure the employee understands the end goal and the reasons for that goal. Everyone should know what success looks like. • Once the correction has been made, thank the person and move on. Don’t hover with the goal of ‘catching them at it again.’ • Remember not all corrections call for a sit-down meeting. Some require just a quick reminder or FYI. 35
  • 36. Alternatives to Micromanagement If you’ve first chosen a good job candidate, then provided them appropriate training, and all along you’ve worked to build a collegial, team-focused relationship with each employee, your problems will likely be minimal. People work hard and work well when they know they are valued and supported. People work with integrity when they know their boss is not looking for ways to get rid of them. They also work with integrity when they see that integrity is valued, by way of regular, appropriate, spot-on communication. 36
  • 37. Alternatives to Micromanagement Leadership qualities begin to emerge in people the boss may not have thought of as leaders, because of the atmosphere which makes it conducive to appropriately-measured risk-taking and appropriately independent decision making. Leaders emerge when the work environment is safe – this in turns fuels more loyalty for those who are in positions of formal authority, because they are the ones who’ve nurtured and cultivated this atmosphere to begin with. 37
  • 38. Alternatives to Micromanagement Be careful not to control, but to inform and equip. • Negotiate your corrections; gauge what is important. When employees make mistakes, ask what they think about it and what they would do differently next time. Ask Photo credit: Greg Knobloch; content provider CDC them why. • Reinforce correct behaviors; redirect incorrect ones. “What gets rewarded, gets repeated.” – John Maxwell 38
  • 39. Alternatives to Micromanagement  Do you check in with your employees to make sure they’re having a good work experience? • Do they have what they need to do a good job? • Do they feel supported? Photo credit: Greg Knobloch; content provider CDC/CDC Connects • Is there open communication? • What are their goals? “To lead others well, we must help them to reach their potential. That means being on their side,encouraging them, giving them power, and helping them to succeed. That’s not traditionally what we’re taught about leadership.” – John Maxwell 39
  • 40. Alternatives to Micromanagement Does your communication style equip and empower? Or does it stigmatize and stifle? “In a specific study of leadership communication style in an organization in the mid-1980s, two researchers found that, ‘…perceptions of a leader being a warm, open, relaxed, and attentive communicator were strongly correlated with subordinate satisfaction with supervision; and subordinates were less satisfied with leaders who were perceived as being dominant in social situations, who were very expressive nonverbally, who dramatized extensively, and who regularly told jokes, stories, and anecdotes.’” – Communicating Leadership“The stronger the relationship and connection between individuals, the more likely the follower will want to help the leader.” – John Maxwell 40
  • 41. Alternatives to Micromanagement Does your communication style equip and empower? Or does it stigmatize and stifle? • Be a word conservationist – to an extent. • The more we talk the less people hear. Sometimes we over- explain or repeat ourselves, especially when we’re very familiar w/the material or when we feel the topic is very important. However, when people frequently hear you repeat yourself and/or go on too long, they tune out. “…good communicators take something complicated and make it simple.” – John Maxwell 41
  • 42. Alternatives to Micromanagement Does your communication style equip and empower? Or does it stigmatize and stifle? “Daily in my travels, I’m reminded how imperative it is for organizations not only to consider their problems, but more importantly, to identify and study the causes of their successes so they can duplicate them. I’ve also learned that when health care organizations improve their patient, employee, and physician satisfaction, they are rewarded and recognized in dozens of unforeseen and astounding ways. The best recognition is when people feel confident about their care, physicians enjoy practicing medicine, and employees are proud to be part of the organization.” -Quint Studer 42
  • 43. Characteristics of Leaders Leaders do what is best, regardless of personal opinion or comfort level. ‘Best’ takes into consideration the needs of the organization and the well-being of its employees. Leaders never rest on their laurels, nor do they allow others to remain stagnant.“The word gets out in departments where low performers and employees with bad attitudes are held accountable. More people want to work there and those that do have higher morale.” - Quint Studer 43
  • 44. Characteristics of Leaders  Leaders inspire greatness and positivity by way of their attitude, ingenuity, productivity, commitment to quality, and concern for others. Photo credit: James Gathany; content provider CDC/James Gathany; Jana Swenson“Attitude is one of the most contagious qualities a human being possesses. People with good attitudes tend to make people around them feel more positive. Those with terrible attitudes tend to bring others down...If you think your people are negative, then you’d better check your attitude…” – John Maxwell 44
  • 45. Characteristics of Leaders Leaders are not afraid to admit they may have erred. They do not cringe at criticism but rather embrace it, because they understand that criticism: • Serves as a thermometer of other people’s feelings, impressions, and motivations; • Offers the opportunity to improve; • Opens the door for transparent and salient communications; • Creates the chance to build trust with those who report to them. 45
  • 46. Characteristics of Leaders Leaders continually seek out the opinions of others, especially those they admire for their own demonstrated leadership and wisdom. Leaders keep up with the news, including global, national, local, and industry-specific news. Because of this, they are able to both forecast and troubleshoot and make decisions accordingly. Leaders identify and study character and career mentors. They learn from other leaders and are careful to avoid the mistakes which have been the downfall of others. 46
  • 47. Characteristics of Leaders Leaders are able to see through hype and fluff. While they are careful with words, they do not mislead with flowery language; they do not rely on clichés and jargon; they do not accept this from others especially when making decisions. Leaders are passionate but not flaky or recklessly emotional; they are persuasive as opposed to pushy, and stable but growing in all areas of their lives. Leaders do not shrink away from challenges, nor are they afraid to address difficult subjects head on. They choose their battles carefully, however. 47
  • 48. Characteristics of Leaders Leaders are, by nature, encouragers and empowerers. • Because of their own high self-esteem, they are not afraid to build their organizations by responsibly handing power to others by means of task delegation, rewards and recognition, and appropriate promotions and pay increases. They capitalize on the strengths of their team members without taking advantage of anyone. “The point I would stress to other managers is that you can never overemphasize the importance of the little things like treating staff fairly, having kind words to say, and being your staff’s biggest fan…and remembering that not only are the patients your customers, but so are their families, your physicians, and other employees.” – A letter to the Studer Group 48
  • 49. Characteristics of Leaders Leaders regularly engage in metacognition, or thinking about their own thinking. They are confident in their thought processes but humble enough to constantly seek to improve it. Leaders evaluate their actions and decisions on the basis of: • Sound facts; • Appropriate interpretation of those facts; • Careful placement of the facts within the right contexts; • Consideration for alternative scenarios; and • Seriousness/weight/depth of each of the factors considered. 49
  • 50. Characteristics of Leaders  Leaders are not afraid to respectfully hold others accountable – including those to whom they report. • This becomes important w/fraud and abuse issues – if your boss is erroneously billing and either or both of you are aware of it and do nothing to correct it, both of you could be liable. • If your “boss” is a true leader, he or she will value your insights, especially if those insights save them from making mistakes.“…these three basic ingredients – telling people what they did wrong; telling people how you feel aboutit; and reminding people that they are valuable and worthwhile – lead to significant improvements in people’s behavior.” - Quint Studer 50
  • 51. Characteristics of Leaders Leaders understand the importance of investing in other people. • Similarly, they look for ways to recognize, promote, and create opportunities for others as a way to reward those who have earned it. • Leaders understand that these behaviors are just as important as hands-on training, continued education, and career guidance, because appropriately-weighted and –timed rewards build job satisfaction, employee-employer trust, loyalty, and self-esteem. 51
  • 52. Characteristics of Leaders  Leaders are efficiency experts. They understand that: • Fast does not always equal efficient! • Thorough but inordinately slow is not efficient. • Thorough, accurate, and Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta appropriately timely does equal efficient.“…it’s not about not having the financial resources, but rather about how well you can spot best practices and how quickly you can adopt and transfer them throughout the organization.” – Quint Studer 52
  • 53. Characteristics of Leaders  Leaders see problems as challenges. •Their positivity and creative thinking allows them to fix problems that others may have experienced as well. Photo credit: Center for Universal Design; content provider CDC/Richard Duncan“Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure…” - Marianne Williamson 53
  • 54. Characteristics of Leaders Above all, leaders are balanced. • Balance is the avoidance of unnecessary extremes. • Balance is NOT giving equal screen time to behaviors/situations of opposite extremes. • Showing up at a serious business meeting with reindeer antlers on your head is not a way to ‘balance’ out the serious nature of the meeting. The way to maintain balance when important decisions are being made is to avoid carrying any one point to the extreme, so as to ensure that all sides are heard and weighted accordingly. Showing up with antlers on your head only serves to undermine your credibility and the purpose of the meeting itself. “I have known both types of leaders and one is as detrimental to the organization as the other.” -Nancy Giunta -“Any strength taken to the extreme becomes a weakness.” - John Maxwell 54
  • 55. Components of Professionalism:The Communicative and Interpersonal Skills Sets Professional Not Professional Point Counterpoint Off-PointConfidence Humbleness/Humility Arrogance or self-doubtPoise Spontaneity Rigidity or aloofnessAssertiveness Appropriate deference Aggression or apathyQuestioning Listening Failing to engageShowing Being insincere in wordappreciation/support Helping to troubleshoot or intentionSeeking advice Granting advice Gossiping Respectfully holding Breaking rank or ignoringLoyalty others accountable problemsTruthfulness Compassion or empathy Dishonesty; selfishness
  • 56. Understanding Your Leadership Style What do you do well? With what areas do you struggle? Whose leadership do you admire, and whose do you loathe? Why? • These provides clues as to the development and expression of your own leadership skills and areas for improvement. “It’s not the position that makes the leader; it’s the leader that makes the position.” - Stanley Huffty 56
  • 57. Understanding Your Leadership Style According to the book Communicating Leadership: An Organizational Perspective there are 5 leadership styles: 1. Authority-obedience Maximum concern for production and a minimum concern for people 2. Country-club Minimum concern for production and maximum concern for people 3. Impoverished Minimum concern for both production and people 4. ‘Organization man’ A style that conforms with the status quo 5. Team management Maximum concern for both people and production 57
  • 58. Understanding Your Leadership StyleNotes on leadership style from The One-Minute Manager: [There are many] “tough” managers whose organizations win while their people lose. Authority-obedience Maximum concern for production and a minimum concern for people There are many “nice” managers whose people win while their organizations lose. Country-club Minimum concern for production and maximum concern for people “Effective managers…manage themselves and the people they work with so that both the organization and the people profit from their presence.” Team management Maximum concern for both people and production 58
  • 59. Understanding Your Leadership Style Notes from Communicating Leadership Situational approach to the notion of ‘style: 1. The most effective style is one that varies with a given situation. 2. The best attitudinal style is high-task and high-relations oriented. 3. Appropriate leadership depends on the relationship between task and relational behaviors and the situational context in which a leader finds himself or herself.” 59
  • 60. Evaluating Leadership in Others As we’ve discussed, just because someone is in charge, that doesn’t make them a leader. Hitler and Roosevelt were both elected to office; however it is widely acknowledged that the first was a dictator and the second a true leader. When evaluating leaders, consider their effectiveness by way of influence, task performance, appropriate decision making, fiscal and temporal efficiency, personal growth, respect from and for others, and vision for the future. 60
  • 61. Evaluating Leadership in Others Evaluation of leadership must be free from personal interest or bias; remember this is in fact one of the key components of leadership itself. • Democrat Barack Obama wields considerable influence in the American political spectrum, as did his predecessor George W. Bush. Both have been criticized for an extensive list of reasons, but both are also among the most memorable and noteworthy leaders of the last hundred years. • An evaluation of their respective leadership abilities should not rest on one’s personal political convictions but rather an understanding of the qualities of true leadership and where each person’s performance falls in those areas. 61
  • 62. “Employees want three things: they want to believe the organization has the right purpose; they want to know that their job is worthwhile; and they want to make a difference.” - Quint StuderPhoto credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta SECTION 2 : Understanding Those Whom We Lead 62
  • 63. What Employees Need from Leadership Clear communication, direction Clearly defined set of standards, expectations Fairness Sound judgment Appropriate concern for needs of the employees on both business and personal levels Predictability, consistency Openness to new ideas Professionalism Two-way trust, communication Regular feedback, especially on what’s going well A good example 63
  • 64. Quint Studer’s Flywheel Philosophy “The Healthcare Flywheel shows how organizations can create momentum for change by engaging the passion of their employees to apply prescriptive actions guided by Nine Principles of service and operational excellence to achieve bottom-line results.” “By continually reinforcing how daily choices and actions connect back to these core values at the hub of the Flywheel (purpose, worthwhile work, and making a difference), leaders will reinforce these behaviors and effect change more quickly.” 64
  • 65. Seeing Problems as Challenges The good news is, most workplace problems are predictable and therefore manageable. Some problems may be avoided altogether by: • Making good hiring choices • Providing appropriate training • Setting a good example “If you want to attract better people, become the kind of person you desire to attract.” – John Maxwell 65
  • 66. Seeing Problems as Challenges Some problems will speak to opportunities for the organization as a whole to improve. In all situations, the leader is the one who holds the key to whether the organization “deals with problems” or pursues challenges as Photo credit: James Gathany; content provider CDC opportunities. 66
  • 67. Identifying ProblemsProblem type ExamplesMaturity, emotional Bad attitude, gossiping, taking things too personally, overreacting, reading toointelligence much into things, constantly seeking attention and approval Showing disregard for safety and security, ignoring or overlooking the obvious,Poor judgment overreacting or underreacting, taking things out of context Showing up late, taking long breaks, frequently calling in, excessive use ofWork habits Facebook Discriminatory behavior, inappropriate jokes, poor dress/hygiene, lack of self- awareness (smacking gum, being laden w/cologne or perfume, speaking loudlyLack of professionalism and excessively), breaking rank, ignoring problems Excessive instructions/explanations, failing to keep others in the loop asPoor communication necessary, being rude, reading too much into a message, using inappropriateskills fonts and font colors in emails and other business communications Lack of knowledge, lack of procedural understanding and context, excessive errors, egregious errors, lack of due diligence, missing deadlines, missingJob performance meetings, failing to meet expectations of the position Saying, “Hey Gerry!” to Dr. Schiebler, bad-mouthing someone in the elevator when you think no one is around, speaking too often and too much in a meeting, asking your supervisor for a favor in front of other people, breaking rank, complaining often and loudly to anyone who will listen, rear-ending yourPolitical faux pas co-worker’s car, not holding the door for someone, forgetting names Lying, cheating, stealing, purposely doing something wrong, beingDishonesty manipulative, setting people up for failure, being disloyal 67
  • 68. Avoiding Problems, Addressing Challenges Problem MOSTLYProblem type Ways to avoid problems/Possible remedies if challenges exist points toMaturity, Search this out in the job interview. If the candidate seems mature enough to handle The employee andemotional the position for which they are being considered, but later develops these types of poor leadershipintelligence issues, the problem is likely w/leadership more so than the person. Help the employee understand the spectrum of importance, from most important toPoor not important at all (following HIPAA would be most important; the color of the The employeejudgment silverware in the breakroom would not be important at all). If you have to, draw a chart. Set expectations and good examples early and often. Be consistent in theWork habits Poor leadership communication and enforcement of the rules. Even those with low motivation know what they can and cannot get away with, and will act accordingly. Display zero tolerance for behaviors which undermine the dignity of any individual orLack of group. Set expectations and good examples early and often. Be consistent in theprofession- Poor leadership communication and enforcement of the rules. Even those with low motivation knowalism what they can and cannot get away with, and will act accordingly. Conduct an appropriately-timed and structured interview to test the candidatesPoor communication skills across all areas for which they will be responsible. Decide aheadcommuni- The employee of time what is important: verbal vs written or both; grammar, spelling andcation skills punctuation vs thought and content or both; etc. Can their shortcomings be corrected with training and guidance?Job Hiring the wrong Conduct a thorough background check to verify degrees, reputation, past jobperformance person performance, etc. Require performance testing if necessary. Provide adequate training. Set the example. Discuss how and why key decisions were made, as appropriate, beingPolitical Poor leadership careful to explain the political atmosphere within which the decisions were made.faux pas Show respect for others. Display a positive attitude and choose words carefully. Be clear and consistent with expectations and consequences. Display zero tolerance forDishonesty The employee dishonest behaviors. 68
  • 69. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Start by thinking with the end in mind. What exactly do you need the employee to do? What specific skills do they need to do the job well? • Computer skills, relevant degrees, specific types of experience, certifications, professional licenses, etc. • What are the interpersonal and intangible skills that are needed? • Creativity, emotional intelligence, professional demeanor, decision-making abilities, ability to work under pressure, ability to self-supervise, leadership, etc. 69
  • 70. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Match the job posting to places of interest for those you are seeking. • If you’re searching for an IT manager, they are likely not reading the classified section of a newspaper. As a matter of fact, most people are not doing that at all nowadays.  At UF, you must have a job posting on the UF website. HR can help you with this. 70
  • 71. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees When applicants send you their resume, look for both overt and subtle cues as to their work habits and communication abilities. Consider whether and to what extent these are relevant to the skills you’ve decided are important. • Spelling/grammatical errors • Cover letter – content, tone, focus, direction 71
  • 72. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Be weary of applicants with emotionally-charged appeals: “I am extremely interested in the awesome and exciting opportunity your well- known organization is offering. You will be very impressed with my credentials and I promise to do the best job possible.” • This is more than a little over the top – it speaks to someone who lacks balance in their communication perspective and also to someone who may be a communicative liability to your company. Candidates should write cover letters that are upbeat but not glittery; their letters should be poignant and persuasive without boasting or promising the moon. 72
  • 73. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees The cover letter may also give you cues as to the employees’ emotional intelligence relevant to understanding the needs of others. • Do they only refer to themselves and their interests, as opposed to yours? “My resume is attached, and you can see that I have the skills to do this job. I would appreciate a phone call back to set up an interview.” versus, “The position advertised on UF’s web page sounds challenging and rewarding. Attached is my resume for your review; thank you for your time and consideration of this application. Please feel free to call or email with any questions. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss how my skills and experiences might be of assistance in achieving your department’s goals.” 73
  • 74. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesSuccessful cover letters Dear Ms. Saliba, My name is ___and I am currently a student at the University of Florida studying biology. ___ referred me to you about a possible research position. I have not participated in research before, however I work as a tech in the PACU of an ambulatory surgery center when I am home and currently shadow at Shands in the Trauma Center. These positions have enabled me to better develop my interpersonal skills and become comfortable in a professional medical setting. If the position is still available I would appreciate the opportunity to meet with you. Regards, 74
  • 75. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesSuccessful cover letters Good Afternoon Ms. Saliba, My name is ___ and I am a second year student in the University of Florida Master of Public Health (MPH) program. I am interested in the Volunteer Research Assistant position in the Division of General Pediatrics at the University of Florida. I was informed of the position from ____, the ____ Coordinator for the MPH program. I have attached my cover letter and resume in order to considered for the position. I appreciate the opportunity. Sincerely, 75
  • 76. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesUNsuccessful cover letters Hi. My name is ______and I am currently a first year undergrad student and I was interested in being a volunteer research assistant. Thank You. 76
  • 77. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesUNsuccessful cover letters Hello, My name is _____and I am a linguistics major here at the University of Florida and i am interested in volunteering as a research assistant in the area of pediatrics. I wanted to know if you currently have research where you have openings available for volunteers research assistants at this time. If so you can contact me at XXX@ufl.edu. Thank you for your time and consideration, 77
  • 78. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesUNsuccessful cover letters Mrs. Saliba I am a junior in the bachelor of health science program and I am interested in the volunteer research assistant position. I look forward to working with the research team. Hello, I am interested in this research study for RA position. Sincerely, 78
  • 79. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Be very, very wary of email ‘blasts.’ • An email blast occurs when someone sends an email with only their resume/CV attached, but no cover letter. This is considered rude, as the sender assumes you know will either know why they’re sending it or that you will figure it out on your own. • What if you have other positions posted? • What if they’ve sent it to the wrong email address? • What does it say about someone who doesn’t take the time to write a five-sentence greeting/introduction? • Would you want them answering your phone or representing you at a conference? 79
  • 80. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesExample of an email ‘blast’ 80
  • 81. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Someapplicants display behaviors in the application process which tell you everything you need to know before calling them in for an interview. • Do they follow application instructions (no phone calls, include resume, type/not print application, etc.)? • Do they read your response to their email/contact and respond accordingly? • Do they follow up within a week or two if they don’t hear back from you? • Are they assertive or aggressive in pursuing the opportunity? • Do they respond to your contact in a timely manner? • What does their email address say about them? • Ex. hatetowork@something.com; outlaw4life@misc.net 81
  • 82. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees If the cover letter, resume, and/or application seem promising, conduct an online background check before calling them in for an interview. • Facebook™, Twitter ™, MySpace ™, and other publicly-available postings tell you what the candidate thinks is okay to share with the entire world. • Their postings tell you who they are outside of work, and how they present themselves in social and other situations. • This is important in understanding their spheres of influence, their attitudes toward work itself, and personal characteristics which may be important to the job for which they are being considered. 82
  • 83. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Regarding Facebook, etc.: Don’t take it too far. • There are some postings that may immediately and unquestionably disqualify someone for consideration, but with most it will be a gray area. • Review the list of skills and credentials • Decide on what constitutes a deal breaker • Decide how applicants’ self-reported, chosen behaviors do or do not line up with job requirements • Ex. If someone wants to become a research assistant at a pediatrician’s office, regardless of their resume or anything else, it is an immediate deal breaker if they have posted that they do not like to read and that school work gets in the way of their gambling. 83
  • 84. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Regardless of the position you’re looking to fill, you should steer clear of anyone whose postings are racially offensive, blatantly derogatory, or reflective of illegal activities. Remember to also check local arrest records and listings of known sexual offenders and predators, as well as the listing of those who’ve been indicated in federal fraud and abuse cases. These are publicly- available records that can be quickly found online. 84
  • 85. http://offender.fdle.state.fl.us/offender/homepage.do 85 Source: The Florida Department of Law Enforcement14
  • 86. 86
  • 87. https://www.alachuaclerk.org/court_records/index.cfm Start here Source: Alachua County Clerk of the Court15 87
  • 88. This is good news. 88
  • 89. Shows the type of case 89
  • 90. http://oig.hhs.gov/exclusions/exclusions_list.asp Source: Office of Inspector General16 90
  • 91. http://exclusions.oig.hhs.gov/ExclusionTypeCounts.aspx 91
  • 92. http://www.oig.hhs.gov/fraud/fugitives/index.asp 92
  • 93. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Do a Google™ search on their name to find out more details on their publications, affiliations, club memberships, experiences, etc. as well as things they may have left off their resume. • Be sure that you’re reviewing the right records, however; people have the same names and some of them cause trouble for others. • Look for clues that you’ve found the right person – even the same name in the same town/same university is not confirmation enough. You do not want to unfairly eliminate a candidate on the basis of a Google search. • Even if you’ve found the right person, there may be an explanation as to the context and placement of what you’ve found. Find a way to get confirmation, contextual understanding, or a correction of the item with which you’re concerned. 93
  • 94. Not meNot me 94Source: Google.com17
  • 95. Not meSource: Facebook.com18 95
  • 96. Not meNot meNot me 96
  • 97. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees When conducting interviews: • Remember to avoid illegal questions – basically, anything that asks about private/protected statuses such as race, religion, sexual preference, pregnancy/parenthood status, marital status, etc. If it isn’t directly related to performance of the duties of the job for which they are being considered, do not ask. 97
  • 98. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees When conducting interviews: • Decide ahead of time how long the interview should last and who should attend. It is best to have at least one other person interview the candidate with you, for the benefit of their additional insights. Although the timing will differ depending on the type of position and your goals in the interview, most interviews for professional positions should last about 30 minutes to an hour. 98
  • 99. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees When conducting interviews: • The structure of the interview should be such that you are able to gauge the applicant’s interpersonal, analytical, and intuitive abilities, in addition to getting the surface answers that you need about their skills and experiences. • If you need someone who can handle multiple responsibilities at the same time, ask them a couple of multi- tiered questions and see if they answer all of them. 99
  • 100. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Try multi-level/complex questions midway through or near the end of the interview, to see how the applicant handles them. Ex. “Tell me about your research at Harvard, and how your interviewing strategy was so successful at meeting the expected n. Did you follow the typical Likert-style survey structure or was it more open-ended and inquisitive, and what did you take away from that approach after looking back on your success? Would you change anything?” 100
  • 101. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees In this example, we do in fact want answers to all those questions, but there are much simpler ways to ask them. What we’re doing here is purposely stacking an entire group of questions into one statement/informational request so as to: • Observe the applicant’s ability to manage stressful situations • Remember all the important parts of a conversation • Handle complex duties in a succinct and efficient manner • See if the applicant asks for help when it’s needed (“I’m sorry, what was the last question you asked?” or, “Does that answer all of your questions?”) 101
  • 102. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees First impressions almost always pan out. • You should not have to tell the applicant to show up dressed appropriately, but unfortunately many people nowadays have not been taught to dress well for an interview. You’ll have to decide for yourself whether this is a deal breaker. If someone wants a supervisory or higher position, they should absolutely know to dress up. Photo content provided by: CDC/ World Health Organization; Stanley O. Foster MD, MPH 102
  • 103. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Remember that the best applicants will also be interviewing you. • The best applicants will have their choice of positions, so be sure, as the interviewer, that you are also dressed appropriately, that you are prepared for the interview, that you’ve cleaned up your office, etc. Show the same respect for the applicant that you’d like shown to you. This communicates positivity in the workplace and could work in your favor if this candidate is one of your top Photo credit: James Gathany; content provider choices. CDC/James Gathany 103
  • 104. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees When interviewing, remember that the amount of talking a candidate does will also provide clues as to their levels of emotional intelligence and professionalism. • If they talk longer than necessary, this may indicate they tend to be passionate but lacking focus. They may over-commit themselves to various projects out of a desire to cover as much as possible. Or, they may be lacking in self-awareness, ie that it’s not all about them and that other people would like a turn to talk. 104
  • 105. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees When interviewing, remember that the amount of talking a candidate does will also provide clues as to their levels of emotional intelligence and professionalism. • If they don’t talk enough, they may lack the assertiveness and self-confidence that is necessary to success in most business situations. It could, alternatively, indicate that they are not feeling well – maybe it hurts their throat to talk and they didn’t want to cancel their interview that was so hard to come by. Or, maybe they are simply a word conservationist and this is how it typically is with them. Depending on the position, they may be ideal or they may not be a good choice. Go back to your job description and decide how important this is to you. 105
  • 106. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Be careful not to get caught up in style over substance. • Some people have the gift of explaining away loads of mistakes and issues; weigh this against what you know on paper and value in the best candidate. Don’t be taken away by flattery and polished social skills, although social skills are important to almost every position. • By the same token, don’t be too put off by someone whose social skills are just average but their experience and qualifications are good, especially if the job does not call for them to regularly interact with the public or clients. • Always consider what you see and know against what you need. How important are these observations? What are the top 3 most important qualifications for this job, and does the applicant have ample evidence to support their candidacy? 106
  • 107. Choosing Well: How to Select the Right Employees When interviewing, remember that body language tells as much as the actual words a person does – or doesn’t speak. • The majority of all communication is non-verbal. • Everyone interprets body language differently – this is where a second person’s opinion becomes very valuable. Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta 107
  • 108. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesExerciseWhat do you think this person’s body language might relay about herunvoiced thoughts? Write 4 or 5 captions for each of the photos below. Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta 108
  • 109. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesExerciseWhat do you think this person’s body language might relay about herunvoiced thoughts? Write 4 or 5 captions for each of the photos below. Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta 109
  • 110. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right EmployeesExerciseWhat do you think this person’s body language might relay about herunvoiced thoughts? Write 4 or 5 captions for each of the photos below. Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta 110
  • 111. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Non-verbal indicators of candidates who bring professionalism and emotional intelligence to the table: • They wait to be asked to have a seat, rather than plopping down in a chair and making themselves at home without invitation. • Their posture is poised and appropriate, neither slouching nor rigid. • They maintain an appropriate level of eye contact, so that they are neither staring at you constantly nor looking around the entire time. Their eyes remain where they should – on your eyes as opposed to other parts of your body. 111
  • 112. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Non-verbal indicators of candidates who bring professionalism and emotional intelligence to the table: • They avoid glancing at their watch during the interview. • They have their cell phone turned completely off. • They have their own pen and paper. • They have an extra copy of their resume handy. • They are polite to the receptionist and persons they pass in the hall. • They are not chewing gum, sucking on candy, or presenting with a drink in hand. 112
  • 113. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Non-verbal indicators of candidates who bring professionalism and emotional intelligence to the table: • They are dressed appropriately. • For most positions, business wear is expected. • Even if it is not (such as applying for a job at a sandwich shop), at minimum: • No undergarments are showing. • Clothing fits the candidate. • The candidate is not noticeably laden with cologne or after shave. Conversely, the candidate does not have noticeable body odor. • The candidate is not wearing an excessive amount of jewelry. 113
  • 114. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Verbal indicators of candidates who bring professionalism and emotional intelligence to the table: • They use formal titles (Ms. Saliba, Dr. Brown) unless/until asked to do otherwise. • They know how much to say and how fast to say it. • They avoid colloquial terms, slang, and derogatory remarks. • They avoid inappropriate jokes. • They speak loud enough to be heard but they are not too loud or overbearing. 114
  • 115. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Verbal indicators of candidates who bring professionalism and emotional intelligence to the table: • They avoid speaking badly of previous work situations and experiences. •This is not the same as diplomatically presenting their true reasons for leaving – it’s all in how it is worded. • They have questions prepared ahead of time regarding your role in the company, the company itself, and what specifically is required of the position. • They use ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ appropriately. • They speak to everyone in the room, not just the person who invited them to the interview. 115
  • 116. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees The most desirable candidates will have questions for you based upon their own research about your company, your work, etc. • These should be intelligent, well-informed questions such as, “I read your article on the interactions between residents and Facebook use, and wondered if you’ve decided to pursue that line of research even further. What was the reaction to it after being published in the journal?” They should not be questions such as, “How much vacation time do I get and when can I start using it?” 116
  • 117. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Avoid the temptation to hire on the spot. • Give yourself at least a night to think it over. Involve someone else in the interview and/or decision whenever possible. Other people will notice things about the candidate that you will not. They will ask inquisitive questions based on those observations, which will lend well to the decision-making process. • At UF, you must get clearance from HR before making a job offer. They have to run a background check first. 117
  • 118. Choosing Well:How to Select the Right Employees Wait to see if the candidate follows up with a thank- you note. • The person who does this is, at minimum, considerate of other people. More likely, however, this candidate has been well- groomed in workplace behavior and organizational and leadership skills. • A thank-you note should not be the final determining factor in your decision but it does speak volumes about the person’s self- awareness and business sense. It tells of an aptitude that is frankly hard to find.“Leaders help to shape the culture of their organizations based on who they are and what they do.” – John Maxwell 118
  • 119. “A legacy is created only when a person putshis organization into the position to do greatthings without him…Success doesn’t count formuch if you leave nothing behind. The bestway to do that is through a leadership legacy.” -John Maxwell SECTION 3 : Building, Bridging, & Moving On: The Legacy Portion of Leadership 119
  • 120. What is a Legacy?  A legacy is that which lives on beyond our time at a job, as part of a group, and our time here on Earth.  Legacies are akin to our long- term reputations and our most important contributions to the world. “There are certain things that are fundamental to human fulfillment. The essence of these needs iscaptured in the phrase ‘to live, to learn, to leave a legacy…’ The need to leave a legacy is our spiritual need to have a sense of meaning, purpose, personal congruence, and contribution..” - Stephen R. Covey 120
  • 121. What is a Legacy? Legacies are contextualized by that which we hold dear and those things for which we stand. Everyone is building a legacy, and everyone has control over that which they leave. Legacies may be concrete, tangential, or both. “Martin Luther King challenged the conscience of my generation, and his words and his legacy continue to move generations to action today at home and around the world. His love and faith is alive in millions of Americans who volunteer each day in soup kitchens or in schools, or who refused to ignore the suffering of millions they’d never met in far-away places when a tsunami brought unthinkable destruction. His vision and his passion is alive in churches and on campuses whenmillions stand up against the injustice of discrimination anywhere, or the indifference that leaves too many behind.” - John Kerry 121
  • 122. How Are Legacies Built? Legacies are built in both our daily, routine choices and across time as those choices becomes patterns. Those patterns then become the themes of our lives; the themes revealed over the course of lives are what become our legacies. Ways to build legacies of leadership: • Investing in others • Guiding others to heights and successes they dared not dream themselves • Leaving things better than they found them • Creating vehicles by which success will continue without them “Success is nothing more than a few simple disciplines, practiced every day.” - Jim Rohn 122
  • 123. Building and Retaining: How to Build and Motivate Your Staff“When a leader truly has done thework to connect with his people, youcan see it in the way the organizationfunctions. Employees exhibit loyaltyand a strong work ethic. The vision ofthe leader becomes the aspiration ofthe people. The impact is incredible.” – John Maxwell Photo credit: Cade Martin; content provider CDC/Dawn Arlotta “A legacy lives on in people, not things.” – John Maxwell 123
  • 124. Factors That Positively Influence Employee Motivation  Appropriate rewards and recognition  Feeling part of a team  Benefits, especially medical  Training opportunities, especially if relating to future advancement  Variety of tasks, challenges  Seeing the tangible fruits of their labor “What makes greatness is starting something that lives after you.” – Ralph Sockman 124
  • 125. Factors That Positively Influence Employee Motivation Occasional office social events, celebrations Respectable leadership • Character, career examples; knowledgeable; experienced; encouraging; empowering; courageous Bonuses and incentives Job securityAppropriate balance of flexibility, accountability“While it is important to leave footprints in the sands of time, it is even more important to make sure they point in a commendable direction.” – James Cabell 125
  • 126. Factors That Negatively Influence Employee Motivation Office gossip Attitudes of negativity Favoritism/office politics Micromanagement Repetition/monotony in daily tasks Lack of intellectual, career growth and training; personal and/or corporate stagnation Slow sales/lack of business “Allowing employees with a bad attitude to work in the organization is a morale killer.” – Quint Studer 126
  • 127. Factors That Negatively Influence Employee Motivation  Dishonest/disreputable leadership  Poor leadership or lack of leadership  Job insecurity  Lack of flexibility/grace when it is necessary and/or would be appropriate “No legacy is so rich as honesty.” – William Shakespeare 127
  • 128. Content Provider: CDC/ Minnesota Department of Health, R.N. Barr Library; Librarians Melissa Rethlefsen and Marie Jones“It’s ironic…most companies spend 50% to 70% of their money on people’ssalaries. And yet they spend less than 1% of their budget to train their people.Most companies, in fact, spend more time and money on maintaining theirbuildings and equipment than they do on maintaining and developing people.” - The One-Minute Manager 128
  • 129. Building Your Organization by Continually Building Yourself If leaders are continually increasing their knowledge base, skills set, and interpersonal abilities, their circles of influence will naturally expand. This in turn creates unprecedented opportunities for themselves, their employees, and the organization. 129
  • 130. “People who feel good about themselvesproduce good results.” – The One Minute Manager“The best minute I spend is the one I investin people.” – The One Minute Manager“As results improve, it ignites greaterpassion throughout the organization andturns the Flywheel. This data also leads toprocess improvement.” – Quint Studer Photo credit: Keith Weller/USDA 130
  • 131. Developing Your Staff:The Importance of Regular Training Regular training does several things: • Keeps individuals and corporations on the cutting edge • Keeps everyone accountable and empowered • Flexes and builds the muscles of leadership • Breaks up the monotony of the work week, work year • Begs for personal and corporate reflection • Fuels the growth that spins the flywheel“Feeling ‘good enough’ is often the biggest barrier for an organization in moving to the next level. There may be no sense of urgency.” – Quint Studer 131
  • 132. Developing Your Staff:The Importance of Regular TrainingTypes of training: • Basic legal/administrative (ex. Annual HIPAA training) • Continuing education • Interpersonal/communicative (ex. UF’s Business Communication series) • Community education (ex. Courses offered through SFC, local libraries) • Higher education Artwork by: Holly S., age 1119 “If you want to create a legacy, you need to live it first. You must become what you desire to see in others.” – John Maxwell 132
  • 133. Developing Your Staff:The Importance of Regular Training Determining the type and timing of training for your group: • Chosen program should be familiar to at least one of the leaders – don’t choose based solely on reputation/cost/attractiveness of the website etc. if an entire group is expected to participate. • Material should serve a legitimate business purpose – don’t train just for the sake of training. Purposes may be abstract or concrete. • Training should, at minimum, include administrative/legal, as well as cultural competency or communication. • Hold some type of training at least once per year. • Consider goals/overall point of the training in determining frequency and length.“You can’t do anything about the length of your life, but you can do something about its width and depth.” – Evan Esar 133
  • 134. Seeking out Ways to Recognize and Reward Remember, employees want three things: purpose, worthwhile work, and making a difference. Remember that most employees don’t leave their job, they leave their supervisor. • Get to know each of your employees, as much as is practical, so as to understand their goals, aspirations, and motivations. Work to specifically reward each person as an individual. • When giving compliments, avoid clichés and avoid saying the same thing to every person. Give specific feedback on what the person did well, and tie it to an important effect. • This takes focused effort and a degree of intensity, but it is worth it. Eventually you will end up with good problems, such as are described on the next slide. 134
  • 135. Seeking out Ways to Recognize and Reward Be careful not to make one person your ‘pet’ employee. If someone continually does well, find various ways to reward him or her. Not all wins need to be announced or celebrated to the entire group – use your discretion. • You could announce only the major accomplishments. • You could announce a list of accomplishments at the same time as announcing a major one. • You could announce other people’s accomplishments at the same time as this one employee’s. • Be careful to avoid comparisons, or even the appearance of comparisons. Ex. “Jackson just landed the million-dollar account that will save our entire company!” is a tough act to follow. Save these types of announcements for the first category, above. 135
  • 136. Seeking out Ways to Recognize and Reward Rewards may come in many forms – get creative! • Public recognition • Promotions • Business opportunities • Advanced training • Special projects • Pay increases or bonuses • Paid time off • Increased autonomy, when appropriate“I urge leaders to always connect the actions they ask of their employees back to how they make a difference and serve an important purpose. They need to hear this.” - Quint Studer 136
  • 137. Creating Opportunities Leaders are always on the lookout for ways to expand their business, open doors for employees, and improve their own skills and abilities. • You must keep up with the news! This includes local, regional, national, trade, industry, etc. Subscribe to the eTOCs of leading journals, make sure you’re on the AAP listserv, check into HR training opps here at UF, network in the community for needs that your group may fill. • If you are getting to know your employees and working to catch them doing things well, you will be privy to the time when they are most ready for training, advancement, etc. “Leaders are paid to be dreamers. The higher you go in leadership, the more your work is about the future.” – Hans Finzel 137
  • 138. “I believe individuals want to be effective leaders. But they need training. Maybe they don’t know how to do it or what to ask for. Maybe they’ve asked, but have been told no so often that they’ve stopped asking. Organizations that invest in training live their values by giving employees the skills they need to be successful. In working with hundreds of hospitals, I have found that most organizations don’t spend enough time on skill development for leaders. There are no quick fixes. The key is to build the right competencies into each leader so they can be successful. This is a value dividend.” - Quint Studer Photo credit:Bruce Andre/USFWS19 138
  • 139. Creating Opportunities • If the opportunity that you want is not there, create it. • Figure out exactly what you want, why you want it, how it ties into the organization’s goals, and then determine how you will get there. • If financing is an issue, start with what you have. Use it to the very best of your ability so as to build a case for what you eventually want. Leaders have a knack for creating something out of nothing – look for the oak tree in the acorn. • Listen to your employees’ ideas – you do not have to have all the answers. Your job is to create and guide the vision. “Some of us have great runways already built for us. If you have one, take off! But if you don’t haveone, realize it is your responsibility to grab a shovel and build one for yourself and for those who will follow after you.” –- Amelia Earhart 139
  • 140. Consistency Creates Credibility If you want people to follow you, they need to have a clear idea of your vision and how it will be carried out. Consistency creates credibility because: • It shows that you don’t play favorites. • It demonstrates that you mean what you say. • People begin to learn they can count on you. • Cause and effect are clearly connected. • It becomes easier for employees to understand what is expected and how things work. • It increases transparency. • It erases doubts about your motives. • It becomes easier to replicate your good example. 140
  • 141. Navigating the Appropriate Intellectual Distance between You and Your Staff It is important that leaders make themselves approachable, and that their demeanor is both professional and warm. • You should explain your decisions, but you don’t have to justify them. • Office socials, holiday work functions, etc. are great ways to connect with staff. • Make sure everyone is invited. • At the event, make sure you speak with everyone and create networking and other opportunities, especially for those who are reticent to introduce themselves to others. • Don’t confuse professional openness with personal openness. • Having a drink at the office Christmas party has very different implications than hanging out at the bar on a Friday night with one or two select employees. 141
  • 142. Would You Want To Work for Yourself? Taking regular looks in the intellectual mirror is perhaps one of leadership’s most important responsibilities. • If you were on the receiving end of your compliments and recognition, would they come across as genuine and deserved? • If you were on the receiving end of corrections, would they be perceived as fair and appropriate? Would you feel empowered or embarrassed upon leaving the meeting? • If you were observing your own hiring, firing, and promotion decisions, would these make logical sense? • Do your employees know that you are genuinely concerned about their work environment and experience? • If your staff’s performance is not what you would like, it is time to take a look at what you are or are not doing as a leader. 142
  • 143. Manage Your Reputation It is essential that leaders understand what is being said about them and their organization, especially electronically. 1. Be aware that ignoring cyberspace is no safeguard against negative outcomes – you have an online reputation. Either you can manage it, or it will manage you. 2. Run regular Google checks on your name and work to protect your reputation accordingly. • Sometimes you have to correct information, other times you have to counter it. Remember the adage that the best solution to bad speech is more (good) speech. 3. Be careful with what you create, such as on Facebook, LinkedIn, etc. Nothing digital ever (really) goes away. 143
  • 144. References1. Think Cultural Health website. CLAS Legislation Map. Available at: https://www.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/Content/LegislatingCLAS.asp#. Accessed August 2011.2. Studer Q. Hardwiring Excellence. USA: Fire Starter Publishing; 2003.3. Centers for Disease Control. Photos from the Public Health Image Libarary (PHIL). Available at: www.cdc.gov. Accessed September 2011.4. Business Management suite101. “Max Weber Bureaucracy Theory” by Cutajar M. Available at http://maureencutajar.suite101.com/max-weber-bureaucracy-theory-a267433. Accessed September 2011.5. Witherspoon PD. Communicating Leadership: An Organizational Perspective . USA: Allyn & Bacon; 1997.6. Maxwell J. The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership. USA: Thomas Nelson; 1998.7. National Federation of Independent Business. Article on micromanagement. Available at: http://www.nfib.com/business-resources/business-resources-item?cmsid=31587&utm_campaign=Recover. Accessed August 2011.8. Transformation Associates, Inc. “Confessions of a Micromanager” by Gillard P. Available at http://www.transassoc.com/whatismicromngt/. Accessed August 2011.9. ChangingMinds.org. Article on micromanagement. Available at: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/articles/micromanagement.htm. Accessed August 2011.10. Dictionary.com. Definition of bullying. Available at http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bully. Accessed August 2011. 144
  • 145. References11. Medscape News Today. “A Matter of Respect and Dignity: Bullying in the Nursing Profession” by Stokowski LA. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/729474. Accessed August 2011.12. Blanchard K and Johnson S. The One Minute Manager. USA: HarperCollins; 1981.13. Human Behavior in Business. “How to Deal with a Micromanaging Boss” by Casazza N. Available at: http://nahidc.blogspot.com/2008/07/how-to-deal-with-micromanaging-boss.html. Accessed August 2011.14. The Florida Department of Law Enforcement database of Florida Sexual Offenders and Predators website. Available at: http://offender.fdle.state.fl.us/offender/homepage.do. Accessed August 2011.15. Alachua County Clerk of Courts website. Available at: https://www.alachuaclerk.org/court_records/index.cfm. Accessed August 2011.16. Google website. Available at www.google.com. Accessed August 2011.17. Facebook website. Available at www.facebook.com. Accessed August 2011.18. Holly S, age 11. Artwork; colored pencil. 2008.19. US Fish & Wildlife Service. Photo from the National Digital Library. Available at: http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/index.php. Accessed September 2011. 145