Gen scicp ch. 1 sci skills student
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  • 1. General Science CP 1
  • 2. 1.1 What is Science? Explain how science and technology are related. List the major branches of natural science and describe how they overlap Describe the main ideas of physical science 2
  • 3. About Science Science is the process of discovering and explaining the order of nature and how its parts connect to one another Predates recorded history Rational thinking is the premise of science - Gained headway in Greece in the 3rd, & 4th centuries B.C - Halted in Europe due to barbarian wars - Chinese & Polynesians continued charting the stars, and planets 3
  • 4. About Science Cont.- Arab nations developed mathematics- Reintroduced by Europe & Islamic influences- Universities emerged in the 12th century- 15th century allowed: printing press therefore documentation- 16th century controversy: Copernicus believed the Earth revolved around the Sun going against church ideas, published a book and was thrown in jail 4
  • 5. SCIENCE BEGINSWITH CURIOSITYAND ENDS WITH DISCOVERY!!! 5
  • 6. Science & Technology Scientist who do experiments to learn more about the world are practicing pure science, also defined as the continuing search for scientific knowledge Applying knowledge to practical problems is called technology Science and technology are interdependent - advances in one leads to advances in another ex. development of the microscope led to the discovery of cells 6
  • 7. Branches of Science Natural Science - Tries to understand nature, which really means, “the whole universe” - Usually divided into 3 sub categories - Life science: Biology, Zoology, Botany - Physical science: Chemistry, Physics - Earth science: Geology, Oceanography Today these classifications overlap - Aerophysics - Biochemistry - Astrophysics 7
  • 8. Branches of Science Natural Science Earth and SpacePhysical Science •Life Science Science •Chemistry •Biology •Geology •Physics •Astronomy 8
  • 9. Big Ideas of Physical Science Space and Time Matter and Change Forces and Motion Energy 9
  • 10. 1.1 Assessment1. How does the scientific process begin and end?2. How are science and technology related?3. What are the branches of natural science? 10
  • 11. 1.2 Using a Scientific Approach Describe the steps in a scientific method Compare and contrast facts, scientific theories, and scientific laws Explain the importance of models in science, and their use to investigate nature 11
  • 12. The Nature of Science Scientists believe that the universe can be described by basic rules, and these rules can be described by careful, methodical study, also known as the scientific method  Investigation  Experimentation  Observation 12
  • 13. Critical Thinking Applying logic and reason to observations and conclusions ex. If you are doing you homework and the lights go out, what do you do? - - - A person who thinks like a scientists would first ask questions and then make observations 13
  • 14. Scientific Method Developed by Francis Bacon & Galileo Formal method for conducting science Based on critical thinking and experimentation Series of logical steps to follow in order to solve problems 14
  • 15. Scientific Method Cont.1. Recognize problem and propose a question2. Form a hypothesis3. Test hypothesis4. Analyze Data5. Formulate a conclusion based experimental findings 15
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  • 18. Observations Observations - use our senses to gather information about the world around us - two types of observations. 18
  • 19. Qualitative Observations Qualitative observation (quality) - usually made with our senses ex. color, shape, feel, taste, sound. ex. written - Olivia is wearing a blue sweater. - The lab tabletop is smooth. - The dog’s fur is shiny. 19
  • 20. Quantitative Observations Quantitative observation (quantity) - how many (will be a number) - based on exact measurement. ex. The room is 8 meters across. Sarah is 141-cm tall. Sam weighs 450 Newtons. 20
  • 21. Recognizing the problemYour on your way to a friends house and your car suddenly stops. Problem: Observations: Qualitative: Quantitative: 21
  • 22. Inferences Inference - a logical interpretation of an event that is based on observations and prior knowledge. ex. You see a student leave the principal’s office crying and upset. An inference as to why the student is upset could be: - could be in trouble (ISS, OSS, expelled) - family problems at home (sick, accident) - student not feeling well - student has poor grades (failing, retention) 22
  • 23. Inference or Observation? The dog is wagging his tail. ____ The dog is happy. ____ The liquid is green with white bubbles in it. ____ The liquid is probably bad for you. ____ The cafeteria ladies don’t like kids. ____ The cafeteria ladies are frowning. ____ 23
  • 24. Hypothesis A tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event ex. A penny will float on water due to its density A controlled experiment is an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time Variables: anything that can change in an experiment - Independent /Dependent - Manipulated /Responding - Controlled Variables 24
  • 25. Hypothesis Cont. UV light may cause skin cancer  Independent Variable (manipulated) - variable that is changed by the scientist ex. amount of UV light  Dependent Variable (responding) - observed, measured due to change in the independent variable ex. prevalence of skin cancer  Controlled Variables - variable that remain constant ex. exposure time, strength of light 25
  • 26. Hypothesis Cont. Formal - written as an if, and, then statement - If: dependent Variable - And: experiment (not always included) - Then: prediction ex. If smoking cigarettes is related to an individuals lung capacity, and cigarette smoking is stopped, then lung capacity will improve daily 26
  • 27. Predicting the Consequences If the hypothesis is correct: - perform experiment numerous times to diminish error, and verify the experimental finding were correct If the hypothesis is incorrect: - reformulate a hypothesis - perform new experiment 27
  • 28. Hypothesis Cont. Theory - a well-tested explanation for a set of observations or experimental results - never proved, may become stronger or may become obsolete in time ex. Big bang Law - statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature - does not attempt to explain it - verified over and over again 28 ex. Gravity
  • 29. Performing Experiments Must have a control group Record all data Repeat experiment several times until findings are conclusive Why? 29
  • 30. Formulating a Conclusion Written paragraph on the outcome of your experiments Key concepts - Hypothesis, correct or incorrect - Use of Data to support or discredit hypothesis - Errors 30
  • 31. Models Scientific models are representations of an object or event that can be studied to understand the real object or event - make it easier to understand things that might be too difficult to observe directly - Drawings - Computer - Mathematical *in a state of constant change, new models replace 31 old*
  • 32. 32
  • 33. Safety Most important rule: Follow your teacher’s instructions and the textbook directions exactly. When in doubt, ASK!!! See handout of safety rules and procedures. 33
  • 34. 1.2 Assessment1. What is the goal of scientific method?2. How does a scientific law differ from a scientific theory?3. Why are scientific models useful? 34
  • 35. 1.3 Measurement Perform calculations involving scientific notation and conversion factors. Identify the metric and SI units used in science and convert between common metric prefixes Compare and contrast accuracy and precision. Relate the Celsius, Kelvin, and Fahrenheit temperature scales. 35
  • 36. Units of Measurement Mathematics is the language of science International System of Units (SI) - started with the metric system in France in 1791, and is now a revised version - uses 7 SI units: ex. length, mass, temperature, time - based on units of 10 ex. 10 millimeter = 1 centimeter 10 centimeter = 1 decimeter 36
  • 37. Units of Measurement Cont.Gig G Billion 1,000,000,000Mega M Million 1,000,000Kilo k Thousand 1,000Hetco h Hundred 100Deka da Ten 10Base Unit m,l,g One 1Deci d Tenth 1/10Centi c Hundredth 1/100Milli m Thousandth 1/1000 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. Conversions Cont. SI units Smaller to larger - remember it takes more of a small unit to make a larger unit - multiply the units to get a larger number ex. 100 mm = 10 cm Larger to smaller - it takes less of a larger unit to make a smaller unit - divided the units to get a smaller number ex. 1000 km = 10 m 39
  • 40. Conversions 4 Steps 1. List the given and unknown values - given: - unknown: 2. Determine the relationship between units 3. Write the equation for the conversion 4. Insert the known values into to equation, and solve 40
  • 41. Conversion Problems1. Convert 1.6 kilograms to grams2. Convert 2500 milligrams to kilograms3. Convert 50 centimeters to dekameters 41
  • 42. Making Measurements- many observations rely on quantitativemeasurements- most basic measurements generally answerquestions such as how much time did it take andhow big- common measurements are time, length, mass,volume and weight 42
  • 43. Length The straight-line distance between any two points SI unit - meters (M) Tools - Tape measure, ruler 43
  • 44. Volume Amount of space any object occupies SI unit - Cubic meter …….Very big, so we use….. - Liter Tools - Beaker - Graduated cylinder 44
  • 45. Mass Measure of the quantity of matter in an object SI unit - Grams (g) Tools - Triple Beam Balance - Scale 45
  • 46. Weight The gravitational force exerted on an object by the nearest most massive body (Earth) SI unit - Pounds (lbs) Tools - scale - balance 46
  • 47. Limits of Measurements Precision - is a gauge of how exact a measurement is ex. Accuracy - is the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured ex. 47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. Scientific Notation- also referred to as exponential notation- used to express numbers that are very very large or very very small- way to write numbers concisely- used in a computation with far greater ease- used in scientific fields 49
  • 50. Scientific Notation Cont. General format - N x 10X - N = any number (except 0) between 1 and 10 - X = exponent of 10 Two Components - Decimal: 2.16 x 102 - Exponent: 2.16 x 102 50
  • 51. Scientific Notation Cont. Numbers that are greater than 10 - Locate the decimal, move it so there is only one non-zero number to its left - Resulting placement of the decimal will produce N - Count the number of places that you had to move the decimal - Multiply the two parts together, number of positions will equal x ex. 27,000 L = 2.7 x 104 L 51
  • 52. Scientific Notation Cont. Numbers less than 10 - Locate the decimal, move it so that there is only one non-zero decimal to its left - The resulting placement of the decimal will produce N - Count the number of places that you had to move the decimal - Multiple the two parts together, the number of positions will equal -x ex. 0.0000056 m = 5.6 x 10-6 m 52
  • 53. Scientific Notation Problems Problems - 800 000 000 m - 0.0015 kg - 60 200 L - 4.5 x 103 g - 6.05 x 10-3 m - 1.99 x 10-8 cm 53
  • 54. Scientific Notation (+,-) Addition and Subtraction  exponents must be the same in order to calculate - If they are the same add the decimal part (numbers) use the same exponent (10 x) ex. 5.2 x 107 - 3.9 x 107 5.2 x 107 - 3.9 x 107 = 1.3 x 107 - if they are different move the decimal until they match, then solve ex. 4.5 x 106 + 3.9 x 108 0.045 x 108 + 3.9 x 108 = 3.9 x 108 54
  • 55. Scientific Notation (+,-) Problems 6.7 x 1012 + 7.8 x 1012 = 3.7 x 108 + 2.1 x 105 = 7.25 x 105 - 2.2 x 105 = 1.4 x 106 - 3.9 x 10-2 = 55
  • 56. Scientific Notation Cont. Multiplying - Add the powers of 10 ex. 4.5 x 1012 m x 3.5 x 108 m = 15.75 x 1020 m 1.6 x 1021 m Dividing - Subtract the powers of 10 ex. 4.6 x 1012 m/3.0 x 108 m = 1.5 x 104 m 56
  • 57. Scientific Notation Problems (x,/) Multiplying (3.1 x 102 cm) x (1.22 x 104 cm) (2.99 x 105 km) x (6.88 x 102 km) Dividing (5.75 x 10-5 m) / (9.9 x 10-2 m) 57 4
  • 58. Significant Figures Sig Figs are the digits in a number that carry meaning contributing to its precision. A calculation can only be as precise as it’s LEAST precise measurement. Significant Figures- - all the digits that are known in a measurement, plus the last digit that is estimated Necessary rules to ensure accuracy of measurement 58
  • 59. Temperature & Energy Methods of measuring temperature - touch - thermometers 3 Scales - Fahrenheit (0F) - Celsius (0C) - Kelvin (K) Measuring temperature - physical property of substances - most objects expand when their temperature increases (principle of thermometers) 59
  • 60. Fahrenheit Used primarily in the US - weather - cookbooks Scale - water freezes at 320F - boils at 2120F 60
  • 61. Celsius Used in most other countries - Other countries such as Canada Scale - water freezes at 00C - boils at 1000C*almost twice as large as a degree Fahrenheit 61
  • 62. Kelvin Used primarily in science, SI unit Scale - absolute zero - temperature at which an object’s energy is minimal (lowest possible temperature) - -273.150C - unit of Kelvin is equal to a degree on the Celsius scale 62
  • 63. Conversion Between Scales Celsius to Fahrenheit  Fahrenheit - F = ((9/5 x 0C) + 32.00)) Problems a. boiling point of hydrogen -252.870C b. normal body temperature 370C c. room temperature 22.20C 63
  • 64. Conversion Between Scales Fahrenheit to Celsius  Celsius - C = ((5/9(0F – 32.00)) Problems a. summer day in Phoenix 1100F b. temperature of dry ice – 69.70F c. highest recorder temperature on Earth 1360F 64
  • 65. Conversion Between Scales Fahrenheit to Kelvins - 1st convert Fahrenheit to Celsius - 2nd Celsius to Kelvins Equations - 0C = (5/9(0F - 32.00)) - K = 0C + 273 65
  • 66. Celsius to Kelvins Conversions Celsius to Kelvins  K = C + 273 Problems a. liquid hydrogen -269.00C b. melting point of gold 10640C c. normal temperature of the North Pole -40.0 0C 66
  • 67. 1.3 Assessment1. Why do scientists use scientific notation?2. What system of units do scientists use for measurement?3. How does the precision of measurements affect the precision of scientific calculations? 67
  • 68. 1.4 Presenting Scientific Data Organize and analyze data using tables and graphs Identify the relationship between a manipulted variable and a responding variable Explain the importance of communicating data Discuss the process of peer review 68
  • 69. Presenting Scientific Data Line Graphs - Used to show continuous changes - Consist of an x axis (independent), and a y axis (dependent) Bar Graphs - Used to compare data for several individual items or events Pie Charts - Used to display data that are parts of a whole 69
  • 70. Data Tables Relate the manipulated and responding variables 70
  • 71. 71
  • 72. Line Graphs Show changes in related variables Manipulated (Independent) variable is plotted on the x-axis. Responding (Dependent) variable is plotted on the y-axis. 72
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  • 74. 74
  • 75. 75
  • 76. Bar Graphs Often used to compare a set of measurements, amounts, or changes. 76
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  • 78. Circle Graphs Show how part relates to the whole Entire circle represents 100%, and slices represent percentages that make up the 100% 78
  • 79. Communicating Data Writing in Scientific Journals Attending scientific conferences in their field Peer Review – peers review data because different scientists may interpret data differently 79
  • 80. 1.4 Assessment1. How do scientists organize data?2. How can scientists communicate experimental data? 80