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  1. 1. All About Depression By Lauren Corbett Sorrowing Old Man (‘At Eternity’s Gate’) painting by Vincent van Gogh
  2. 2. What is Depression? • According to, depression is “a medical illness that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest.”
  3. 3. Causes of Depression It is unknown as to what exactly causes depression. However, there are a few factors that contribute to the illness. • Hormones: The body’s balance of hormones can change. • Biological differences: Those who suffer from depression have physical changes in the brain. • Neurotransmitters: A person’s mood is linked to these brain chemicals. • Inherited traits: Depression can be genetic. • Early childhood trauma: Permanent changes in the brain can be caused by traumatic events during childhood. • Life events: Certain events can trigger depression like the loss of a loved one.
  4. 4. Symptoms of Depression The most common signs of depression are: • Sadness or unhappiness • Irritability or frustration • Loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities • Insomnia or excessive sleeping • Difference in appetite • Fatigue • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt • Suicidal thoughts • Crying spells for no apparent reason
  5. 5. Symptoms of Depression (cont.) • Depression affects each person differently, therefore symptoms vary. • A few factors that may play a role in how depression affects individuals are age, cultural background, gender, and inherited traits.
  6. 6. Types of Depression • Major depressive disorder – a mixture of symptoms that hinder one’s ability to sleep, work, study, eat and enjoy once-pleasurable activities. • Dysthymic disorder (dysthymia) – long-term (two years or longer) symptoms that can hinder normal functioning or mood. • Minor depression – symptoms that do not meet the full criteria to be major depression and lasts for two weeks or longer. • Psychotic depression – severe depression and a form of psychosis (delusions, hallucinations).
  7. 7. Types of Depression (cont.) • Postpartum depression – women experience this type of depression after giving birth when hormonal and physical changes and new responsibility such as caring for a newborn may be overwhelming. • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – depression during the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. • Bipolar disorder (manic depression) – Mood swings – from extreme highs to extreme lows.
  8. 8. Cures for Depression • Antidepressants: Medication used to reduce the symptoms of moderate to severe depression. • Psychotherapy (talk therapy, counseling): Talk sessions where patients learn the causes of depression and ways to treat their illness. • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): Passage of electrical currents through the brain. ECT is usually an immediate treatment. • Hospitalization and residential treatment programs: Inpatient hospitalization may be necessary if one’s depression is very severe. Partial hospitalization or day treatments can be another cure as well.
  9. 9. There are a number of resources available for those who suffer from depression, such as the following: NDMA Depression Hotline – Support Group: 800-826-3632 Suicide Prevention Services Depression Hotline: 630-482-9696 Suicide & Depression Hotline – Covenant House: 800-999-9999 U.S. Suicide Hotline: 1-800-784-2433
  10. 10. Bibliography • • • • • 2013. Photograph. Fox News. By Jonathan Serrie. FOX News Network, LLC, 14 June 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. <>. Gogh, Vincent V. Sorrowing Old Man ('At Eternity's Gate'). 1890. KröllerMüller Museum, Otterlo, The Netherlands. Van Gogh Gallery. Van Gogh Gallery, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. <>. Grohol, John M., Dr. "Telephone, Hotlines and Help Lines." Psych Central. Psych Central, 8 Dec. 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <>. Mayo Clinic Staff. "Depression Causes." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 10 Feb. 2012. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. < es>. Mayo Clinic Staff. "Depression Definition." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for
  11. 11. Bibliography (cont.) • Mayo Clinic Staff. "Depression Symptoms." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 10 Feb. 2012. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. < oms>. • Mayo Clinic Staff. "Depression Treatments and Drugs." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 10 Feb. 2012. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. < ents%2Dand%2Ddrugs>. • The National Institute of Mental Health. "Depression." National Institute of Mental Health. National Institutes of Health, 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <>. • N.d. Photograph. Keystone Clinical Studies, LLC. By Keystone Clinical Studies Staff. Keystone Clinical Studies, 2012. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. <>. • What Causes Depression. Dir. Greg Knopf, Dr. Youtube. Youtube, 3 Mar. 2012. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <>.