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  • Present an integrated work between an English language and ICT teacher with eighth grade students in the production of a yearbook. Share how teachers supported students’ creativity and autonomy. Show how much can be expected of fourteen-year-old students in an English and IT production in a Brazilian bilingual school context and the power of turning over the responsibility and decision-making of the final product to students.
  • The Process 1.Place the genre in it’s context. 2.Inject a sense of realism: Real life situation. Being an intern in a publishing house 3.Stimulate creativity. 4.Thorough research and cross reference creates self realized competitive (real-world) standards. 5.Seek voluntary responsibility in the creative and decision making process. 6.Encourage leadership, reward effort: 7.Emphasize the ethics of teamwork. 8.Enable students to become autonomous and critical users of ICT software's.
  • Year Books are the modern English name that is now typically given to the earliest law reports of England. The language of the original manuscripts and editions was either Latin or Law French. La Graunde Abridgement was a collection of cases compiled out of the Year Books by Sir Anthony Fitzherbert; this printed edition appeared in 1577.
  • Originally, the Year Books were compiled by the chief scribes, of the English courts, and circulated in manuscript form. Later editions were produced by printing; the best known printed version is the so-called "Vulgate" edition, Vulgate: The common speech of a people; the vernácula. A widely accepted text or version of a work. The Vulgate: The Latin edition or translation of the Bible made by Saint Jerome.
  • Before the printing press virtually every book and every document was a manuscript. Written by hand, the production of even a single page was an arduous and time-consuming task. Books were expensive and only very popular texts of universal appeal were likely to be copied. With the invention of moveable-type printing press coping manuscripts speeded up. Printing was considered vulgar and only for the poor. It fell to the lower classes to recognize the importance of the printing press. The Effect: People became Literate and Educated
  • With the rise of Literacy, Universities opened up all over Europe. Interseting Point: Universities drove forward the printing press revolution and also the Internet revolution. Universities produce yearbooks to list graduate qualifications English Schools pick up the same idea Yearbooks are expanded to include other School activities. The yearbook , also known as an annual, has become a book to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a school. Virtually all American, Australian and Canadian high schools, most colleges and many elementary and middle schools publish yearbooks. A 1939 copy of the yearbook La Ventana from Texas Technological College
  • The Design Process Layout: Layout is the appearance of the pages, and it may include the following elements: The Headline : This is a theme that ties the page into the story and draws attention to the reader. The Story/Copy : Consists of several paragraphs, capturing the highlights of a specific department, sports season, organization, etc., from the past year. Photographs : Candid shots of students, suitable to the page's topic and theme. Captions, which describe each picture; these often begin with a lead-in. Tools of the trade: Word processing | Photoshop Paragraphs of text added to pages known as 'copy', are typed and edited using a word processing program. We use MS Publisher. Photoshop used for creating titles(Headers) and manipulating photographs color, size, file format, plus strip-ins’
  • Pagination/Layout In the past, most yearbooks were laid out by hand, with photographs physically cropped and placed on layout boards. The work was tedious, and required multiple deadlines and contact with a yearbook publishers. Today , virtually all yearbooks are published using computers, which allows for shorter deadlines and easier editing.
  • Students typically paginate, or lay out pages using a computer program such as: Adobe PageMaker, (Not if you have any brains) Adobe InDesign (The Americas) Quark Xpress. (UK and Europe) We use MS Publisher Advantages: Re-Size photographs and place copy, leaving minimal white space behind. Or not? These programs are designed for easy navigation, copy/edit/paste functions, and more. Wrap text around images Best of all they all have linked text boxes.
  • Our project mirrors closely Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development. ZPD is Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children. Lower limit of ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor. The ZPD captures the child’s cognitive skills that are in the process of maturing and can be accomplished only with the assistance of a more-skilled person. Scaffolding is a concept closely related to the idea of ZPD. Scaffolding is changing the level of support. Over the course of a teaching session, a more-skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the child’s current performance. Dialogue is an important tool of this process in the zone of proximal development. In a dialogue, unsystematic, disorganized, and spontaneous concepts of a child are met with the more systematic, logical and rational concepts of the skilled helper.
  • How did this structure come about I wanted to mirror work experience had been involved with Senior designer at BBC London Set up teams for new Publications Allocate areas of responsibility, SS given choice of roll Work in a semi-autonomus way, responsible to each other Scaffloding in progress EDUARDO Structure: 1. Positions: laid out on the board 2. Ss get together a decide their position 3. Ss write their names on the board according to their chosen position and group 4. Ss justify their preference. Contextualizing/Inducting them into their roles film13 going on 30 (Button to play scene ) (Comments on the scene) They are all arranged in their groups and positions
  • “ Creativity exists not only where it creates great historical works, but also everywhere human imagination combines, changes and create anything new.” Lev Vygotsky, Imagination and Creativity in Childhood How do we stimulate creativity? What is creativity? What is Art? Is there a standard set of rules that can be applied in order to create art?
  • The Development of the Creative Imagination ‘ The creative imagination makes people more adapt at manipulating signs and psychological tools and, therefore, at adapting to their social environments.’ (Vygotsky, 1931) When imagination and conceptual thinking fuse the result is creative imagination. Fantasy is internalized play once inner speech has developed. Subjective fantasy is concerned with desire fulfillment and the private inner life. Objective fantasy is about understanding and constructing an external reality. Here’s where you plan your future and role play your perceived future encounters with your society Both fantasies, to be effective and transformative, must be fully internalized, IE. absorbed and understood fully. Externalization is the creative act. It is the embodiment of cultural artifacts that endure over time and will be picked up and transformed by future generations. Creative imagination emerges when fantasy and conceptual thinking unite. The key to thinking in concepts is Semantic mediation. Thinking in concepts develops over time and with trial and error. According to Vygotsky only late in adolescence or early adulthood.
  • Creativity is a mental and social process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts. or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts. Creativity is fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight. There is no single, authoritative perspective or definition of creativity. Hume pointed out the fundamental objection to seeking independent and observer free facts in areas of aesthetics and ethics: “ Euclid has fully explained all the qualities of the circle, but has not, in any propersition, said a word of its beauty. The reason is evident. The beauty is not a quality of the circle. He goes on to say, “ It is only the effect which that figure produces uopn the mind… that renders it susceptible to such sentiments”. In the case of ethics it is the same: “ There is nothing, in itself, valuable or despicable, desirable or hateful, beautiful or deformed. Only that these attributes arise from the particular constitution and fabric of human sentiment and affection”. Hume believed that emotion and reason were separate entities, in fact were diametrically opposed to one another. Truth is they are completely reliant on one another. The poet Norman Nicholson and the museum We can study the emotion of fear. Can we infer something from the emotion of beauty from the way we see the emotion of fear? Indian snake: sight > thalamus > neocortex > amygbala
  • 3 brains: Reptilian, mammalian and human. The Amygdalae interacts with with response control systems to produce appropriate Reponses. (Freezing on the spot when seeing the snake, jumping up and down with excitement or weeping with grief or joy). As John Bowker concludes in his book, ‘Sacred Neuron’: Amygdalae crucial in processing the responses to situations where conducive properties are derived from the objects of perception. As LeDoux put it” “ When it comes to detecting and responding to danger, the brain has not changed much. In some ways we are emotional lizards.” Reality is cognitive processing cannot be divorced from emotional experience. Conducive properties must lie in the object of perception, and cannot be a matter of imposing our own rules as there seems to be a universal stable consistency in emotional experience and response. Here we get closer to what Hume called, ‘The fabric and constitution of the human species’ Signals from conducive properties reach the Amygdlaea via the Thalamus in the neocortex and the approprtae areas in the neocortex review the stuation Emotional experience is deeply effected by Cultural mediation and the results of the internalization process. But at the level of neurophysiology they are independent of any particular culture or tradition EXAMPLE: The way conducive properties of music reach people consistently Or Mayan, Mesopotamian or Indonesian architecture.
  • Ignore everybody. The more original your idea is, the less good advice other people will be able to give you. Doing anything worthwhile takes forever. 90% of what separates successful people and failed people is time, effort, and stamina. If somebody in your class or industry is more successful than you, it’s probably because he works harder at it than you do. He may be more inherently talented, but over time, that advantage counts for less and less.
  • Creative thought starts as an imaginary sense of how things might be This is expressed in a dialectic exchange between general categories of the culture and the specific materials and emotional experiences with which the individual works. Prawat,1999; Vygotsky 1936 Taking reference from what other great creative designers have done and fusing your own unique personality onto it
  • “ Every symbolic activity was at one time a social form of cooperation” Vygotsky, Tool and sign in the development of the child. Vygotsky viewed the creative process as interaction, tension, transformation and synthesis over the parallel timescales of the creative act, the creative life and historical cultural development. Brainstorming is a good example of dialectic tension between the internalizaton and externalization process I favour the Vygotskian view of collaboration: Long term engagement, voluntary connection, trust, negotiation and jointly choosen projects. Come back to this theme of TEAMWORK
  • If the thought of a child did not meet the thoughts of others, they would not become aware of themselves. We tend to judge ourselves by the standards of others. Mind maps are useful tools for illustarting Vygotsky’s genetic law of development which states that internalized joint activity underlies the development of psychological systems . Mind maps sketch out all the experiences the student has gone through alone as well as with others and that have been sucessfully internalized .
  • Emphasize Passion Ideally, if you’re in the communication business, you want to say the same thing, the same way to an audience of millions that you would to an audience of one. But sadly, it doesn’t work that way. You can’t love a crowd the same way you can love a person. And a crowd can’t love you the way a single person can love you. Intimacy doesn’t scale. Intimacy is a one-on-one phenomenon. Whether you’re writing to an audience of one, five, a thousand, a million, ten million, there’s really only one way to really connect. One way that actually works: Write from the heart.
  • The only people who can change the world are people who want to And not everybody does Emotional Stimuli accelerates learning The amygdalae is involved in the modulation of memory consolidation. Following any learning event, the long-term memory for the event is not instantaneously formed. Rather, information regarding the event is slowly assimilated into long-term storage over time (the duration of long-term memory storage can be life-long), a process referred to as memory consolidation, until it reaches a relatively permanent state. During the consolidation period, the memory can be modulated. In particular, it appears that emotional arousal following the learning event influences the strength of the subsequent memory for that event. Greater emotional arousal following a learning event enhances a person's retention of that event. Experiments have shown that administration of stress hormones to mice immediately after they learn something enhances their retention when they are tested two days later. Despite the importance of the amygdalae in modulating memory consolidation, however, learning can occur without it, though such learning appears to be impaired, as in fear conditioning impairments following amygdalar damage. As shown by many laboratories including that of James McGaugh. Next Slide The point being...”
  • Those that fire together wire together
  • Set the scene: strike the pose. Be what ever you want to be
  • On emphasizing the importance of team work: The general way humanity tries to engender a team spirit is through competition. Whether this is in the classroom or on the playing fields or in the work place. Alfie Kohn, in his book, ‘No Contest: The Case Against Competition’, describes his research results regarding the beneficial amounts of competition on differing groups. After reviewing 400 separate studies he concludes, “ The ideal amount of competition… in any environment … is none. He continues, “Competition is always destructive”. In his opening address at the 1993 Symposium on the Humanistic Aspects of Regional Development, Ronald Logan showed how nature could be viewed as a model for successful societies. He stated that within the Darwinian mould, that if we asked nature which society was the fittest, would it be the one continually at war with it self or the one that supports one another. He goes on to say,” animals which acquire habits of mutual aid are undoubtedly the fittest”. This statement is in direct reference to Kropotkin Kropotkin was a man whom some contemporaries saw as leading a near perfect life. Oscar Wilde described him as "a man with a soul of that beautiful white Christ which seems coming out of Russia. Peter Kropotkin stated in his book, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1902) In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sense – not as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species. The animal species, in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits, and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development, are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress. The mutual protection, which is obtained in this case, the possibility of attaining old age and of accumulating experience, the higher intellectual development, and the further growth of sociable habits, secure the maintenance of the species, its extension, and its further progressive evolution. The unsociable species, on the contrary, are doomed to decay.
  • EP’s best-known spokesperson was the philosopher John Dewey. Educational Progressivism based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. The Forming ミ Storming ミ Norming ミ Performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results. Forming: T he team meets and learns about the opportunity and challenges, and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks. Team members are usually on their best behavior but very focused on themselves. Scaffolding > Mature team members begin to model appropriate behavior even at this early phase. The group will then enter the storming stage in which different ideas compete for consideration. In some cases storming can be resolved quickly. In others, the team never leaves this stage. The storming stage is necessary to the growth of the team. It can be contentious, unpleasant and even painful to members of the team who are averse to conflict. Tolerance of each team member and their differences needs to be emphasized. Without tolerance and patience the team will fail. Mature members can make all the difference.(Scaffolding) Norming stage. Team members adjust their behavior to each other as they develop work habits that make teamwork seem more natural and fluid. Team members often work through this stage by agreeing on rules, values, professional behavior, shared methods, working tools and even taboos. During this phase, team members begin to trust each other. Motivation increases as the team gets more acquainted with the project. Danger = Groupthink = stifles creativity. Performing stage. High-performing teams are able to function as a unit as they find ways to get the job done smoothly and effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need for external supervision. Team members are now competent, autonomous and able to handle the decision-making process without supervision. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channeled through means acceptable to the team.
  • Cultural mediation = Vygotsky observed how higher mental functions developed through social interactions with significant people in a child's life, through these interactions, a child came to learn the habits of mind of her/his culture, including speech patterns, written language, and other symbolic knowledge This process is known as internalization. Not just copying but rather transforming or reorganizing incoming data based on individuals existing knowledge. Externalization is the construction of emotion based meanings and cognitive symbols. It is the creativity . Once the creation is realized or expressed it is absorbed into the culture(the trend setters). The idea is that these two social processes(internalization/externalization) are in dialectical tension with the symbol based forms,(personality/culture), this tension provides growth for new ideas.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Handing Over Responsibility Student-Driven Productions An 8th Grade Production (Year 9) Year Book Stance Dual Bilingual School S ão Paulo, Brazil
    • 2. Present an integrated project between an English language and IT teacher with eighth grade students in the production of a yearbook Share how teachers supported students’ creativity and autonomy Show how much can be expected of fourteen-year-old students in an English and IT production Laurence George Bell [email_address] Objectives About Us
    • 3. The Process: 1.Place the genre in it’s context 2.Inject a sense of realism: Real life situation. Being an intern in a publishing house 3.Stimulate creativity 4.Thorough research and cross reference creates self realized competitive (real-world) standards 5.Seek voluntary responsibility in the creative and decision making process 6.Emphasize the ethics of teamwork 7.Enable students to become autonomous and critical users of ICT software
    • 4. A Brief History of Year Books 1.Place the Genre in it’s Context.
    • 5. Year Books are the modern English name that is now typically given to the earliest law reports of England. The language of the original manuscripts and editions was either Latin or Law French. La Graunde Abridgement was a collection of cases compiled out of the Year Books by Sir Anthony Fitzherbert; this printed edition appeared in 1577.
    • 6. Originally, the Year Books were compiled by the chief scribes, of the English courts, and circulated in manuscript form. Later editions were produced by printing; the best known printed version is the so-called "Vulgate" edition,
      • Vulgate
      • The common speech of a people; the vernácula.
      • A widely accepted text or version of a work.
      • Vulgate: The Latin edition or translation of the Bible made by Saint Jerome.
      Origins of the YearBook
    • 7.
      • Before the printing press virtually every book and every document was a manuscript.
      • Written by hand, the production of even a single page was an arduous and time-consuming task.
      • Books were expensive and only very popular texts of universal appeal were likely to be copied.
      • With the invention of moveable-type printing press coping manuscripts speeded up.
      • Printing was considered vulgar and only for the poor.
      • It fell to the lower classes to recognize the importance of the printing press.
      The Importance of Printing The Effect: People became Literate and Educated
    • 8.
      • The yearbook , also known as an annual, has become a book to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a school.
      • Virtually all American, Australian and Canadian high schools, most colleges and many elementary and middle schools publish yearbooks.
      Todays' YearBook
      • With the rise of Literacy, Universities opened up all over Europe.
      • Universities produce yearbooks to list graduate qualifications
      • English Schools pick up the same idea
      • Yearbooks are expanded to include other
      • School activities.
      A 1939 Yearbook ‘ La Ventana’ Texas Technological College
    • 9. Book Layout Process: Layout: Layout is the appearance of the pages, and it may include the following elements: The Headline : This is a theme that ties the page into the story and draws attention to the reader. The Story/Copy : Consists of several paragraphs, capturing the highlights of a specific department, sports season, organization, etc., from the past year. Photographs : Candid shots of students, suitable to the page's topic and theme. Captions, which describe each picture; these often begin with a lead-in . Tools of the Trade: Word processing programms | Photoshop
    • 10. Pagination/Layout In the past, most yearbooks were laid out by hand, with photographs physically cropped and placed on layout boards. The work was tedious, and required multiple deadlines and contact with a yearbook publisher. Today , virtually all yearbooks are published using computers, which allows for shorter deadlines and easier editing.
    • 11.
      • Students typically paginate, or lay out pages using a computer program such as:
      • Adobe PageMaker, (Not if you have any brains)
      • Adobe InDesign (The Americas)
      • Quark Xpress. (UK and Europe)
      • Advantages:
      • Re-Size photographs and place copy, leaving minimal white space behind. Or not?
      • These programs are designed for easy navigation, copy/edit/paste functions, and more.
      • Wrap text around images
      • Best of all they all have linked text boxes.
    • 12. 2. Inject a Sense of Realism Real Life Situation Being an Intern in a Publishing House YEARBOOK ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding
    • 13. Alexia Rapha Natasha Barbara Otavio Tomas Derek Beatriz Renan Alex Beatriz.V Rafael Rafael Victor Arthur Art Director Mr.Bell Editor – in – Chief Mr.Godoy Positions of Responsibility Arthur Flavia Bruna Gabriela Alexandre Sub-Editor Journalist Photographer Designer
    • 14. Creativity exists not only where it creates great historical works, but also everywhere human imagination combines, changes and creates anything new. Lev Vygotsky, Imagination and Creativity in Childhood 3. Stimulate Creativity
    • 15. The Development of the Creative Imagination The fusing together of subjective and objective fantasy Creative Imagination Internalized Externalized Semantic Mediation Concept Formation
    • 16.
      • Creativity is a mental and social process involving the generation of
      • new ideas or concepts.
      • or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts.
      • Creativity is fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight.
      There is no single, authoritative perspective or definition of creativity. Which is more creative? What is Creativity?
    • 17. The Amygdalae
    • 18. Ignore everybody .
      • Put the Hours in.
      • Doing anything worthwhile takes forever. 90% of what separates successful people and failed people is time, effort, and stamina.
      • If somebody in your industry is more successful than you, it’s probably because he works harder at it than you do. He may be more inherently talented, but over time, that advantage counts for less and less.
    • 19. 4.Thorough research and cross reference creates self realized competitive (real-world) standards A reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates by linking to another object. Reference and Research The Design Process
    • 20. Brainstorming The
    • 21. Mind Maps
    • 22.
      • Don’t worry about finding inspiration. It comes eventually.
      • Inspiration precedes the desire to create, not the other way around.
      Tips for Being Creative
    • 23. Write from the heart. Passion There’s really only one way to connect Communication for all You can’t love a crowd the same way you can love a person Write from the heart
    • 24. Merit can be bought. Passion can’t. The only people who can change the world are people who want to And not everybody does The Amygdalae Emotional Stimuli accelerates learning
    • 25. Those that fire together wire together The Sacred Neuron
    • 26. Tips for Being a Creative Photographer Set the scene
    • 27. Yearbook cover before the adoption of new working practices
    • 28. After
    • 29. Table of contents before the adoption of new working practices
    • 30. After
    • 31.  
    • 32. 5.Seek voluntary responsibility in the creative and decision making process
    • 33. 5.Seek voluntary responsibility in the creative and decision making process
    • 34.  
    • 35. Personal Profile before the adoption of new working practices
    • 36. After
    • 37. After
    • 38. Double Page Spread Before After
    • 39. 7.Emphasize Teamwork Forming Team Building and Leadership Development Norming Storming Performing Competition False Educational Progressivism Scaffolding
    • 40. 7.Emphasize Teamwork Forming Norming Storming Performing Competition False Educational Progressivism Scaffolding Team Building and Leadership Development
    • 41. Teamwork:
    • 42. 8.Enable Students to become Autonomous and Critical users of ICT softwares Cultural Mediation Internalization Externalization Personality Culture Domain - Cultural Transformation
    • 43. Autonomous and critical users of ICT software
    • 44. Autonomous and critical users of ICT software
    • 45. Autonomous and critical users of ICT software
    • 46. Conclusion Zone of Proximal Development Progressive Education Students Autonomy Internalization Externalization Personality Culture Universal Emotional Experience