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  • 1. A2 Media Studies Lauren Barrett
  • 2. Identify the institution for this video and the institutional codes employed by the institution: • This video was directed by Ben Coughlan and Max Knight, who work for the company, Sneek Films. • Sneek Films is based in Hackney, London. • Sneek Films aim is „to create and produce an extremely high standard of work across all areas of film and video.‟ • Their clients include Universal, Sony, Sega and Polydor. They have also worked with artists including Ellie Goulding, Lana Del Rey and Snow Patrol.
  • 3. Identify the institution for this video and the institutional codes employed by the institution: This is an example of what Sneek Films‟ portfolio currently looks at. As you can see from the examples of videos they have produced, you can automatically tell from just the visuals that they work with a specific tone and genre, especially judging by the use of really natural, rustic colours. Aside from their continuous use of the same editing techniques, especially in terms of colours and filters, the company also commonly uses similar settings, typically natural settings such as forests and lakes, as well as rustic, urban parts of London. The overall visuals of their videos tend to have a very unique, grungy look to them, often including a „home-video‟ look about them.
  • 4. What are the key selling points of this video? • The video is shot in a „home-video‟ style, evident of the „flickering‟ motion between different shots and the ever-changing zoom and focus – this is quite a unique concept to filming a music video and would definitely help to sell the song and video to the very genre-specific target audience. • The music video content is very personal to the singer – Ellie Goulding – as it was all filmed in her hometown of Hereford, including a selection of settings which might be recognisable to anyone else from this town. • The video is also very personal as it depicts Goulding‟s life on the road – the video includes some of her real-life friends and also shows the singer as she would look ordinarily in a recording studio. Goulding‟s cat also makes an appearance in the video! This would be a very appealing selling point to any major fan of the artist. •The content is also very relatable to the target audience so would also act as a key selling point.
  • 5. How does the video establish genre, mood and expectation of the CD? Bright Lights, 2010; • Genre: The song is a cover of Elton John‟s „Your Song‟ Polydor. (1970) from the album, ‘Elton John’. The song is described as a rock/pop ballad, which is shown in the video from the rather slow, rhythmic cuts in between different shots. Genre of the song is also depicted in the video through the „characters‟ present – they all interact with each other and show a certain closeness which directly relates with the ballad genre. Goulding‟s album, Bright Lights, is more of an indie-genre record in comparison to Elton John‟s original, which is depicted in the video through the warmth and natural elements in the mise-en-scene such as the rustic colours, autumnal clothing and the forestry setting. • Mood: The general mood of the song is one of love and friendships, and this is depicted in Goulding‟s music video through, again, the interactions between the „characters‟. Because the song is a ballad about love and friendship, the mood is brought through in the video also through the shots of Goulding and friends playing the piano, as well as the flash-backs in
  • 6. How does the video establish genre, mood and expectation of the CD? Bright Lights, 2010; • Expectation of the CD: This music video doesn‟t Polydor. actually help to give off accurate expectations to the target audience because the genre and style of the album as a whole is completely different to that of the singular song. As this is just a cover of a song in comparison to the original songs that make up Goulding‟s album, the genre is completely different, and those watching this video might expect that the rest of the album is going to be compiled of mostly ballads and slower songs, when in reality, her album is described as indie/pop/electronica, shown through the collection of more up-beat „dancey‟ songs. This is evident actually through analysis of her other music videos, which involve lots of studio-sets, bright lighting, fast-pace shots, feminine costumes and dance moves.
  • 7. How successful is this video? Identify which elements work and which do not work for you? I personally really like this video – I think it has a really sweet and innocent tone to it, and the style in which it is filmed in is very unique and individual. However, what I don‟t like about the video is that the „home video‟ style can become quite annoying and irritating to watch, especially when the camera doesn‟t focus all the time. I also feel like some of her „friends‟ aren‟t focussed on as much as they should be, we as the audience don‟t really get to learn who these people are in relation to Goulding‟s life. I could also argue that the content doesn‟t really relate to the corresponding lyrics. I think that the mixture of narrative and „performance‟ is quite good as well, as after every few narrative shots, there is a lengthy performance shot, where either Goulding is seen singing to the lyrics, playing the piano, or in the recording studio. The use of colours, setting and costume also works really well in relation to the genre of the song, and this is what I find makes this video successful.
  • 8. What appears to be the target audience for the music video? People who like the Students outdoors/nature Aged 16 - 24 People who like to travel/explore Target Audience Concert/Music enthusiasts Mostly Females Autumn/Winter /Christmas period Family/Friend ship – oriented people Ellie Goulding Fans Elton John fans – fans of the original song Those who aspire to be like Ellie Goulding
  • 9. How is the audience explicitly targeted in the video? There are specific characteristics of the audience which are represented within the music video in order to target them more specifically. For example, the majority of the audience is likely to be female, and this segment of the audience is targeted through the use of the cat making an appearance – cat‟s are very feminine objects, because they are so cute and innocent, and is likely to make this audience go „aww‟. I think this video also targets the age segment of the audience because of the location, style and content. The age s likely to be older teenagers and young adults, specifically those who are full time students in say, perhaps, university. The content of this video links directly with these people because students are too also likely to travel back to their hometowns in the winter to spend quality time with their friends and family.
  • 10. Identify the institution for this video and the institutional codes employed by the institution: • This video was directed by Dawn Shadforth, a director working under the company, „Sonny London.‟ • Sonny London is based in Westminster, London. • Sonny London‟s „astute eye for spotting and nurturing exceptional talent means that SONNY now represents a stable of the best commercial directors currently on the scene.‟ • Their clients include Kodaline, Tinie Tempah, H&M, Heineken, Qantas Airlines, McDonalds and Emeli Sandé.
  • 11. Identify the institution for this video and the institutional codes employed by the institution: This is an example of what Sonny Films‟ portfolio currently looks at. As you can see from the examples of videos they have produced, you can automatically tell from just the visuals that they work with a specific tone and genre, especially judging by the use of really natural, rustic colours. One of the biggest institutional codes employed by this company is the retro/vintage look they denote in the majority of their music videos. All of their videos, whether they be advertisements or music videos all use the same musty and rustic colour scheme, connoting a warm, autumnal mood and tone. Those that do not employ this tone have a slightly more fun cartoon-like theme to them.
  • 12. What are the key selling points of this video? • The concept of this video is looking at how a cancer patient lives out the rest of her life with her best friend. Because of this shocking, yet very realistic and relatable concept, this is going to act as a major selling point for any audience member, as people may be able to connect with the characters‟ position. • The setting for this video takes place by the seaside in Hastings, which might act as a selling point for the audience both old and young. Younger viewers are likely to sea the funfair setting as really fun and exciting and are likely to want to go there themselves. Older viewers may instantly recognise the setting if they have been their before, and may introduce some childhood memories for them. Both of these concepts are likely to really sell the video for the audience.
  • 13. How does the video establish genre, mood and expectation of the CD? Our Version of Events, • Genre: My Kind Of Love is described as a R&B song 2012; Virgin drawn from a soul genre. Emeli Sandé also shows off her impressive, powerful vocal range in this song, and I think this is well demonstrated in the video through the use of the strong topic of life and death (cancer). The genre of the song is also depicted in the music video through the use of really slow, „dreamy‟ shots of the seaside which puts the viewer in the position of the characters within the video. To also help show the genre of the music video, between scenic shots, simple clips of Sandé on her own singing along to the lyrics also suggest the soul side of the music genre as it adds more drama. • Mood: The general mood of the song is quite slow, sad and arguably quite depressing. The use of a story of a cancer patient initially evokes this mood, as the audience automatically feel sympathetic for her, especially when the shots show her in the hospital alone, and when Sandé gives her the wig to cover her head. The mood of the song also suggests a theme about love and friendships, which is shown in the music video through the interactions between the two characters, and the flashbacks of the two of them when they were younger
  • 14. How does the video establish genre, mood and expectation of the CD? Our Version of Events, • Expectation of the CD: I think this music video is 2012; Virgin actually a very accurate representation of the CD itself, but I think that is helped by the fact that the album in general is very monotone; that all of the songs have a very similar sound and genre. I personally find that the album has a very everyday easy-listening vibe to it, and I think this is represented in the music video by the choice of a shocking storyline which has and will somehow affect most people who watch it. Aside from this shocking storyline, there are also really heart-warming, fun elements to the video which hint at the ideas that the CD itself also has a very young, fun vibe to it.
  • 15. How successful is this video? Identify which elements work and which do not work for you? With this video, I love how it uses several flashbacks to tell the story as I think it creates various layers for the video and allows viewers a better understanding of the plot and characters. I also think that the camera shot types are really effective and work well with the corresponding lyrics. For example, a lot of close-ups are used in the „car scene‟ to emphasise on the characters‟ emotions and sadness as she gazes out of the window. I also think that the camera cuts to more of the more fun flashbacks during the chorus which brings a regular pattern in for the play-out of the plot. What I don‟t like about the video is that the plot is dragged out quite a bit during the song, making the overall pace of the shots very slow. It does work very well with this genre of music, but I do find that viewers may find watching the video very slow and boring, and may even turn it off before the very end. I wouldn‟t suggest this is a good video for promoting the CD itself.
  • 16. What appears to be the target audience for the music video? Full-time employee People who live near the seaside Aged 22 - 30 People who may have (specifically been affected by cancer Hastings) in some way Mostly Females Target Scotland Audience Autumn period Family/Friendsh ip – oriented people Emeli Sandé Music enthusiasts and aspiring vocalists Those who aspire to be like Emeli Sandé – those who like her voice
  • 17. How is the audience explicitly targeted in the video? One specific segment of the market that this video will be targeted at is those who live close to the seaside, or can associate nice nostalgic memories of being by the sea, not necessarily Hastings (the setting of this video). This is simply done by using a combination of long shots with the rest of the video to continuously show to the audience where the video is taking place, and to allow a distinction to be made between plot, characters and locations. Seeing this footage may evoke certain warm emotions in the viewer if they can also associate happy emotions with similar occurrences. The characters/actresses are also essential in the video for targeting the family/friendship-oriented viewers, and so are the corresponding shot types. The actress playing the sick girl purposely looks similar to Sandé to open up the idea that they could either be friends, family or lovers. The use of close-ups help to identify the relationship between the two, helping viewers to also feel similar emotions to the people they love around them.
  • 18. Identify the institution for this video and the institutional codes employed by the institution: • This video was directed by Emil Nava, a director working under the company, „Pulse Films‟. •Pulse Films is based in London, and they also have locations set up in LA and Paris. • Pulse Films produces footage for TV and Film, but put most of their pride in their music. “Music forms part of our heritage and is an area where we strive to push the boundaries of what is achievable with creative collaboration.” • Their clients include Very.co.uk, Ed Sheeran, Paloma Faith, Rita Ora, Mumford and Sons, ASOS, Dr. Martens and Converse.
  • 19. Identify the institution for this video and the institutional codes employed by the institution: This is an example of what Pulse Films‟ portfolio currently looks at. As you can see from the examples of videos they have produced, you can automatically tell from just the visuals that they work with a specific tone and genre, especially judging by the use of really natural, rustic colours. In comparison to the first two videos, you can immediately tell that this company is a lot more „mainstream‟ than the others, working more closely with the Pop genre. This is evident through the company‟s use of strong, bold colours and modern settings throughout all of the videos, whether it be advertisments of music videos. I also find that with this company, they work to create strong „characters‟ with the artists themselevs to give them more of an identifiable image.
  • 20. What are the key selling points of this video? • One of the biggest selling points for this video is the use of a really strong, and identifiable plot. I know from experience that with a song like this, you can listen to it once and automatically picture what the video is going to be perceived as, and this is a perfect example. Because of this „sweet‟ storyline, the video as a whole is going to be much more memorable, and will definitely help to sell the single itself. • Characters are also particularly important in this specific video as they are all really relevant and identifiable within the target audience. With a music video that is based around the them of love and relationships, it is quite common to get the stereotype of a white boy falling in love with a white girl, but this video shows no signs of prejudice against different races or bisexual or gay people, as they are all also included in the video, which is likely to sell the video, and the single, to a much wider audience.
  • 21. +, 2011; Asylum, Atlantic How does the video establish genre, mood and expectation of the CD? • Genre:+ „Plus‟ is an album described as a folk, hip-hop soul and acoustic album. I think whils the song itself promotes this sort of a genre for the album, the music video doesn‟t so much, due to the use of more ubran settings, which gives off much more of a rap, electronica or hip-hop vibe. The video does do well in the sense that the plot is based around the theme of relationships and love, and especially heartbreak, which is very stereotypical of the acoustic/folk genre. • Mood: The general mood of the song is quite slow, sad and arguably quite depressing. The use of a story of a cancer patient initially evokes this mood, as the audience automatically feel sympathetic for her, especially when the shots show her in the hospital alone, and when Sandé gives her the wig to cover her head. The mood of the song also suggests a theme about love and friendships, which is shown in the music video through the interactions between the two characters, and the flashbacks of the two of them when they were younger
  • 22. How does the video establish genre, mood and expectation of the CD? +, 2011; Asylum, • Expectation of the CD: The CD, +, has a very mixed Atlantic genre to it, with the vast majority having that easylistening vibe to it, whilst the rest include rap, beatboxing, folk and pop elements within them. I think this music video limits the expectation of the CD, as the style of it and the emotion within the storyline relates more to the songs which have those sadder, easy-listening themes about them, whilst there are no hints of Sheeran's more urban vibe within this video. However, despite the altered expectations concerning genre of the CD, the music video could arguably suggest that the entire CD will also have been made with as much care and attention to detail as the video had been, as looking at the music video, listeners are likely to expect a well-made, fully „polished‟ CD.
  • 23. How successful is this video? Identify which elements work and which do not work for you? I think a lot of the success with this video comes from the suspense created with the enigma code at the very end. With Cupid as the main character, we eventually learn and understand the plot as the song continues, but we never fully understand it as there are multiple assumptions people make as to what happens to Cupid in the very end scene. The choice of Australian actress, Isabel Lucas, was also vital in making this a successful video as it made the whole plot all the more believable because of her acting ability and appearance. The use of costume, setting and other mise-enscene elements also worked well to create verisimilitude in the sense that we as the audience believed that this could realistically happen. I did feel at points however that this video might come across as unsuccessful to some people as they are likely to lose interest, as I feel that, the plot is very short and stretched across a 4-minute video is quite repetitive and dull. It may have been more interesting to build-up the ending more.
  • 24. What appears to be the target audience for the music video? Students, part-time People in London. employment. Aged 18 - 24 All sexualities; straight, gay, bi, etc Mostly Females Target Audience Couples Diverse cultures; a variety of races + religions. Family/Friendship – oriented people Fans of the Australian actress Isabel Lucas. Music enthusiasts and aspiring vocalists Those who aspire to be like Ed Sheeran– those who like his voice or want to play the guitar
  • 25. How is the audience explicitly targeted in the video? Because the biggest theme in this video is the idea of love, it was important for there to be no bias in the video or prejudice, in order to make the video more suitable for the target audience. So to explicitly target this segment of the audience, the producers used a storyline and a large cast of actors of different sexualities and races to ensure „nobody was left out‟. This song is likely to appeal more to women rather than men due to the themes present within the lyrics, and to target this segment of the market, the use of a female central character is important as it allows the viewers to be able to directly connect with her because they might be able to relate more to the plot. If the song had more masculine themes for example, I would expect a male central character instead to create that bond and connection.
  • 26. Is there an identifiable format across these videos? Does this apply for other videos? Is it successful? Across these three music videos, there is definitely an identifiable, recurring format. The music videos all mostly contain a narrative-based plot. However, the first and the second videos have elements of performance within them, whilst the last does not. Similarly, they are all not narrative in the sense that they tell a straight-forward story which has a start, middle and end, or nor do they completely conform to Todorov‟s Narrative Theory, so you might argue that they also all have elements of conceptual within them, making them all a hybrid format. Yes this sort of a format for a music video does apply to others that are out there, and a hybrid is most certainly the most common, but it al depends on the genre of the music and the co-ordinating lyrics. A hybric music video can definitely be identified as successful if it is produced well. The performance-based elements allow for a viewer to make distinct connections between the song and the artist or band, whilst narrative elements allow for the audience to understand the mood of the lyrics and the song all the more. And conceptual-based elements are often thrown in to music videos to give the footage a more creative and attention-grabbing edge. Narrative-based video Performance-based video Concept-based video
  • 27. Why are videos constructed in this way? Like stated before in the previous slide, music videos are constructed in this way in order to directly connect with the target audience. A hybrid would consist of two or more of the three types of music video: performance, narrative and conceptual, and they each have their own advantages. Performance would allow the audience to get to know the artist or band more as it is nice for the viewers to be able to identify who has made the song they are listening to. Narrative allows for an audience to understand the meaning of the song more through the mood portrayed in the plot against the co-ordinating lyrics. And a Conceptual video would give a video that ‘edge’ that makes it stand out from all the rest, giving it a fun element that would definitely make it all the more memorable.
  • 28. Music Vidoes: • • • Your Song – Ellie Goulding My Kind of Love – Emeli Sande Give Me Love – Ed Sheeran
  • 29.  Barthes' Enigma Code is a theory that suggests a text (whether that be television, film, a poster etc) portrays a mystery to draw an audience in, pose questions and, as such, become intrigued in the piece. For instance, a murder mystery will often not reveal the identity of the murderer until the end of the story, which poses the question "Who is the murderer?"
  • 30. • Visual Codes: The visual codes in this music video are essential for identifying the setting and the tone of the video. The video has a very lighthearted, warm tone to it and is set around autumn/winter as the single was released as part of the John Lewis Christmas advert in 2010. in order to evoke this idea certain visual codes were employed, such as aspects of the mise-en-scene. A combination of props/setting is used to show that one of the central themes is the autumnal setting, looking at natural locations such as the forest and including close-ups of autumnal leaves. Costume is also used to connote that the ‘plot’ is occurring in a slightly colder time of the year, with the characters mostly wearing coats, thick boots, hats, scarves and gloves. The cat can also be technically classed as a visual code as it is sort of like a prop/character rolled into one, acting as a connotation for the theme of closeness and happiness.
  • 31. • Audio Codes: Whilst some music videos might include other audio codes such as dialogue and diegetic and nondiegetic sounds, this video only includes the actual song as audio. Whilst a song might be used to set the mood of the plot in a TV drama or film trailer for example, with the music video, it is simply there to allow viewers to make a distinct connection with the song and the actions/characters taking place. The audio of the song is also essential for viewers of the music video as it may allow them to understand the plot a lot better as in this case the actions are symbolic of the meaning of the lyrics. • Narrative Codes: Todorov’s Narrative Theory can be applied to this music video, but only slightly and that is because of the genre and style of the music video. The song itself is quite light-hearted and to match that so is the music video, so it follows Todorov’s theory to some extent as there is a happy equilibrium throughout the plot of the video, but there is no need for disruption so it essential challenges this video. This only works with this video because of the genre of the song.
  • 32. • Action Codes: The action codes within this video are very basic in order to reflect the dreamy, light-heartedness of the song. The basic action that takes place is the ‘journey’ at the start of the video showing Goulding and friends travelling to her home town in numerous different shots. The only other main actions shown are Goulding and friends again exploring the forest together, and simple shots of Goulding in the recording studio and on her rooftop at home. This is all reflected through the different shot types and the pace of the editing of them. The most important actions include shots of Goulding mouthing the corresponding lyrics to allow viewers to really connect with the song, and also add a ‘performance’ element to the video. • Enigma Codes: With this video in particular there are no enigma codes because the plot looks at flashbacks of a journey, so the question of ‘where are they going’ or similar is answered for us throughout. This is one of the downsides to this video as there is no real hook to draw in the attention of the viewers and keep them interested.
  • 33. • Technical Codes: Technical codes include the editing of the video, which might be the pace, the special effects etc. ‘Your Song’ has a very unique editing style to it, where the majority of it is shot in a ‘home-video’ style. The editing of the video was done purposely to give off this effect, including the shots to flicker slightly as they change and the camera is often slightly un-level to give the impression that one of Goulding’s friends is filming rather than professional cameramen. The colours of the shots all also appear to have had the brightness reduced to give the colours a slightly duller, but more natural tone to them to suit the genre of the song. The pace of all of the shots are quite short to match the pace of the music but are long enough for viewers to focus on what is happening in each frame. The editing of the video also appears to have included some blurring techniques to some of the frames to also give off the impression of a home-video. The effectiveness of all of this is that it gives the video a much more personal feel about it.
  • 34. • Visual Codes: One of the biggest visual codes within this music video is the use of setting. There are two primary settings; the hospital and the fairground/seaside location, and these are essential in identifying the sort of mood within the video and the song. The hospital connotes a sad mood whilst the fairground contrasts with a happier memory or mood. The lighting is also essential as it starts off quite dull and gloomy to connote a sad emotion again, but then it brightens to suggest happiness, before ending again how it started. Props are more evident in this video compared to the first, such as the wig, as this helps viewers to identify that the ill girl is likely to have cancer. Towards the end of the video the camera focuses a lot on the two ‘characters’ eating the sweets, which acts as a major prop as they connote a child-like quality in the two women and evoke more of a fun emotion within this section of the video.
  • 35. • Audio Codes: Much like the first video, this video for ‘My Kind Of Love’ doesn’t feature any other audio elements, which is effective as it allows the viewer to focus more on the song, but this video could have perhaps included some audio elements such as fairground noises to help identify the location better and add a stronger sense of verisimilitude, but again may have taken the focus away from the song. • Narrative Codes: There is a definite sense of Todorov’s Narrative Theory in this music video, but it is arguably challenged and doesn’t conform as the order of events is slightly different. The video arguably starts with the disequilibrium as the characters look distressed and are unhappy. When Sande enters the video, she brings the equilibrium when she takes her ill friend out for a nice day, but a disequilibrium is then produced again when we are left the characters looking sad and upset again. This links with the Enigma Code (SEE NEXT SLIDE.)
  • 36. • Action Codes: Because of the genre of the song, there is no real action such as dance moves or performance elements, but there are key action elements to the overall plot, as this is what allows the audience to understand the message behind the lyrics. The first key action is Sandé escaping the hospital with her friend in the wheelchair – this shows to audiences that the girl is clearly sick and needs cheering up. The second key action is the fairground scene where the two characters cheer each other up and have fun. The last is shots of Sandé mouthing to the lyrics. These ‘action’ elements are essential in understanding the enigma and narrative codes. • Enigma Codes: There is a definitive storyline in this video in this video in comparison to the first. There are a few enigma codes in this video which are useful as acting as a ‘hook’ device to draw in the attention of the audience and retain it. Firstly, we don’t know for sure why the ill girl is in hospital, and we don’t know what is going to happen to her. As the plot progresses we also get the enigma code that we don’t know where Sandé is taking her, which causes us to continue watching. The final shots show Sandé in the waiting room alone and it makes us wonder what has happened to the girl and where she has gone, and this is never resolved.
  • 37. • Technical Codes: The first frame I find is actually far too long and could perhaps bore the audience, but is essentially done to set-up the overall mood and tone of the video based on the genre of the song. The different shot cuts are really effective however as it gives the impression of flashbacks and also acts as a hook device as it makes the audience wonder what has happened to the characters and what will happen. It also adds different levels to the video and prevents the viewers being bored from the same plot. The different shot types are also really important in this video, especially the over-the-shoulder shots of the ill girl as this places us as the audience in her shoes and allows us to sympathize more. Close-ups are also frequently used as they focus on the severity of the situation and helps to evoke emotion from the viewers.
  • 38. • Visual Codes: In comparison to the first two videos, this music video has relatively dark lighting but that is because of the dark connotations the song holds, as well as the plot. Because this singer is a male, the use of dark lighting automatically makes this video a lot more masculine despite the fact that the central character is played by a female. The costume helps for viewers to identify the plot of the video because otherwise the characters would not be as clear as they are. The plot revolves around the idea of ‘Cupid’ but this wouldn’t be as evident without the girl’s costume, as it is her wings and her bow and arrow that identifies her. The same overall setting is used throughout the video – the City of London – and this not only flatters the darker choice of the lighting, but it suits the more urban side of the song’s genre. It also helps to connect with the audience directly as the target audience will typically be those who live in and around London.
  • 39. • Audio Codes: Other than the song playing throughout the duration of the video, at the very start for approximately 20 seconds there is additional audio of police sirens and mumbled talk to add to the verisimilitude of the plot. These sounds make the video look more realistic as it mentally puts the audience in the position of the story and will act as a hook to keep them watching the rest of the video. • Narrative Codes: Todorov’s Narrative Theory doesn’t really apply to this video as much because the majority of the video consists of the disequilibrium, for the central character. There is some equilibrium for the minor characters as they all find love but ‘Cupid’, the central character doesn’t actually find an equilibrium, but we are lead to believe she might possible do at the very last second of the video, but this is unanswered and links in with the Enigma Codes (see next slide).
  • 40. • Action Codes: The key action in the video is the idea of Cupid shooting her arrow and making everyone fall in love, and this circulates throughout the video as the key theme. Unlike most videos, this doesn’t have a particular ‘dance’ action unless you consider the ‘club scene’ towards the end as a ‘dance’. This included action is essential to the audience as it allows them to actually understand the plot and by understanding it they are more likely to continue watching. • Enigma Codes: There is a lot of confusion circling this video including a lot of unanswered questions, which is what we call the Enigma Codes. By creating a lot of mystery within the video, the audience is more likely to become intrigued with the video and continue watching it. To start, we don’t know how Cupid got in the state she is in, but that is revealed in the video. We never find out how she came to live on the Earth and we never find out if Sheeran in his little cameo role finds love, and we don’t really find out what happens to Cupid and the policeman at the end.
  • 41. • Technical Codes: This video if definitely the most technical of the three and involves a lot more detail in both the physical shooting of the footage and the editing. In between action shots there are some location shots of a clock tower where the speed of the shot has been increased to make the motion of the dark clouds look more dramatic and to darken the mood and the tone. A lot of the plot is based on the idea of mystery and confusion, and to add to this particular tone some of the shots have been blurred and distorted to change the way the audience may perceive it. The shots are all relatively slow-paced towards the up until the real build-up of the song to suit the pace of the music itself and also the build-up of the storyline. Once the action gets going and Cupid begins to release her arrows at everyone the shots become much faster, flicking between the different couples she has effected. This is also the only video of the three I have analysed to use graphics. Although only a small amount, graphics have been used to make the arrows ‘disappear’ once they have been fired, making the action look a lot more realistic.
  • 42. Identifying the similar codes within these three music videos is essential to me as it allows me to identify the common conventions of this media format, so that I can then perhaps work on implementing them into my own work. I will look to implement all different kinds of codes into my own music video in order to reach out to my specific target audience and maximize viewers and coverage for my chosen music.
  • 43.  Audio Codes: The audio codes for all three of the music videos are very much the same, as typical elements of this format don‟t normally require other forms to be included in the video as the most important aspect is the music itself. However, with the 3rd video, there was some evidence of additional sound effects to add verisimilitude, but I find this quite distracting in a music video, so I will make the song/music itself the most important audio code in my coursework.  Narrative Codes: Todorov‟s Narrative Theory does apply to all three of the videos, but only partially because this theory applies better to films. This theory can often apply to music videos quite well, but it does depend on the genre, and with the particular genre I have looked at, the theory is mostly challenged, either looking at just an equilibrium, or ending with no equilibrium at all. If the video was to end with a disequilibrium, this is likely to link to an enigma code, as viewers may not be happy with the result, but this will act as a hook device for viewers. With my genre of music video however, I am going to challenge the theory and keep it at a complete equilibrium as this generally suits my light-hearted genre more.
  • 44.   Action Codes: Unless you are looking at a highly stereotypical genre of music such as Rap or Pop, then it is unlikely that you will get any sense of real action in the video. For example, a Pop video will feature dance moves and a Rap video might include a lot of performance-based actions. All of my analyzed videos had very minimal action in them as this suited the lighthearted, indie genre more, and all but one of them featured the artist singing along to the lyrics which is what I will feature in my own video as this is very conventional of this genre. Enigma Codes: With my chosen genre of music, love, friendship and heartbreak is a very common theme for music videos, and so enigma codes often come hand-in-hand with this. Enigma codes were present in all three of the videos, but mostly so in the 2nd and 3rd videos, where we don‟t really find out what happens to the characters towards the end of the video. I will definitely employ this into my own video as they act as great hook devices to keep viewers interested.
  • 45.  Technical Codes: Through this research I have completed, I have seen that editing is often kept really minimal with a music video of my genre, especially as for the artists it is often about the song rather than how interesting the video is. The editing really has to match the meaning behind the song, and so with my video I am going to keep the pace of the video slow-medium like these three videos, but switch continuously between different scenarios, and the past and present, such as in the first and second videos, to build on the emotion of the song. Pacing is really the only major technical codes within these videos, other than the use of text towards the end of the video stating the year of release and the record company, which I will also include in my work. Because of the technology available to me, I won‟t be able to include major graphics in my video, like with the last, but I will be able to play with the colours and filters to help edit my video so it is genreappropriate, like the first video.