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Don't swim in the pool!
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Don't swim in the pool!

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Transcript

  • 1. Don't Swim in the Pool! A case study by Robert and Lauren
  • 2. Background
    • Skin rash infection
    • Hotel A in Bangor Maine
      • February 18-27 2000
    • Nine people affected
    • Stayed in either the hot tub or pool
      • Seven stayed in both
  • 3. Patient Symptoms
    • Folliculitis
    • Rash lasted 7 days or less
    • Some had an infection of the outer ear
  • 4. About the Facilities
    • Hot tub & pool within 5 feet of each other
      • Separate filtration systems
    • Pool had automated chlorination system
    • Hot tub levels were maintained manually
    • During outbreak, chlorine levels were low
      • <1.0mg/L
      • State requirement: 1 to 3 mg/L
    • Facilities were thoroughly cleaned
      • Samples from the top of the pool filter and draining of an ear were cultured
  • 5. More About Folliculitus
    • Inflamed hair follicles
    • Can occur anywhere on the skin
    • Can be bacterial, fungal, viral, or non-infectious
    • Symptoms: rash, pimples/ustules, itching skin, spreading through improper treatment
  • 6. Gram Staining
    • Cells are added to a slide
    • Stained with Crystal Violet, rinsed with water
    • Covered with Grams iodine, rinsed with acetone-alcohol
    • Safranin is added
    • Gram (+) is purple; (-) is pink
    • Patient sample is gram (-)
  • 7.  
  • 8. Selective Differential Media
    • Chose MacConkey Agar
      • Only allows gram negative to grow
        • Contains lactose
    • Spread cells and allowed to grow
    • Results
      • E. coli (control) was gram (-) and had lactose digestion
      • Patient sample couldn't digest lactose, but showed growth
  • 9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility
    • Plate was completely covered with patient sample bacteria
    • Added the antibiotics: Streptomycin, Penicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Gentamicin, Vancomycin
    • Patient sample was resistant to everything, except intermediate to Streptomycin and sensitive to Gentamicin
  • 10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Overview
    • Can cause disease in animals
    • Can be found in soil, WATER , skin flora, most man-made environments
    • Symptoms usually include inflammation
  • 11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell
    • Bacterium
    • Aerobic
    • Rod—shaped
    • Single-polar flagellum
    • Gram negative
      • Cell wall has thin layer of peptidoglycan and thick layer of lipopolysaccharide
  • 12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Metabolism requires little nutrients
      • Acetate as a source for Carbon
      • Ammonium sulfate for Nitrogen
    • Infecting cells
      • Can infect respiratory and urinary systems, too
      • Uses virulence factor extoxin A to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells

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