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Case of the dividing cell

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Case of the dividing cell Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Case of the Dividing Cell By Lauren and Robert
  • 2. Life Cycle of a Cell - Mitosis
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  • 3. Interphase
    • Longest stage
    • 3 stages: G1, S, G2
    • G1 – cell accelerates biochemical processes that were slowed down by mitosis
    • S – DNA replication
    • G2 – chromosomes condense
  • 4. Prophase
    • Spindle fiber is formed
    • Centrioles are duplicated
    • Nuclear envelope begins to break up
  • 5. Metaphase
    • Chromosomes line up in center of cell
  • 6. Anaphase
    • Chromosomes split
    • Move to opposite sides of the cell
  • 7. Telophase
    • Chromosomes are completely separate
    • Nuclear envelope begins to reform
  • 8. Cytokenesis
    • Cells split apart
    • Two daughter cells result
  • 9. Cell Division – Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
    • Prokaryotes use binary fission
    • DNA replicates; strands attach to membrane
    • Cell elongates; DNA separates
    • Cell wall and membrane grow from the center of cell causing division
    • Eukaryotes must go through all the steps of either mitosis or meiosis
  • 10. Meiosis
    • 1 st half (Meiosis 1) is the same as mitosis
    • 2 nd round skips the DNA replication
    • 4 haploid daughter cells result
  • 11. Mitosis vs. Meiosis
    • Mitosis
    • Asexual reproduction
    • 2 diploid cells result
    • Meiosis
    • Sexual reproduction
    • 4 haploid cells result
  • 12. Crossing Over
    • Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes
    • Occurs during Prophase 1 of Meiosis
    • However, similarities in sequences can cause non-homologous chromosomes to cross over with each other.
  • 13. Why is Meiosis Important for Sexual Reproduction?
    • Sexual reproduction uses two haploid cells
    • They combine to produce a diploid offspring
    • If the cells didn't divide a second time to make a haploid, the offspring would have double the diploid