Vietnam War Damian Caruso and Andrew Van Bergen
Dates American involvement in the war – 1 st November 1955 – 30 th April 1975
Australian involvement in war –
Basic Timeline May 1941- Ho Chi Minh establishes the Viet Minh (League for independence of Vietnam) October 26 th 1955- South Vietnam declares itself the republic of Vietnam August 2 nd 1964- North Vietnam attack U.S March 8 th 1965 – U.S combat troops arrive in Vietnam March 16 th 1968 – Heaps of Vietnamese killed by U.S September 3 rd 1969 – Communist revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh died/killed at the age of 79 March 1972 – North Vietnam plan to attack own country (south Vietnam) March 1975 –North Vietnam attack South Vietnam April 30 th 1975 – South Vietnam surrenders to the communists July 2 nd 1976 – Vietnam is unified as a communist country
November 13 th 1982 - Memorial
Domino Theory The domino theory was a theory during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States.
The theory was that if one region or country came under the influence of Communism then surrounding countries would soon follow, like a Domino Effect.
Casualties 58,159 dead - 1719 missing – 303,635 wounded Total deaths throughout the whole Vietnam War = 1,177,462 (highest estimate)
Total amount of people wounded during Vietnam war =
Unpopular war worldwide For the first time in American History, many of the American Citizens (mostly the youth) rose up against their own government and demanded that the Vietnam War be stopped. There were riots and anti government protests where some students were wounded badly and killed. Australia’s involvement in the war dominated the politics in the 1960’s and sharply divided Australian Society.
The majority of Australians supported the involvement in the war in the early years. However, from the start there were small groups opposing the war. They included: - young people and student groups, e.g. university student unions - Save Our Sons - Trade Unions and Left-Wing Groups - the ALP (Labor), led by Calwell, who felt the war was a bad solution to the problem of increasing Communism - some Church leaders and - conscientious objectors
Unpopular war worldwide However, as the war became bogged down, its popularity declined. People questioned the reasons for the war. Television news footage showed horrific casualties particularly for Vietnamese civilians. By the late 1960s the Protest Movement had become more vocal and more widespread across the country. The reason for anti-war protesting was due to: The heavy Vietnamese civilian casualties seen on TV The belief that war is wrong The fact that it was a civil war and Australia should have no involvement The belief that Communism and unity would be better for Vietnam
The fact that Australia should stop following US policy 'blindly'
Napalm Napalm was an incendiary weapon/bomb designed to start fires or destroy enemy equipment. Napalm is the name given to several flammable liquids used in warfare, often forms of jellied gasoline.
Prior to the Vietnam war, Napalm was very rarely used. Its development in the Harvard University in 1942, lead to its rare usage in WWII by U.S forces.
Napalm Its usage throughout the Vietnam war was common, however since the liquid substance was dropped by high speed aircraft, it often resulted in numerous cases of “friendly” fire and civilian casualties. Napalm caused severe burns and even “choked” the enemy, as the flames consumed a lot of the oxygen and suffocated the enemy. Napalm was also used in flame throwers, which were supposedly good for clearing out bunkers.
Napalm's properties are such that it clings to whatever it touches. Smothering it is the only effective way to put it out. Trying to wipe it off only spreads it around, expanding the burn area.