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France Open Data Action Plan - G8 Document Transcript

  • 1. PREMIER MINISTRE Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER 01 Context of the Open Government Data policy in France 02 03 SGMAP / Mission Etalab 20 avenue de Segur 75007 Paris 01 42 75 80 00 Priorities for further development 04 Contact Challenges to be overcome Appendix
  • 2. Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER TITRE FICHE 01 Summary Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................2 1. Context of the Open Government Data policy in France ........................................................................................3 2. Challenges to be overcome.....................................................................................................................................................7 3. Priorities for further development .........................................................................................................................................8 4. APPENDIX .........................................................................................................................................................................................8 APPENDIX 1 Release of high value datasets.................................................................................................................................................13 APPENDIX 2 French Government Roadmap for Open Government Data ....................................................................................18 APPENDIX 3 Handbook on Open Government Data ................................................................................................................................24 APPENDIX 4 Report on the economic models of Open Government Data ..................................................................................37 G8 Open Data Action Plan for France Application of the G8 Open Data Charter of June 18, 2013 This document was produced by the French Prime Minister’s taskforce Etalab (data.gouv.fr) for Open Government Data at the Secretariat General for Modernization of Public Action in consultation with all ministerial departments. It is released under the French government “Open Licence” (“Licence Ouverte”). You are free to reproduce, copy, publish and transmit it; disseminate and redistribute it; adapt, modify, extract and transform it; and reuse it, including for commercial purposes, under the condition that you attribute the document by acknowledging its source and its publication date (6 November 2013). -1-
  • 3. Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER TITRE FICHE 01 Introduction France, its government and its local authorities are strongly committed to Open Government Data. This essential public policy is altogether: 1. A driver of democratic vitality, 2. A strategy to support economic and social innovation, 3. A catalyst for the modernization of public action. Opening and sharing public data is a significant political commitment and stems from a long republican and democratic tradition in France. Article 15 of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted on 26 August 1789, states that "Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of its administration." Pursuant to this principle, France has gradually constructed a public right of access to information and government documents, from the creation of the public archives service and the public statistical service, the adoption of the Access to Administrative Documents Act in 1978 or the creation of a major public service for the dissemination of law, to the transposition of the European directive on Public Sector Information in 2005. With the opening of open data portals for several local authorities in 2010, and the creation in 2011 of the Prime Minister’s taskforce Etalab for Open Government Data, France has added to this democratic imperative a resolute commitment to foster innovation, economic growth and the modernization of public action. The President of the Republic naturally supported the G8 Charter for Open Data adopted at the G8 Summit on 17 and 18 June 2013, where leaders called, in their final communiqué, for "open economies, open societies and open governments". In accordance with the terms of this charter, the present document reviews the context of the Open Government Data policy in France, explains the main difficulties and challenges that it is facing at the moment, and presents the main priorities for further development on which the government intends to work in the future. -2-
  • 4. Context of the Open Government Data policy in France 01 Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER Context of the Open Government Data policy in France France has recognized, since the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, that "Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of its administration". This expectation of public transparency was a common thread throughout our history. It was expressed, for instance, with the recognition of a right to access the national archives (1794), the creation of a major public service for statistical information (INSEE, 1946) or the establishment of a public service for online access to the law. Two essential laws laid the foundations of our republican model in the information society in 1978: the right to personal information protection, based on Act no. 78-17 of 6 January 1978 on dataprocessing, data files and individual liberties; and the right to access government data, stemming from Act no. 78-753 of 17 July 1978 on the right to access administrative documents. These are defined as follows: "(…) whatever their date, their place of retention, their form and their media, the documents produced or received as part of their public-service duties by the State, local governments and other persons coming under public or private law responsible for such duties. Such documents include dossiers, records, studies, reports, minutes, statistics, directives, instructions, circulars, notes and ministerial replies, correspondence, opinions, forecasts and decisions. (…)" (Article 1). The right to access administrative documents has been recognized as a public freedom by the Council of State (EC, 29 April 2002, U., no. 228830). In 1997, the Government extended the principle by deciding to make "essential public data" available online free of charge. In 2003, Directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council dated 17 November 2003 on the reuse of public sector information, transposed by the order dated 6 June 2005 and the decree dated 30 December 2005, aimed to facilitate the reuse of existing documents held by public-sector organizations. Decree no. 2011-577 dated 26 May 2011, on the reuse of public information held by Government and the public sector, established the principle of free and open reuse of public data. French Open Data policy was enhanced with the creation of taskforce Etalab (data.gouv.fr) by Prime Ministerial decree of 21 February 2011. Attached to the Secretariat General for the Modernization of Public Action, under the authority of the Prime Minister, taskforce Etalab is responsible for coordinating public administrations — and supporting other entities with a public service mission — in order to release their public data; developing the national Open Data platform data.gouv.fr to that effect; and encouraging the reuse of public data by government itself as well as the private sector. On 18 October 2011, the government announced the creation of the Open Licence (“Licence Ouverte”) for open government data, which aims at enabling free reuse of public data, at no charge and as broadly as possible. It was designed through an extensive consultation process with all relevant stakeholders within government and amongst civil society. On 17 May 2012, the ministers of the new government adopted a Charter of Ethics in which they committed to promoting the release of open government data and its free reuse. On 28 February 2013, at the government seminar on digital policy, the government presented its roadmap for opening and sharing public data (see Appendix 2). -3-
  • 5. 01 Context of the Open Government Data policy in France On 17 September 2013, to clarify this policy and widen its understanding by public sector agents, the Prime Minister also release a circular and a handbook on open government data (see Appendix 3). Lastly, on 18 June 2013, President François Hollande adopted, along with the Heads of State and governments of the G8, the G8 Open Data Charter, widely supported by France. Main elements of context The specific context of French Open Data policy is summarized below. Governance and Leadership Structure: 1. Political Leadership: the Prime Minister determines and conducts Open Data policy in France. It was specifically outlined in the Open Data roadmap dated 28 February 2013, and is regularly updated during the meetings of the Inter-ministerial Committee on the Modernization of Public Action (CIMAP) where all ministers with jurisdiction over the modernization of public action regularly convene. 2. Inter-ministerial supervision: taskforce Etalab at the Secretariat General for the Modernization of Public Action (SGMAP) — placed under the authority of the Prime Minister and available to the Ministry for the Reform of the State, the Civil Service and Decentralization — is responsible for coordinating and supporting the release of data by national administrations and agencies, to encourage the broadest-possible reuse of their public sector information. 3. Network of coordinators and correspondents: An Open Data Steering Committee brings together the Open Data coordinators who were appointed in each ministerial Secretary General. It meets regularly to coordinate the action of the departments, and organizes a network of correspondents within the civil service tasked with identifying and releasing public data. 4. Modernization of public action: the Prime Minister has also requested all ministries to specify their strategies for opening public data in their "ministerial programs for modernization and simplification" (PMMS). 5. Assessment, expert-appraisal and advice: the "Guidance Council for public publishing and administrative information" (COEPIA) provides assessment, expert-appraisal and advice to the Prime Minister in the fields of public publishing, administrative information and the provision of public data. It oversees the allocation of resources and the quality of information services provided to users. Supporting Public Administrations and Agencies: On 17 September 2013, the Prime Minister issued a circular to Cabinet members stressing the importance of Open Government Data policy. It requested the wide dissemination to public sector agents of a handbook of Open Government Data intended to broaden their understanding of this policy, the challenges they may face and the operational solutions to apply it in their department. This practical guide aims at providing concrete answers to questions that public agents may currently have (see Appendix 3). The ministerial coordinators on the Open Data Steering Committee have also developed a network of about 250 correspondents within their respective departments and agencies. Based on their unique domain expertise, these correspondents work in a horizontal and decentralized fashion to identify the public datasets each or their institutions produce as part of the public service they supply, and release them as open data. -4-
  • 6. Context of the Open Government Data policy in France 01 Engagement with Stakeholders: As much as possible, the French government intends to make Open Data a part of its broader effort to modernize policy-making in consultation with civil society — notably engaging with the following stakeholders: 1. Local authorities: Data.gouv.fr is open to all local authorities that wish to use it to release open data to the public. Taskforce Etalab also regularly consults with the local authorities that have spearheaded local open data policies in their constituencies. Etalab is also a founding member of “Open Data France”, a non-profit established on 9 October 2013 to bring together French local authorities committed to opening their data. 2. The innovation ecosystem: Taskforce Etalab established the “Dataconnexions” initiative to encourage data-driven innovation. This series of contests aims at fostering innovation around public data reuse, by engaging with the key stakeholders of the French innovation ecosystem to help support the development of data-driven startups and projects. 3. Civil Society: On 14 may 2013, Etalab set up a network of experts, bringing together citizens, civil society and researchers to help define the future orientations of the French government’s Open Data policy. 4. Research: By supporting the Datalift research project, through its network of experts and through the open public debate on research data (announced in the government's Open Data Roadmap), Etalab seeks to encourage the use of public data for research as well as the development of data sciences. As an example of this commitment to openness and inclusiveness, the new Open Data platform data.gouv.fr that will be launched in December 2013 was designed following an open, collaborative design consultation. This “co-design” process resulted in more than 60 substantial written contributions, and civil society organized more than 9 consultation events throughout France. Platform: Datasets released by public administrations, national agencies as well as some local authorities are made available to the public on the national Open Data platform data.gouv.fr. This platform: 1. Explains the key features of the government’s Open Data policy to public data users; 2. Supplies access to raw data and a useful description of all datasets, in order to make them understandable and easily re-usable. 3. Provides data in open formats to ensure anyone can access it easily and free of charge. 4. Provides data under an Open Licence so that anyone has the right to reuse it as broadly as is made possible by law. 5. Seeks to highlight innovative applications of open data. -5-
  • 7. Context of the Open Government Data policy in France 01 International activities: France — represented in particular by taskforce Etalab — cooperates with its international partners and multilateral institutions to encourage openness and reuse of data in France, Europe and throughout the world: 1. European "PSI" Directive: France played an important role in revising the European Directive on Public Sector Information ("PSI"), particularly through our permanent representation to the European Union. 2. Bilateral discussions with our diplomatic partners: France has encouraged the development of Open Data policies amongst its international partners, through discussions on best practices and participation in conferences or technical-assistance taskforces. In particular, it has established a dialogue with the governments of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. 3. Work with the OECD on Open Government: France takes part in the effort to encourage the development of transparent and open governments amongst the countries of the Deauville Partnership, in connection with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 4. Discussions with the W3C on meta-data formats: taskforce Etalab has participated in the work carried out by the W3C aiming to define the open DCAT standard, which seeks to facilitate the exchange of meta-data between catalogues of open data. -6-
  • 8. 2. Challenges to be overcome 02 Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER Challenges to be overcome Encouraging the publication of comprehensive, high-quality and sustainable data: encouraging the publication of comprehensive and high-quality data — particularly data with a strong societal impact or high potential for economic and social innovation — by simplifying the use of data.gouv.fr; by improving the understanding of Open Data by public agents who release it; and by stressing the rules for the protection of privacy and the legal and regulatory context of public sector information. Updating the economic model of public data provision: updating the economic model for the provision of public data, particularly for high value data produced by large public sector operators; ensuring the quality of the data being released, and that its production and continuous collection are sustainable; while fostering open access and free reuse. Developing a data-driven culture to modernize public action: encouraging the development of innovative applications of data reuse; making openness a key aspect of the governance of large public sector information systems; defining the data quality improvement effort expected of the civil service; and, lastly, developing the application of data sciences by the public sector itself, based on Open Data as an instrument of the modernization of public action, in order to develop a real culture of experimentation and data-driven policy-making. -7-
  • 9. 3. Priorities for further development 03 Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER Priorities for further development This section explains the main priorities for further development of Open Government Data policy that the government has assigned to itself in order to implement the G8 Open Data Charter. Commitment 1: Progress towards publishing data openly by default Public declaration of intent France made an official announcement of its Open Data policy when it was introduced in 2011 (see Context). Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault stated the main principles of France's Open Data policy on the occasion of the first Inter-ministerial Committee on the Modernization of Public Action (CIMAP) on 18 December 2012; and on 28 February 2013, at the government seminar on digital policy, the government presented its roadmap for Open Government Data (see Appendix 2). High value data The French government’s Open Data policy supports the release of high value datasets in order to improve the functioning of our democracies and encourage innovative applications of public data reuse. Amongst these, the following core datasets are already available on data.gouv.fr: 1. National statistics (macro-economic database, population census) 2. National maps (selection of IGN maps and databases) 3. Election results 4. National budgets (Finance Acts and associated budgetary appendices). The government is committed to working with the various departments and agencies that produce these datasets, and to continuously improve their accessibility, granularity and accuracy. In order to progress towards publishing open data by default in the various categories recognized as being of high value to the public by the G8 Charter, the government has adopted the following main directions for further development: Category of high-value data Commitment Worldwide development IATI format publication as announced at the July 2013 meeting of the Inter-ministerial Committee for International Cooperation and Development Environment Open public debate on environmental risks data -8-
  • 10. 3. Priorities for further development 03 Finance and markets Open public debate on public finance data Mobility and social protection Open public debate on housing data Health Open public debate on health data Science and research Open public debate on higher-education and research data Transport and infrastructure Open public debate on transportation data Appendix 1 ("Release of high value datasets") gives additional details on the government’s commitments to improve access to these and other high value data categories. Generalizing the principle of free-of-charge public data reuse To facilitate access to data and its reuse by all, the Prime Minister stressed the principle of free-ofcharge public data reuse at the first meeting of the Inter-ministerial Committee on the Modernization of Public Action on 18 December 2012. In order to progress towards the broader cost-free reuse of open data, he set up a task force to assess the existing royalty fees and their economic models. Its conclusions are aimed at encouraging the reuse of public data while preserving the high-quality and sustainable production of this data (a summary of this report is available in Appendix 4). Extending Open Data policy The government is also studying: 1. Broadening Open Data policy beyond national administration and to all public agencies, to the holders of public-service concessions, to local authorities and to independent administrative authorities; 2. The extension of Open Data policy to industrial and commercial public sector operators, to public enterprises and to civil society. Commitment 2: Build an open platform to encourage innovation and transparency Open Data Platform The French government publishes its open data on the national open-data platform data.gouv.fr. Launched on 5 December 2011, data.gouv.fr makes available, through an identified access point, open public data and associated resources (methodological files, etc.) and its description (meta-data) to facilitate reuse. 18 months after it was opened, data.gouv.fr had received more than one million unique visitors, who consulted more than 5 million pages and downloaded more than 500,000 files. -9-
  • 11. 3. Priorities for further development 03 Co-Design: 2nd generation of data.gouv.fr After two years of work on data.gouv.fr, which saw the emergence and maturity of a French Open Data community, on 10 April 2012, Etalab began a "Co-Design" operation, a collaborative co-design process that broadly brought together the open-data ecosystem and the conclusions of which fuelled the development of a new version of the data.gouv.fr platform. It will be opened to the public by the end of 2013. This next generation of the platform is a complete overhaul based on Open Source tools. It will take into account usage feedback, user suggestions, requirements related to the increase in resources made available online, the increase in the number of Open Data portals and new audiences interested by the opening of public data. Encouraging data reuse for innovation and transparency Following the Co-Design process, the next version of the "data.gouv.fr" platform was designed as a platform open to all contributions and improvements shared by citizens. This open design will improve the quality of data, encourage its use in the public debate for improving transparency and promote innovation based on open data. Commitment 3: Develop Open Data policy in consultation with citizens and civil society Open public debates To promote the opening of strategic and high-quality data which can be used to create services that are useful on a daily basis, whether they are desired by citizens because of their democratic or practical character, or because they meet a legal or regulatory requirement, taskforce Etalab will organize six open public debates on specific themes to identify and publish new sets of data, covering the following topics: Q Health Q Housing Q Higher education and research Q Transport Q Environmental risks Q Public expenditure These debates will lead to a report that will be presented to the relevant ministries and that will make recommendations on coherent datasets that should be made open and available, specifying the benefits expected from these new releases. Through consultation mechanisms, these debates will associate civil society and the various stakeholders to the development of the recommendations. - 10 -
  • 12. 3. Priorities for further development 03 Network of experts On 14 May 2013, Etalab set up its network of experts to bring together citizens, civil society and researchers to help define the future orientations of the French government’s Open Data policy. Comprising of qualified individuals and thought leaders, its purpose is to provide taskforce Etalab with its feedback and advice on France Open Data and Open Government strategy, specifically taking into account its knowledge of best practices concerning access to and reuse of data, data sciences and current trends in technology and computer science. The network of experts provides feedback on policies and procedures it is presented with by taskforce Etalab, may issue recommendations on the public data to be opened on data.gouv.fr, and may also propose measures to accelerate the deployment of Open Data and Open Government in France. Commitment 4: Support open innovation in France and throughout the world Catalyze the emergence of an ecosystem of innovators Taskforce Etalab will continue to support open data reuse projects by startups, innovative companies, non-profits and large industrial groups. It will develop the DataConnexions program further in order to foster and promote the most promising and exemplary cases of data-driven innovation based on Open Data. Encourage open standards and formats The government has emphasized its commitment to open formats and will continue the provision of data that, to the greatest extent possible, can be machine-readable in bulk. It will also progress towards the automated provision of data through Application Programming Interfaces (API), to encourage the creation of innovative applications of data reuse by the community of developers and hackers. To ensure fair access to information and allow access to innovation for all, France is encouraging the release of data under free and open formats, as well as the development of open applications. Insofar as possible, the government will favor the development of web and mobile sites in open formats for its online public services, rather than mobile applications on proprietary platforms. - 11 -
  • 13. 3. Priorities for further development 03 Encourage the opening of data throughout the world France reinstates its strong commitment to international and multilateral cooperation around transparency and open government, through the continuation of its technical-assistance missions that it has already carried out with its partners, by opening the Dataconnexions competitions to an international audience and by widely supporting the best practices that it implements domestically, with the translation and international dissemination of the French government’s “Handbook on Open Government Data”. The government believes that international cooperation is particularly important in the field of transparency, Open Data and Open Government, which it strongly encourages as an avenue towards a more open and a more transparent world. - 12 -
  • 14. APPENDIX 04 Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER APPENDIX 1 Release of high value datasets France is committed to an ambitious Open Data policy. A significant amount of public data has already been made accessible to all, particularly through the data.gouv.fr platform and the local platforms of local authorities. In its roadmap dated 28 February 2013, the French Government expressed the wish to promote the opening of strategic and high-quality data, whether it is used to create services that are useful on a day-to-day basis, whether it is desired by citizens due to its democratic or practical character, or whether its publication meets a legal or regulatory requirement. The procedures for identifying data to be opened, in connection with the members of the network of Open Data correspondents within departments and agencies, allow us to move towards a principle of open data by default. To put this principle in practice, the government has set itself specific objectives over the next two years, aimed at releasing high value datasets among essential data categories to improve the functioning of our democracies and encourage innovation. Criminality and justice The government currently makes the list of all criminal activity recorded by the Police and the Gendarmerie, each month, in each department and in more than a hundred categories of crimes and offences, available on data.gouv.fr. To improve the precision and granularity of this data, the Government will begin work to publish, by 2015, more precise data on the location of events recorded. The Ministry of Justice, through the Statistics and Studies Sub-directorate (SDSE) will work to make aggregate statistical data on convictions assigned to criminal records available in a reusable format by 2015. Culture Public data from the cultural sector contributes to educating citizens and children, favoring the spread of culture and the transmission of knowledge, while renewing the link between citizens and their culture. The Ministry of Culture and Communication intends to deliver its full support to the Government’s Open Data policy, and to encourage the further development of the data economy that is arising. It commits to publishing a strategic roadmap on cultural Open Data which will inform its digital economy policy, and to open sets of public data from the cultural sector more broadly, following on the recommendations of its recent "Data Culture" report. - 13 -
  • 15. APPENDIX 04 International development In accordance with the decision of the Inter-Ministerial Committee for International Cooperation and Development dated 31 July 2013, France will aim to publish its data on development aid in the format of the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI), starting as soon as 2014 for priority partner countries. Education The Ministry of National Education and the National Office for Education and Career Information (ONISEP) will work on the online availability of data on education to provide better information to parents on available school services, the number of teachers, the number of pupils in establishments and the localization of educational establishments. Environment To promote the release of strategic and high-quality data on environmental risks, taskforce Etalab will organize an open public debate in connection with the Ministry of Environment, Sustainable Development and Energy, to identify and publish new datasets in this field. To improve the provision of information to citizens on water quality, the National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environments (ONEMA) will work on releasing data from the information system used by the public services covering water and sewerage. Finance and public contracts To promote the release of high-quality strategic data on public finances, taskforce Etalab will organize an open public debate in connection with the financial ministries to identify and publish new sets of data in this field. Public contracts (awarded or future): the Ministry for the Economy and Finance will work to publish, by 2015, all of the data relative to the assignees of public contracts awarded by the State. It will also undertake to improve the provision of data on the assignees of other public contracts, particularly those awarded by local authorities. Local or national budget (planned or implemented): the Ministry for the Economy and Finance will work to scale, generalize and accelerate the provision of data on the initial and revised Finance Acts, and on the data contained in the Finance Acts’ "yellow" budgetary appendices. Details of public expenditure: The Budget Ministry and the Ministry for the Economy and Finance will work to provide, by 2015, detailed data on Government expenditure beyond an amount to be determined. - 14 -
  • 16. APPENDIX 04 Mobility, social protection and employment Housing: In accordance with the decision of the Inter-ministerial Committee on the modernization of public action (CIMAP) dated 18 December 2012, the Ministry of Territorial Equality and Housing will open, with the support of the SGMAP, a themed public debate on housing data. This debate aims to widely consult civil society and regional authorities to improve openness and the reuse of public data in the field of housing. The Government will work on the provision, by the end of 2015, of public data on rent levels resulting from the work of the national network of rental observatories to be constituted. Social Security: the government will continue the provision of data on social security so as to promote the assessment of the results and social and economic impact of public policies. Employment market: the government will work on still greater improvement of access for all to data on employment and unemployment. Earth observation Meteorological conditions: The French public weather forecasting service, Météo France, will undertake a study of possible future changes to its economic model. It will continue its work on easier access to and reuse of historical data, observations taken from the meteorological network and forecast data from digital models. Fishing and hunting: the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy will work to provide detailed data on fish resources by 2014. Agriculture: the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry will work to make even more detailed data available on pesticides and will work to facilitate the use of data from the directory of veterinary surgeons and approved laboratories. France also takes part in the “Open Agriculture Data” initiative undertook at the 2012 G8 Summit. This initiative aims to share pertinent agricultural data (for instance: economic data, genetic resources, climate, environment, nutrition, plant protection, etc.) of G8 countries and beyond, to improve food security worldwide, specifically in Africa. France will release data from existing French initiatives in that field and will take necessary steps to ensure that intellectual property protection, privacy concerns and stakeholder platforms interoperability issues are taken into account. - 15 -
  • 17. APPENDIX 04 Accountability, transparency and democracy Election results: The Ministry of the Interior will continue its policy of providing electoral results in a reusable format, and will work on publishing the list of persons elected at each election. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs will also provide the results of elections from polling stations located outside France. Salaries: the Ministry for the Reform of the State, the Civil Service and Decentralization will work to make data available on salary scales and pay grades, particularly for senior positions in the national, local or social civil service. Front offices and points of contact for administrations / laws and regulations: The Directorate of Legal and Administrative Information (DILA) at the service of the Prime Minister will continue its effort to open public data contained in databases and information systems, particularly concerning access to law and legal information. Government activity: The Government Information Service (SIG) is studying means of making available the public data contained in the database of archived sites of previous governments. Health In accordance with the decision of the first Inter-ministerial Committee on the modernization of public action (CIMAP) of 18 December 2012, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health will launch an open public debate on health data. A diverse commission bringing together all relevant stakeholders will present recommendations to the government on improving the openness and ease of re-use of public health data. It will be fueled by the conclusions of the review of the governance of health data from Mr Pierre-Louis Bras, and based on a wide call for contributions from citizens. The government will also study the provision of data relative to hygiene inspections in catering establishments. Science and research The Ministry for Higher Education and Research will undertake an open public debate on research data, with the support of SGMAP. This debate will aim to widely consult civil society and researchers to improve openness and the reuse of public data in the field of higher education and research, and to issue recommendations to encourage the development and applications of data sciences in France. Recognizing the diverse relationships between research activity and public data (data on research, data produced by research, data useful to research, research on data sciences), the Ministry will launch the following two initiatives within this framework: 1. An audit of publicly available information on higher education, specifically on student graduation rates training course by training course, conducted by a multi-party commission bringing together all relevant stakeholders in accordance with Articles 6, 16 and 16a of the framework law for higher education and research. 2. An international scientific conference planned for the beginning of 2014, covering research data and its accessibility, in connection with the Open Data topic of the European framework program "Horizon 2020". - 16 -
  • 18. APPENDIX 04 Transport and infrastructure To allow fair and equal access to mobility for all, the Ministry of the Interior will work on providing data on the results from driving schools. In accordance with the decision of the first Inter-ministerial Committee on the modernization of public action (CIMAP) of 18 December 2012, the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy will launch an open public debate on transport and mobility data, with the support of the SGMAP. This debate will aim to widely consult civil society, re-users, professionals in the sector and users of public-transport systems in order to issue recommendations to the government aiming to improve openness and re-use of public data related to transport and mobility. - 17 -
  • 19. APPENDIX 04 Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER APPENDIX 2 French Government Roadmap for Open Government Data On 28 February 2013, at the government seminar on digital policy, the Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault announced the French government’s "Roadmap for Open Government Data". - 18 -
  • 20. APPENDIX 04 Feuille de route du Gouvernement French Government Roadmap for Open Government Data Opening Government Data: a public freedom and a lever for innovation The French government’s Open Data Strategy is based on Act no. 78-753 of 17 July 1978 on Access to Administrative Documents, defined as follows: “irrespective of their date, place of storage, form or format, documents drawn up or received, as part of their public service mission, by the State, local and regional authorities as well as by other persons and bodies entrusted with such a mission. These documents include files, reports, studies, records, minutes, statistics, orders, instructions, ministerial circulars, memoranda or replies containing an interpretation of positive law or a description of administrative procedures, recommendations, forecasts and decisions…” (Article 1). The right to access administrative documents has been recognized as a public freedom by the Council of State (EC, 29 April 2002, U., no. 228830). In 1997, the Government extended the principle by deciding to make "essential public data" available online free of charge. In 2003, Directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council dated 17 November 2003 on the reuse of public sector information, transposed by the order dated 6 June 2005 and the decree dated 30 December 2005, aimed to facilitate the reuse of existing documents held by public-sector organizations. Decree no. 2011-577 dated 26 May 2011 on the reuse of public information held by Government and the public sector established the principle of open and free reuse of public data. On 21 February 2011, decree no. 2011-194 created the Prime Minister’s taskforce Etalab (data.gouv.fr) for Open Government Data, the mission responsible for creating a single interdepartmental portal for open government data, and for coordinating, managing and hosting the distribution of this public data. With the digital revolution – which facilitates the production, distribution and processing of mass data – sharing and opening public data has become a powerful lever for: Q increasing citizens' trust via greater transparency of public action (e.g. by putting online information on public accounts, pollution or recorded offences); Q allowing new forms of co-production with society and supporting social innovation (such as the Handimap project which, as a result of data from the cities of Rennes and Montpellier, enabled the development of an application for people with motor disabilities to plan their itineraries); Q improving administrative operations (as seen by the heavy use of public data by the public sector itself); Q improving the effectiveness of public action by developing new organizational methods and new work processes (such as road accident monitoring by the road safety authorities enabling improved road layout); Q supporting economic vitality by creating new resources for innovation and growth (as seen by the new, innovative companies which received the DataConnexions awards); Q contributing to France’s international influence and outreach (Open Government Partnership (OGP), International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) and Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)). - 19 -
  • 21. APPENDIX 04 The Government’s commitment to transparency and open government data As of the first Council of Ministers of this mandate, on 17 May 2012, the President of the French Republic asked all members of the Government to sign a code of ethics, in particular recalling their "duty of transparency", their "strict observance of the provisions guaranteeing citizens' access to administrative documents” and their commitment to "work with determination for the free and easy online access to a large amount of public data". As he launched the Government’s Strategy for the Modernization of Public Action on 31 October 2012, the Prime Minister reiterated the principles of the open government data policy set out by the Prime Minister's circular of 26 May 2011, in particular each citizen's right to free and open access to public data, or the strict supervision of charges for reusing public data. By integrating task force Etalab into the General Secretariat for the Modernization of Public Action (SGMAP), the Prime Minister built a global innovation force, bringing together design and overhaul of government IT systems, open government data policy, evaluation of public policies and public policy innovation. Since the first ministerial committee for the modernization of public action (CIMAP) on 18 December 2012, the Government has taken three major decisions shaping its Open Data policy: Q “Reiterate the principle of free and open access to the re-use of public data, and extend it to local governments, public service contractors, social security administrations and independent administrative authorities"; Q “Launch, as of 2013, work on the transparency of public action and institutions, in particular by opening up the debate on making data available in the areas of education, environmental risks, transparency in the health system, transport availability, housing, the clarity of social security benefits and public expenditure.”; Q “Entrust to the SGMAP, in coordination with the Budget Ministry, the mission of assessing the economic models of existing data provision charging scheme, in particular by auditing the associated costs and income. The SGMAP must submit its proposals to the Prime Minister in spring 2013.” Open government data is now well underway in France. In addition to the information shared (but not always reusable) by the public service as regards access to law (Légifrance), the land register or Géoportail (web mapping service), free access has been granted to numerous databases by the administrations, public establishments and local authorities. The Etalab mission developed a national platform for hosting and sharing open, free and reusable public data (data.gouv.fr). It coordinates a network of open data users and data suppliers enabling over 350,000 datasets to be published. Taskforce Etalab also worked on structuring the ecosystem of data re-users (start-ups, associations, etc.), in particular by organizing the ‘DataConnexions’ competition, which allowed it to reward 12 particularly promising projects over two events. - 20 -
  • 22. APPENDIX 04 The Government’s ambition for open government data The Government wants to get the most out of this policy and make it a lever for modernizing public action and supporting economic vitality. 1. Opening strategic public datasets The government wants to encourage the release of high-quality strategic datasets, and wants them to enable the creation of useful everyday services (such as for transport, environment, health, energy consumption, tourism, etc.), to be in demand from citizens due to their democratic or practical nature (budgets and expenditure set out by the administration) or that they meet a legal or regulatory demand (publication of procurement assignees in line with Article 138 of the Public Procurement Code). To do this, as of 2013 the SGMAP’s Etalab mission will organize six thematic and open public debates in order to identify and publish new datasets. These debates will be entrusted to a committee comprising the SGMAP and the relevant ministry, with a rapporteur or secretariat provided by Etalab; a report will be drawn up, submitted to the Prime Minister and the relevant minister, who will make recommendations as regards the coherent release of data and will set out the benefits that can be expected. In this framework, the Government will examine the possibilities: Q of expanding the strategy to open up public data to all public administrative establishments, to public service contractors, to local and regional authorities and independent administrative authorities; Q of extending the policy to open up public data to industrial and commercial public service missions, public companies and associations. Furthermore, the Prime Minister has asked all ministers to set out their strategy for opening up public data in ministerial modernization and simplification programs, to be sent by mid-March. 2. Facilitate and improve the process of opening up public data in ministerial departments, public sector bodies and local government In 2013, Etalab will open a new version of the data.gouv.fr platform. While maintaining its task of widely distributing raw data, it will eventually become a public showcase for opening up and sharing public data. In particular, it will offer useful technical tools for taking ownership of said data (data visualization tools, statistical processing, etc.). Special attention must be paid to data indexation, its semantic treatment and links between this data. Etalab, in collaboration with local and regional authorities and other public data producers, will work on listing and presenting all freely-accessible and reusable public data, regardless of its source. Similarly, Etalab will continue discussions with data suppliers on the importance of open formats and the potential for technical convergence, and will set out to bring about greater interoperability between the data.gouv.fr platform and the information systems of state, local and regional authorities and European institutions. Furthermore, as of 2013 Etalab will also launch on a roadmap for the distribution of public data via application programming interfaces (APIs). - 21 -
  • 23. APPENDIX 04 3. Support innovative uses of data and an ecosystem of developers The State promotes the maximum re-use of public data so that this policy of opening up supports a strategy of innovation, including social innovation, and economic growth. Government is the main user of high-quality public data Public data is produced as part of a public service mission and the public service is often the first beneficiary of their opening up. The production, collection and publication of data by the administration must meet the needs of a high-quality public service. Etalab must therefore be available to administrations to allow them to take these opportunities. In particular, it will organize training sessions, could arrange ad-hoc workshops to analyze the potential of certain applications in the opening up of public data (e.g. fight against unemployment) and will publish analysis notes of successful cases. Government promotes the reuse of public data by companies to create innovative services Etalab will continue to support innovative companies, the social and cooperative economy as well as the major industrial groups in their public data re-use projects. In 2013, it will organize three DataConnexions competitions, which will help identify and make known exemplary re-uses and will support the organization of the French national open data conference, in collaboration with the Ministry for Industrial Renewal, the Ministry for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and the Ministry for the Social and Cooperative Economy. Government supports the commitment of citizens and associations to public data innovation for the greater good and improved public services Supporting the commitment of citizens and civic entrepreneurs to co-produce certain information, to design new services or to help public actors to meet certain challenges is an integral part of Etalab’s missions. In particular, it will organize competitions mobilizing citizens around data and objectives shared by the State. Support and promote data science research ‘Big Data’, the transformation of value chains, strategies and organizations based on the "data culture" characterize the current forms of the digital revolution. To monitor this rapid revolution, Etalab, using the same resources, will increase its cooperation with the sphere of higher learning and research and by the end of 2013 will establish a panel of experts, bringing together technological experts, data science specialists, jurists, economists and re-users (entrepreneurs or association leaders). 4. Transparency and a culture of data for the modernization of public action The opening of public data is a major tool for the transformation of public services, in order to improve its quality and enable it to be assessed by all users. Whenever relevant, the SGMAP will make sure to build quantitative benchmarks, if possible in real time, to evaluate public policies, so that they can create useful tools for driving these public policies. As set out by the CIMAP on 18 December 2012, the SGMAP will work on designing innovations in the public services, using public data. 5. Exhaustive evaluation of existing data charging schemes At the CIMAP on 18 December 2012, the Prime Minister, in collaboration with the Budget Ministry, gave the SGMAP the task of assessing the economic models of existing charging schemes for data provision, notably by auditing the associated costs and income. These recommendations will be submitted in the first half of 2013. Etalab and the SGMAP will help administrations which market public information support the development of their economic models. Observance of the principle of citizens’ free and open access to reusable public data should not preclude developing monetization strategies for high value-added services or creating platforms. - 22 -
  • 24. APPENDIX 04 6. The evolving legal and administrative framework of open government data A vade mecum recalling the legal framework for making public data available will be sent to the Ministries to facilitate their commitment to opening up their data. In particular, on the occasion of the revision of Directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 17 November 2003 on the re-use of public sector information, the Government will hold consultations aimed at updating, where necessary, the legal definitions governing the right to access and re-use public data. 7. France’s international action Finally, the Government places particular importance on France's influence in the world on the topics of transparency, Open Data and Open Government. Task force Etalab will help support European Union open data platform projects (in particular the site launched in early 2013 by the European Commission (http://open-data.europa.eu/open-data/). Furthermore, France is considering the opportunity of joining the Open Government Partnership (OGP) to enter into successful cooperation with other governments working in that area. It will come in closer contact with the Partnership in order to examine the terms of membership. Furthermore, France intends to make a significant commitment to multilateral cooperation based around an approach of transparency and Open Government. - 23 -
  • 25. APPENDIX 04 Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER APPENDIX 3 Handbook on Open Government Data On 13 September 2013, the Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault sent members of the government a circular announcing the publication of a "Handbook on Open Government Data". This guide to France's policy on opening public data aims to facilitate the commitment of ministries to this process, stressing the issues involved in sharing public data. It supplies a guide to its implementation, providing practical questions and answers related to Open Data. The distribution of this handbook to all ministries and all regional authorities will allow all agents concerned to become involved in an ambitious policy of opening public data at the service of modernizing public actions, democracy and economic dynamism. - 24 -
  • 26. APPENDIX 04 Handbook on Open Government Data September 2013 ” # 4  "
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  • 46.  ) 7 These are just some of the questions every civil servant responsible for the delivery of a public service should now ask himself or herself. This handbook sets out to provide clear, concise answers. 1. Why open and share public data ? A priority for government action The Government attaches great importance to ensuring open access and reuse of public data (“Open Data”). This policy is essential to the construction of a more open, more effective government. It is a major dimension in the life of our democracy and the modernisation of government. It is also an important tool for the stimulation of economic dynamism and innovation. On 17 May 2012 this priority was part of the Code of Ethics signed by all members of the government at the very first meeting of the Council of Ministers of its term in office. It is reflected in eleven decisions taken at the first three meetings of the Interministerial Committee on government modernisation (Comité interministériel pour la modernisation de l’action publique – CIMAP), chaired by the Prime Minister on 18 December 2012, 2 April and 17 July 2013. An ambitious strategic roadmap was adopted at the government seminar on the digital economy on 28 February 20131. It is also a declared commitment to which France has subscribed with the adoption of the G8 Open Data Charter on 18 June 2013 by the Heads of State and Government of the G82.
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  • 74. APPENDIX 04 A programme for more open, more exemplary and more effective government (“Open Government”) Ensuring that information is openly available and can be shared is the way in which a modern State can stay accountable to the people, open up dialogue with civil society and place its trust in the collective intelligence of its citizens. It is also – in many cases – a way of simplifying the internal operations of the State: government departments are the primary beneficiaries of open access to the data they have created for the requirements of public service. Open data are often better data, since data sharing between departments makes it possible to build more comprehensive systems and public officials gain from the ability to base their work on data produced by other officials for public service tasks similar to their own. It is also a tool for the construction of working relationships with actors with a passionate interest in the public good who will be enabled to extend government action by designing new services that will be useful to the public at large. A number of examples of open public data show the extent to which this policy can be a foundation for a new relationship between the State and its citizens: encouraging straightforward consultation of information and thus responding to questions raised by users of public services, permitting the formation of viewpoints other than those of the State, enriching local democratic debate, fostering the development of public services for the disabled, facilitating the introduction of new services that make access to public services easier, the creation of interactive maps, and so on. And lastly, it is a tool for building trust through open, transparent policy-making both at national level and in international relations. A strategy for innovation and stimulation of the economy Since the digital revolution, data has also taken on central importance in the economy. Open, shared public data will enable access to essential information that will deepen the analysis of many decision-makers, save time and money, and, in many sectors, allow for better informed decisions to be reached by all actors, as well as encourage the development of many high valueadded services, e.g. in tourism, transport, health and control of energy consumption. It is therefore both a strategy for sovereignty and in many cases a major tool for economic development. Which data are covered by the open data policy? All the data produced or held by government and covered by the open data policy (see the definition below) must be shared, free of charge, and must be freely reusable. First and foremost, it is important to provide open and shared data in areas likely to be important for democracy or to present benefits for those reusing the data. This means that complete data series, data suitable for building reference information, frequently updated data, geo-localized data and data relating to the transparency of official actions are particularly relevant. Annex 2 lists some examples of data that are frequently reused. - 26 -
  • 75. APPENDIX 04 2. The legal framework for open public data What exactly are “public data”? In ordinary parlance the expression “public data” is sometimes conflated with “all data accessible on line”. This is not the meaning of “public data” in the context of Open Government Data policy, which is based on the legislation about access to official documents and the European directive on the reuse of public sector information. The open data policy covers information and data produced or received by official bodies in connection with their delivery of public services, published by official bodies, or available for communication to any person requesting it. The information concerned must be presented in a format suitable for automatic processing and reuse. French law 78-753 of 17 July 1978 on the right of access to official documents defines the latter as follows in its first article: “[...] irrespective of their date, location, form or medium, documents produced or received in the course of execution of their public service tasks by central government, local and regional authorities and generally any public or private sector entities or individuals charged with such tasks. Such documents notably include dossiers, reports, studies, minutes, affidavits, statistics, directives, instructions, circulars, ministerial notes and replies, correspondence, opinions, forecasts and decisions. [...]”. The right of access to and reuse of public data therefore cover texts, memoranda, documents, tables and statistics produced by government departments in connection with the delivery of public services. They do not cover preparatory, un-finalized documents produced by official bodies for internal consideration. Information relating to named individuals, personal information and information protected by confidentiality as provided in law (relating to national defence for example) are excluded from the scope of data that can be made public, unless otherwise determined by law or regulation. Statistical information must be published in compliance with the law of 1951, as well as Article 285 of the Treaty Establishing the European Community, which defines statistical confidentiality. What does the open public data policy involve? Opening and sharing public information aims at making available to the general public, by default and on the Internet, all raw public data destined to be made freely accessible and reusable free of charge. The right of access to such data must be respected by central government, local and regional authorities and generally all persons and entities in the public or private sector charged with public service tasks. The right of access to official documents has been acknowledged to constitute a “public freedom” by the French Council of State (CE, 29 April 2002, X., no. 228830). The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 already stipulates in Article 15 that “Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of its administration”. In 1997, the Government broadened this principle by deciding that “essential public data” should be placed on line for access free of charge. In 2003, directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 on the reuse of public sector information, incorporated in French law by the ordinance of 6 June 2005 and the official decree of 30 December 2005, enabled the reuse of the public documents and information held by public sector organisations. The Prime Minister’s circular and the official decree of 26 May 2011 laid down a principle whereby such reuse should be free of constraints, straightforward and free of charge for all members of the public. - 27 -
  • 76. APPENDIX 04 And finally, the decree of 21 February 2011 created the Prime Minister’s taskforce Etalab (data.gouv.fr) for Open Government Data, attached to the Secretariat General for the Modernization of Public Action (SGMAP) on 30 October 2012. Etalab is tasked with assisting public departments in providing open access to their public data, managing the national Open Data platform data.gouv.fr and encouraging the community of data reusers. The Government reaffirmed its commitment to the principle of free and open reuse of public data at the meeting of the Interministerial Committee on government modernisation (CIMAP) on 18 December 2012 and in the Government’s “Roadmap for Open Government Data” published on 28 February 2013. The data made available on the data.gouv.fr web platform are all published under the terms of an “Open Licence” to guarantee the widest possible freedom of reuse while at the same time providing the greatest possible legal certainty to producers and reusers of public data: by promoting the widest possible reuse and authorizing the reproduction, redistribution, adaptation and commercial use of such data; by placing the policy in an international framework compatible with the standards created by the Open Data licences developed abroad, notably the UK government (Open Government Licence) and other international standards (ODC-BY, CC-BY 2.0). Why should data be published in raw format and what are the various formats on offer? The goal of the open public data policy is to encourage and facilitate the reuse and reinterpretation of data in the most automated and standardised fashion possible. Raw data sets – as produced or used by official organisations for public service purposes – are extremely advantageous in this context. It is preferable to disseminate such data in structured formats without using presentational devices (e.g. colour, merged cells, files with multiple tabs) or functions (e.g. macro-commands, dynamic cross-correlation tables, and so on). In order to allow the data to be reused simply and by as many reusers as possible, it is recommended that the data be presented in open formats (e.g. CSV, JSON, XML, RDF) since these allow reuse without restricting access or implementation, unlike closed or proprietary formats. The Prime Minister’s circular of 19 September 2012 on the use of open source software in official departments encourages the use of such reusable and open formats. As far as possible, open access to public data requires raw data to be distributed in standardised formats that allow simplified reuse in software applications. Data can also be streamed via programming interfaces (API). It is also recommended that the data distributed should be as exhaustive and as accurate as possible, provided in a fine-grained form within the limits set by statistical confidentiality and based on common reference criteria and defined, published nomenclatures. Where such open formats do not exist, it is nevertheless recommended that the data should be shared in the original format rather than simply abandoning distribution. Etalab recommends that as far as possible the actual original format should be sought rather than, for example, PDF, which has been developed for ease of reading and is in common circulation. Should data be indexed before distribution? Metadata qualification and indexing are essential to ease of reuse. Information is very difficult to locate if it is not indexed and difficult to reuse if not precisely described. Such additional information describing data is termed “metadata”. Etalab thus proposes standardised descriptive fields for all public producers of data to enable them to specify data - 28 -
  • 77. APPENDIX 04 context and content. Most notably, they are asked to characterise their data (title, description, keywords, etc.) by answering the following questions: Who produced the data? When were the data produced? What time period is covered? What geographical areas are covered? What subjects are covered? Additionally, in order to facilitate the widest possible reuse of public data, Etalab recommends that all data sets should be accompanied by a description of their content. This additional document can prove to be of great importance for reusers. How can we ensure the quality of the data placed on line? Public data are produced or collected in connection with the delivery of public services. Their quality is therefore generally set at a level suited to the day-to-day work of the official body concerned and, depending on their initial purpose, for relevant statistical processing. The additional document describing a data set may if necessary specify the methods used to produce the information and the intrinsic limitations of the data proposed. Nevertheless, the large information systems used by central government and local and regional authorities, just as those used by the private sector, can be subject to error. The existence of such errors should not hold back progress towards opening data by default. Openness and dialogue with data reusers will encourage the detection of any such issues. For this reason it is recommended that the expectation of open access to the data and the need to qualify data sets should be made an integral part of information system design and evolutions. Can public data be sold? The legal and regulatory framework recalled by the Prime Minister at the CIMAP meeting of 18 December 2012 and subsequently at the Government Seminar on the digital economy of 28 February 2013 lays down the principle that access free of charge to public data is the default option. In the case of certain types of data covered by the obligation of public accountability, such freedom from monetary charge is a precondition. In other cases, experience has shown that making such data available free of charge fosters the creation of services that add economic or social value, and thereby the emergence of new services for the public and extra revenue for the State. However, the law does not systematically rule out the billing of costs incurred in making public data available: indeed, it authorizes the billing of such costs and those arising from value-added services. This authorization is often important for operators whose task is to produce information and for whom a balanced budget may depend on this extra source of revenue. In any case, it is important that fees possibly charged for data should not create de facto monopolies or barriers to entry likely hold innovation back – especially innovation by start-ups. The official decree of 26 May 2011 stipulates that from 1 July 2011, information and categories of information whose reuse may be made subject to payment of a fee must be included in a list laid down by decree, and therefore following an express decision by the Prime Minister. In the case of fees established prior to the entry into force of the above decree, government departments and public establishments with official remits had until 1 July 2012 to enter the - 29 -
  • 78. APPENDIX 04 relevant information and categories of information on a second list. Both lists are published on the data.gouv.fr website. This procedure applies only to public information subject to a fee for reuse as defined in Chapter II, Title 1 of law 78-753 of 17 July 1978. At the CIMAP meeting of 18 December 2012, the Prime Minister resolved to set up a taskforce to assess the economic models for such fees. This taskforce reported its conclusions to the Prime Minister in the summer of 2013, notably providing a “cost-benefit balance sheet” and summarising “factors justifying the relevance” of fees of this kind and the conditions on which they may be maintained. In the autumn of 2013 the Government will announce its decisions on access free of charge to new data sets and possible changes to the business models of certain operators. Are there risks for the protection of individual privacy? In practice, the government’s open data policy simply does not include personal data. There are however cases in which public information of personal character can be published by government on the basis of an express provision (e.g. lists of pupils who have passed the high school examination, the baccalauréat). In such cases, the law of 17 July 1978 provides as follows: “Public information containing personal data may be reused if the interested parties consent thereto, if the authority holding the information is able to ensure anonymity or, if anonymity cannot be guaranteed, where legislative or regulatory provisions allow such publication. “The reuse of public information containing personal data is made conditional on adherence to the provisions of law 78-17 of 6 January 1978 on Data Processing, Data Files and Individual Liberties.” It should also be recalled that the law of 7 June 1951 defines statistical confidentiality, which enables: private individuals to guarantee due confidentiality for their personal and family lives3; private companies to protect commercial secrets. 3. How is an Open Data initiative best undertaken? What channels can be used to distribute public data? The Open Data platform data.gouv.fr can host all public data, including data produced by central government departments, public agencies and local authorities. Additionally, some official departments, local authorities and operators have developed web portals allowing open access to and the sharing of specific categories of public information meeting the particular constraints of their own information systems and the expectations of the community of stakeholders reusing their data. In such cases, there is no need to duplicate the data on data.gouv.fr but it is essential that the platform should hold a descriptive summary of the data containing the relevant metadata in order to facilitate research by visitors to the website. This use of a national platform improves the referencing and visibility of data publishers and helps strengthen the dialogue with their stakeholder community.  0-4 &   *    *B   A    *        3   " # ( 
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  • 87. APPENDIX 04 Who should be contacted in order to launch an open public data programme? Taskforce Etalab is responsible for the creation and development of the open data platform data.gouv.fr. The task force drives a network of 12 ministerial “Open Data” coordinators answering directly to the general secretaries of their ministries. This network of coordinators meets every month in the Open Data steering committee led by Etalab. They are reliant on correspondents in directorates, offices and sections of their own government departments. There is therefore an Open Data coordinator assigned to the general secretary of each ministry. The Government’s roadmap on the open public data programme requires Etalab to seek to ensure a constant easing of the technical conditions governing the transfer of data to the data.gouv.fr platform. The relevant procedures will for this reason evolve rapidly in the direction of greater simplicity. In any event, if your public service organisation chooses to go down the open data road, Etalab is responsible for assisting you and facilitating the implementation of your initiative. In practice, how are data published on data.gouv.fr? Two methods can be used to publish public data on data.gouv.fr: Manual upload: the producer logs into the administration area of data.gouv.fr, describes the data by entering the “metadata” associated with the relevant data set and sends or references the data file to be placed on line. A data set can be uploaded in a few minutes to the site’s administration area and the procedure can be carried out by a single person. Organisations wishing to do so may delegate the validation and/or publication of the data to a third party other than the producer. Automatic upload: this approach is appropriate for official departments with large volumes of data generated by information systems or data subject to frequent updating. Etalab can provide free of charge a standardised and documented interface for automated data transfer, and if requested can liaise with the producer’s technical teams to support implementation of the interface. What is the spin-off from an open public data programme? Opening up public data for free access is not only a way of complying with the democratic principles of transparency and public explanation of official decisions. It is a policy that can also prove highly useful: by simplifying internal processes within government departments themselves (notably by encouraging the circulation of knowledge between different sections and making the dayto-day work of public officials easier); by simplifying official procedures for users and building a relationship of trust with the public; by extending and amplifying the work done by government departments by means of additional services developed by external innovators; by attracting innovative cultures from a wide range of backgrounds. SGMAP is entirely at the disposal of departments wishing to work on these objectives in the context of an open public data project. 4. How will the data be reused? What does the reuse of public data involve? The reuse of public data can lead to the development of new services such as mobile applications, websites, or visual representations of data by the press (“data visualisations”), among - 31 -
  • 88. APPENDIX 04 other applications. Such reuse must be authorized without any restriction other than those for which provision is made in the law on CADA (Commission d’accès aux documents administratifs / Commission on Access to Official Documents)(this requires that the information not be degraded, that its meaning should not be denatured and that details should be provided of sources and the latest updating). Public data can also be reused by researchers, teachers, the managers of non-profit associations and the general public, to define novel viewpoints on society and public policy. How will data placed on line be reused? The objective of an Open Data policy is to foster creativity, stimulate innovation and encourage the widest possible reuse of public data, trusting in the collective intelligence and the desire of the public to create new and innovative services of relevance to all. The “Open Licence” under which the data are published on data.gouv.fr also recalls one simple rule: reuse is the responsibility of the reuser. Illegal uses are no less illegal because they are based on public data. How can the various types of data reuse be monitored? In order to encourage the reuse of public data, whether those data come from central government, local and regional authorities or other public service bodies, in 2012 and 2013 Etalab organized a series of four competitions for the creation of innovative projects and services under the general title “Dataconnexions”. The various producers of public data are closely associated with the winning projects. By helping drive the Open Data community, Etalab is also helping to highlight the best ways in which data can be reused, notably by promoting them to government. Furthermore, the developments to come in the data.gouv.fr web portal will allocate increasing importance to the ownership by the public at large of the shared data, to data enrichment by users – especially members of the general public – and to highlighting the value of the ways in which data are reused. 5. To find out more About Etalab: www.data.gouv.fr. On government modernisation: www.modernisation.gouv.fr. - 32 -
  • 89. APPENDIX 04 Annexe 1 Document references Articles 14 and 15 of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, 1789 Directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 on the reuse of public sector information Law 78-753 of 17 July 1978 on a range of measures to improve relations between the official departments and the general public and sundry administrative, social and fiscal provisions Law 51-711 of 7 June 1951 on obligations, coordination and confidentiality with regard to statistics Law 78-17 of 6 January 1978 on Data Processing, Data Files and Individual Liberties Ordinance 2005-650 of 6 June 2005 on freedom of access to official documents and the reuse of public information Official decree 2005-1755 of 30 December 2005 on freedom of access to official documents and the reuse of public information, implementing Law 78-753 of 17 July 1978 - 33 -
  • 90. APPENDIX 04 Official decree 2011-577 of 26 May 2011 on the reuse of public information held by government and official public establishments The circular of 26 May 2011 concerning the creation by the ‘Etalab’ task force of a single web portal ‘data.gouv.fr’ for public information held by the government and application of the provisions governing the right of reuse of public information CE, 29 April 2002, X., no. 228830 Government roadmap on open and shared public data, 28 February 2013 G8 Open Data Charter, 18 June 2013 - 34 -
  • 91. APPENDIX 04 Annexe 2 Examples of files frequently downloaded from data.gouv.fr General statistics National census, 2008 Foreign trade statistics by region and département Geographical information IGN topographic bases for France and the Regions Station/line connections on the RATP Paris area rail network Annual traffic arriving via RATP stations Geographical directory of municipalities in Metropolitan France Contact details for diplomatic representations Lists of passenger stations on the national rail network, with contact details Government transparency Initial finance bill – general budget Finance bill, ministry by ministry Social security funding and expenditure Lists of subsidies granted by government to non-profit associations Lists of public procurement contracts signed in 2011 State financial aid to SMEs Information on safety and law & order Information on the locations of road traffic accidents involving injury Statistics on criminal offences by département 1996-2011 Product recall notices, 2011 List of the 150 most frequent offences resulting in criminal convictions Health and food and environmental safety Health expenditure reimbursed by national health insurance, region by region (GP healthcare, public/private healthcare facilities, medico-social centres) CIQUAL table for the nutritional content of foodstuffs Efficiency and accessibility of public services Successful Schooling Networks (Réseaux de Réussite Scolaire - RRS) Non-profit associations declared to be in the public interest Statistics on competitiveness clusters Results indicators for general and technical high schools National survey of sports facilities Quarterly detention centre population statistics Culture and heritage information - 35 -
  • 92. APPENDIX 04 Comprehensive data on the holdings of the French national ibrary Comprehensive data on the holdings of the French national llibrary List of the year’s cultural events List of the year’s cultural events Numbers of visitors to museums and exhibitions, yearly figures 1973-2008 Numbers of visitors to museums and exhibitions, yearly figures 1973-2008 2008 Lists of museums in France Lists of museums in France Economic and corporate resources orate Terrestrial digitall television frequency plan Terrestrial digita television frequency plan Fruit and vegetable prices, by market and by product Fruit and vegetable prices, by market and by product Democracy in practice ce 2012 Presidentiall Election – results 2012 Presidentia Election results 2008 Municipal Elections – results 2008 Municipal Elections results 2009 European Elections results 2009 European Elections – results - 36 -
  • 93. APPENDIX 04 Action Plan for France G8 OPEN DATA CHARTER APPENDIX 4 Report on the economic models of Open Government Data To facilitate access to data and its reuse by all, the Prime Minister stressed the principle of free-ofcharge public data reuse at the first meeting of the Inter-ministerial Committee on the Modernization of Public Action on 18 December 2012. In order to progress towards the broader cost-free reuse of open data, he set up a task force to assess the existing royalty fees for data reuse and their economic models, assigned to Mr Mohammed Adnène Trojette, magistrate at the French Court of Auditors, assisted by Mr Rémy Lombard. The conclusions of this report on the desirable changes to the economic models for the provision of public data should encourage the reuse of data while preserving the quality and sustainability of its production. - 37 -
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