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Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders
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Supervision Of Alleged Sexual Offenders

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Learn how to recognize signs of a sexual offender abusing a child, signs of sexual abuse and prevention methods.

Learn how to recognize signs of a sexual offender abusing a child, signs of sexual abuse and prevention methods.

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  • 1. Supervision of Alleged andSupervision of Alleged and Known Sexual OffendersKnown Sexual Offenders Laura Umfer, Psy.D.Laura Umfer, Psy.D. Licensed PsychologistLicensed Psychologist
  • 2. What is Considered Sexual AbuseWhat is Considered Sexual Abuse  Exposing a child to familyExposing a child to family sexuality, nudity and sexualsexuality, nudity and sexual behavior in the mediabehavior in the media  A child witnessing parentsA child witnessing parents engaging in sexual activityengaging in sexual activity  Exposure to pornographyExposure to pornography  Exposes genitalsExposes genitals  Peeping, watching a childPeeping, watching a child dress or bathedress or bathe  Talking explicitly about sex inTalking explicitly about sex in front of a childfront of a child  Fondling, oral sex, penetrationFondling, oral sex, penetration  Any person of any age whoAny person of any age who was forced, manipulated orwas forced, manipulated or groomed into engaging ingroomed into engaging in sexual acts, regardless of agesexual acts, regardless of age differences and victims ofdifferences and victims of incest, regardless of age ofincest, regardless of age of both victim and perpetratorboth victim and perpetrator  When there is a significantWhen there is a significant difference in age, size,difference in age, size, intelligence or power/authority,intelligence or power/authority, then there is no consent.then there is no consent. There may be cooperation orThere may be cooperation or compliance out of fear orcompliance out of fear or ignorance, but it is notignorance, but it is not considered consensual.considered consensual.
  • 3. Type of Sexual Offenses ViaType of Sexual Offenses Via DSM-IV TRDSM-IV TR  Pedophilia: fantasies, urges or behaviorsPedophilia: fantasies, urges or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescentinvolving sexual activity with a prepubescent child, generally 13 and under; the person is 16child, generally 13 and under; the person is 16 years old or 5 years older than the children ofyears old or 5 years older than the children of interestinterest  ExhibitionismExhibitionism  VoyeurismVoyeurism  Sexual SadismSexual Sadism  FrotteurismFrotteurism  Paraphilias: Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism,Paraphilias: Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism, Sexual MasochismSexual Masochism
  • 4. Sexual Abuse FactsSexual Abuse Facts Over 90% of child sexual abuse victims know theirOver 90% of child sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator, and the sexual offenses usuallyperpetrator, and the sexual offenses usually happen in the child’s homehappen in the child’s home There is no Sex Offender ProfileThere is no Sex Offender Profile
  • 5. Causes of Sexual OffendingCauses of Sexual Offending  Sexual DevianceSexual Deviance  PornographyPornography  Strip ClubsStrip Clubs  FetishesFetishes  S&MS&M  Massage ParlorsMassage Parlors  Many Sex PartnersMany Sex Partners  Prostitutes/NudistProstitutes/Nudist ClubsClubs  Antisocial AttitudesAntisocial Attitudes  Lack EmpathyLack Empathy  No Regard forNo Regard for Rules/LawRules/Law  Thrill SeekersThrill Seekers  Substance AbuseSubstance Abuse  Entitled to SexEntitled to Sex  Self-AbsorbedSelf-Absorbed
  • 6. Characteristics of Incest OffendersCharacteristics of Incest Offenders  Low self-esteemLow self-esteem  Poor coping skillsPoor coping skills  Feel inadequate with adultsFeel inadequate with adults  Plunging into relationshipsPlunging into relationships  Difficulty trustingDifficulty trusting  Bad at resolving conflictsBad at resolving conflicts  OpportunisticOpportunistic  Often are law-abidingOften are law-abiding  Rarely use force, coerce subtlyRarely use force, coerce subtly  May not have exclusive preference for childrenMay not have exclusive preference for children  May see abuse as sexual experimentationMay see abuse as sexual experimentation  May have trouble developing intimate relationshipsMay have trouble developing intimate relationships
  • 7. Behaviors Observed in SexualBehaviors Observed in Sexual OffendersOffenders  Treating one child differently, such as showingTreating one child differently, such as showing favoritismfavoritism  Spending excessive time alone with the childSpending excessive time alone with the child  Treating a child like an adultTreating a child like an adult  Walking into a bathroom or bedroom while aWalking into a bathroom or bedroom while a child is undressed or bathingchild is undressed or bathing  Having secrets with a childHaving secrets with a child  Making comments about a child’s body orMaking comments about a child’s body or developmentdevelopment  Isolating the child from othersIsolating the child from others
  • 8. GroomingGrooming  ManipulationManipulation  TrickeryTrickery  BribesBribes  Peer pressurePeer pressure  Coercion or threats: to hurt victim, lovedCoercion or threats: to hurt victim, loved ones, pets, making victim feel like a willingones, pets, making victim feel like a willing participant etc…participant etc…
  • 9. Guilting the VictimGuilting the Victim  The abuser makes the victim feel like aThe abuser makes the victim feel like a willing participant, because the victim maywilling participant, because the victim may not have rejected the abuse initially. Thenot have rejected the abuse initially. The victim then feels guilty, and like he or shevictim then feels guilty, and like he or she should be blamed. Basically the abusershould be blamed. Basically the abuser makes the victim feel responsible for themakes the victim feel responsible for the abuse.abuse.  Result: Victim denial, keeps abuse secret,Result: Victim denial, keeps abuse secret, recanting after reporting abuserecanting after reporting abuse
  • 10. GroomingGrooming  Manipulation: gaining the victim’s trustManipulation: gaining the victim’s trust Shows special attention by giving gifts,Shows special attention by giving gifts, and making the victim feel important.and making the victim feel important. Sexual offenders may keep secrets for theSexual offenders may keep secrets for the child, and use the covering for the child’schild, and use the covering for the child’s antisocial behavior, as one groomingantisocial behavior, as one grooming technique.technique.
  • 11. GroomingGrooming  Sexual offenders will desensitize the childSexual offenders will desensitize the child to get the child acclimated to the abuse soto get the child acclimated to the abuse so it can proceed.it can proceed.  Tickling → tickling private areas →fondlingTickling → tickling private areas →fondling → oral →penetration→ oral →penetration →
  • 12. Grooming ExamplesGrooming Examples  Befriend childBefriend child  Make the child feel specialMake the child feel special  Take the child to fun placesTake the child to fun places  Give the child $$$, gifts, etc.Give the child $$$, gifts, etc.  Let child sleep in your bedLet child sleep in your bed  Talk about child’s problems, offender’s problemsTalk about child’s problems, offender’s problems  Engage child in intimate talkEngage child in intimate talk  Let child do grown-up thingsLet child do grown-up things
  • 13. Grooming ExamplesGrooming Examples  Show child pornographyShow child pornography  Hug and kiss childHug and kiss child  Let the child stay up lateLet the child stay up late  Protect child from consequences ofProtect child from consequences of misbehavingmisbehaving  Give child drugs/alcoholGive child drugs/alcohol
  • 14. Sex Offenders in DenialSex Offenders in Denial  Don’t want to admit it to themselves, lovedDon’t want to admit it to themselves, loved ones, the justice systemones, the justice system  They may deny different aspects:They may deny different aspects:  FantasyFantasy  PlanningPlanning  IntentIntent  Responsibility –blame victimResponsibility –blame victim  Deny it entirelyDeny it entirely
  • 15. Common Excuses of AllegedCommon Excuses of Alleged Sexual OffendersSexual Offenders  The victim consented (ex: “she cameThe victim consented (ex: “she came on to me”)on to me”)  The offender was deprived ofThe offender was deprived of conventional sex (This is common inconventional sex (This is common in husbands blaming their wives for nothusbands blaming their wives for not meeting their sexual needs, as a waymeeting their sexual needs, as a way to justify their sexual offense)to justify their sexual offense)  The offender was intoxicated on drugsThe offender was intoxicated on drugs and/or alcoholand/or alcohol  Familial stress caused the sexualFamilial stress caused the sexual abuseabuse  The offender was being affectionateThe offender was being affectionate  The offender thinks sex with children isThe offender thinks sex with children is not wrong (ex: “She liked it”)not wrong (ex: “She liked it”)  The offender thinks the victim liedThe offender thinks the victim lied  The offender is afraid of adult womenThe offender is afraid of adult women  The offender claims that he was tryingThe offender claims that he was trying to help the victim (ex: teaching herto help the victim (ex: teaching her about sex)about sex)  The offender acted out of anger (ex: “IThe offender acted out of anger (ex: “I was angry at my wife”)was angry at my wife”)  The offender claims that someoneThe offender claims that someone wants to hurt him via alleged sexualwants to hurt him via alleged sexual abuse (ex: the cops are out to get me;abuse (ex: the cops are out to get me; an allegation from an estranged wifean allegation from an estranged wife seeking primary custody of theseeking primary custody of the children)children)  Financial stress led to the sexualFinancial stress led to the sexual abuseabuse  The offender claims a preference forThe offender claims a preference for childrenchildren  The offender claims that he wasThe offender claims that he was punishing the victimpunishing the victim  The offender claims the victim’sThe offender claims the victim’s parents were lyingparents were lying  The offender claims a history of sexualThe offender claims a history of sexual and/or physical abuseand/or physical abuse
  • 16. Common Rationalizations Used byCommon Rationalizations Used by Sexual OffendersSexual Offenders  The victim enjoyed itThe victim enjoyed it  It wasn’t wrong or won’t cause any harmIt wasn’t wrong or won’t cause any harm  The offender was high or drunkThe offender was high or drunk  She was flirting and teasingShe was flirting and teasing  Nobody will find out about the abuseNobody will find out about the abuse  There was no force or rejection so it is okThere was no force or rejection so it is ok  The victim was sleepingThe victim was sleeping  The offender was providing sex educationThe offender was providing sex education  The victim won’t remember because she isThe victim won’t remember because she is youngyoung
  • 17. More Rationalizations andMore Rationalizations and MinimizationsMinimizations  Curiosity about the victim’s developmentCuriosity about the victim’s development  The offender feels entitled and that the victim is there to serve his needsThe offender feels entitled and that the victim is there to serve his needs  The victim is mature for her age and acts like an adultThe victim is mature for her age and acts like an adult  The victim is sexually active with othersThe victim is sexually active with others  The offender uses his own sexual abuse as an excuseThe offender uses his own sexual abuse as an excuse  The offender seeks revenge on the victim’s motherThe offender seeks revenge on the victim’s mother  The offender may claim he is investigating her previous abuseThe offender may claim he is investigating her previous abuse  Offenders may claim that they have no control over their actionsOffenders may claim that they have no control over their actions  It was accidental touchIt was accidental touch  The offender may minimize the abuse by stating that it was fondling not sexThe offender may minimize the abuse by stating that it was fondling not sex  The offender may think the victim will like him more if he pleases her sexuallyThe offender may think the victim will like him more if he pleases her sexually  The offender may think it is ok if the victim is not a blood relativeThe offender may think it is ok if the victim is not a blood relative  The offender may recognize how many people sexually abuse and think it is acceptableThe offender may recognize how many people sexually abuse and think it is acceptable  The offender may use sexual abuse to punish and control the childThe offender may use sexual abuse to punish and control the child  The offender may claim it was an isolated incidentThe offender may claim it was an isolated incident  The offender may claim that he is testing her to see if she is sexually activeThe offender may claim that he is testing her to see if she is sexually active  The offender may use religion to evade taking responsibility, such as the devil causing him to sin,The offender may use religion to evade taking responsibility, such as the devil causing him to sin, or stating one has been saved and does not need to work through these issues in treatmentor stating one has been saved and does not need to work through these issues in treatment  The offender may think he can reclaim lost potency with the victim or that he would be safe fromThe offender may think he can reclaim lost potency with the victim or that he would be safe from STD’s, or that someone else will probably do it, so it might as well be the offenderSTD’s, or that someone else will probably do it, so it might as well be the offender
  • 18. Reunification: Risks to VictimsReunification: Risks to Victims  Re-victimizationRe-victimization  InvalidationInvalidation  Social Isolation/AlienationSocial Isolation/Alienation  Emotional AbuseEmotional Abuse
  • 19. The Abuse Reporting Process andThe Abuse Reporting Process and Victim DenialVictim Denial  The victim fears revealing the abuse for fear of gettingThe victim fears revealing the abuse for fear of getting into troubleinto trouble  The victim may not want the perpetrator to get in troubleThe victim may not want the perpetrator to get in trouble  The victim often fears the responses of family members,The victim often fears the responses of family members, rejection, shame, alienationrejection, shame, alienation  The victim may also fear being sent to a foster homeThe victim may also fear being sent to a foster home  They may also fear that they may be returned to theThey may also fear that they may be returned to the abusive home without protectionabusive home without protection  The victim may feel ashamed, because of the bodilyThe victim may feel ashamed, because of the bodily responses during the sexual offenseresponses during the sexual offense  The victim may feel as though he or she participatedThe victim may feel as though he or she participated  Recanting abuse is a common part of the disclosureRecanting abuse is a common part of the disclosure processprocess
  • 20. Why People Believe the AllegedWhy People Believe the Alleged Offender Over the VictimOffender Over the Victim  Dependency IssuesDependency Issues  Denial: Who wants to believe it?Denial: Who wants to believe it?  Avoidance of own sexual traumaAvoidance of own sexual trauma  ““I would know”I would know”  ““I’m always there”I’m always there”  Partners are often victims of the offender too,Partners are often victims of the offender too, and have been manipulated and turned againstand have been manipulated and turned against their child/victimtheir child/victim  They may collude or enable offenderThey may collude or enable offender
  • 21. Evaluating VictimsEvaluating Victims  Is the child knowledgeable about sexIs the child knowledgeable about sex  Does the child know the differenceDoes the child know the difference between good vs. bad touchbetween good vs. bad touch  Is the story consistentIs the story consistent  Why would the child report abuse if itWhy would the child report abuse if it wasn’t truewasn’t true  Is the child acting out behaviorally,Is the child acting out behaviorally, emotionally, sexually etc.emotionally, sexually etc.
  • 22. Reasons for Adolescent SexualReasons for Adolescent Sexual OffendingOffending  Naïve Experimenter/AbusersNaïve Experimenter/Abusers  Usually between ages 11 and 13Usually between ages 11 and 13  Are curious and want to experimentAre curious and want to experiment  Victims are usually between the ages of 2Victims are usually between the ages of 2 and 6and 6  Generally do not involve forceGenerally do not involve force
  • 23. Reasons for Adolescent SexualReasons for Adolescent Sexual OffendingOffending  Under-Socialized Child ExploiterUnder-Socialized Child Exploiter  Offender is a loner who feels insecure andOffender is a loner who feels insecure and inadequateinadequate  Seeks intimacy, self-esteem and self-Seeks intimacy, self-esteem and self- identityidentity  Uses manipulation or trickery to engageUses manipulation or trickery to engage their victimstheir victims
  • 24. Reasons for Adolescent SexualReasons for Adolescent Sexual OffendingOffending  Pseudo-Socialized Child ExploiterPseudo-Socialized Child Exploiter  Older adolescent who evidences goodOlder adolescent who evidences good social skillssocial skills  May be a child abuse victimMay be a child abuse victim  Show little remorse and may portray theShow little remorse and may portray the offense as consensualoffense as consensual  The main motivation is to gratify sexualThe main motivation is to gratify sexual needs with little regard for the victimneeds with little regard for the victim
  • 25. Reasons for Adolescent SexualReasons for Adolescent Sexual OffendingOffending  Sexually AggressiveSexually Aggressive  Offenders are usually charming and socialOffenders are usually charming and social  They come from chaotic or abusiveThey come from chaotic or abusive familiesfamilies  Use force or threats, and seek to obtainUse force or threats, and seek to obtain power and control over their victimspower and control over their victims
  • 26. Reasons for Adolescent SexualReasons for Adolescent Sexual OffendingOffending  Sexual CompulsivesSexual Compulsives  Usually come from families that are rigidUsually come from families that are rigid  May involve touching a victimMay involve touching a victim  Seek to alleviate anxiety or tension or forSeek to alleviate anxiety or tension or for the thrill of itthe thrill of it
  • 27. Reasons for Adolescent SexualReasons for Adolescent Sexual OffendingOffending  Disturbed ImpulsiveDisturbed Impulsive  Psychiatric disorders, substance abusePsychiatric disorders, substance abuse problems and learning disordersproblems and learning disorders  Their offenses are impulsive with unclearTheir offenses are impulsive with unclear motivationsmotivations
  • 28. Reasons for Adolescent SexualReasons for Adolescent Sexual OffendingOffending  Group InfluencedGroup Influenced  Offender caves to peer pressure andOffender caves to peer pressure and attempts to obtain status and acceptanceattempts to obtain status and acceptance from their peersfrom their peers  Abuse-ReactiveAbuse-Reactive  Reaction to their own sexual abuseReaction to their own sexual abuse
  • 29. Risks for Sexual Reoffenses inRisks for Sexual Reoffenses in AdolescentsAdolescents  Prior legally or unreported sexual offensesPrior legally or unreported sexual offenses  Having more than one victimHaving more than one victim  Male child victim who is under age ten andMale child victim who is under age ten and at least four years younger than theat least four years younger than the perpetratorperpetrator  Multiple offensesMultiple offenses  Aggression or physical force used in theAggression or physical force used in the offenseoffense  High degree of planning, rather thanHigh degree of planning, rather than impulsive actsimpulsive acts  High sex drive or preoccupation with sexualHigh sex drive or preoccupation with sexual mattersmatters  Sexual abuse history in perpetrator; risk isSexual abuse history in perpetrator; risk is higher if force is used or if there washigher if force is used or if there was penetrationpenetration  Changes in caregiversChanges in caregivers  Family InstabilityFamily Instability  Pervasive angerPervasive anger  Problems in school: truancy, fighting etc.Problems in school: truancy, fighting etc.  History of Conduct Disorder before age 10History of Conduct Disorder before age 10 (includes behavioral problems, failure to(includes behavioral problems, failure to obey rules, violates basic rights of others,obey rules, violates basic rights of others, aggressive behavior at school, home or inaggressive behavior at school, home or in the community, vandalism, destruction ofthe community, vandalism, destruction of property, malicious mischief, carrying aproperty, malicious mischief, carrying a weapon, theft, reckless driving, fire-setting,weapon, theft, reckless driving, fire-setting, substance abuse, running away, hurtingsubstance abuse, running away, hurting insects or animals etc.).insects or animals etc.).  Being charged or arrested for any type ofBeing charged or arrested for any type of crime before age 16crime before age 16  Physical abuse history in the perpetratorPhysical abuse history in the perpetrator  Exposure to violence in the familyExposure to violence in the family  Lack of quality friendships, social withdrawalLack of quality friendships, social withdrawal  Lack of a good support systemLack of a good support system
  • 30. Abnormal Child Sexual BehaviorAbnormal Child Sexual Behavior  Using force, trickery, bribery, threats orUsing force, trickery, bribery, threats or other forms of intimidationother forms of intimidation  Embarrassing others with sexual themes,Embarrassing others with sexual themes, or violating other peoples’ boundariesor violating other peoples’ boundaries  Pulling up skirts or pulling pants downPulling up skirts or pulling pants down  Peeping, exposure, frottage (rubbing upPeeping, exposure, frottage (rubbing up against someone’s back side), or mooningagainst someone’s back side), or mooning  Compulsive masturbationCompulsive masturbation  Obscene phone callsObscene phone calls
  • 31. Effects of Sexual Abuse on VictimsEffects of Sexual Abuse on Victims  They become sexualized before they are mature enoughThey become sexualized before they are mature enough to appreciate those feelingsto appreciate those feelings  Social shame for participating in the sexual actsSocial shame for participating in the sexual acts  Betrayal by the abuser that they once trusted and thoseBetrayal by the abuser that they once trusted and those who don’t believe themwho don’t believe them  PowerlessnessPowerlessness  GuiltGuilt  FearfulFearful  AngryAngry  Feel damagedFeel damaged  Depressed, suicidalDepressed, suicidal
  • 32. Effects of Sexual Abuse on VictimsEffects of Sexual Abuse on Victims  Feeling worthless, helpless, unlovable and damagedFeeling worthless, helpless, unlovable and damaged  Struggle to accept and love themselvesStruggle to accept and love themselves  Interpersonal/intimacy problemsInterpersonal/intimacy problems  They enter unhealthy relationships, easy targets for abusersThey enter unhealthy relationships, easy targets for abusers (DV/SO)(DV/SO)  Problems with authority and have basic trust issuesProblems with authority and have basic trust issues  Promiscuous/ seek any attention they can getPromiscuous/ seek any attention they can get  Use drugs and alcoholUse drugs and alcohol  Develop eating disordersDevelop eating disorders  PassivePassive  HypersensitivityHypersensitivity  HyperactivityHyperactivity  Mood swingsMood swings  Frequent fantasizing, spacing outFrequent fantasizing, spacing out
  • 33. Behavioral Effects of Child SexualBehavioral Effects of Child Sexual AbuseAbuse  They may act out behaviorallyThey may act out behaviorally  May exhibit irritability and may easily snap atMay exhibit irritability and may easily snap at othersothers  They may be so depressed that they use self-They may be so depressed that they use self- mutilation to numb their emotional painmutilation to numb their emotional pain  Aggressive behaviorAggressive behavior  Social withdrawalSocial withdrawal  Substance abuseSubstance abuse  NightmaresNightmares
  • 34. Behavioral Signs of Sexual AbuseBehavioral Signs of Sexual Abuse  WithdrawalWithdrawal  Impaired attention and concentrationImpaired attention and concentration  Poor peer relationshipsPoor peer relationships  Grades decliningGrades declining  Fear taking bathsFear taking baths
  • 35. Physical Signs of Sexual AbusePhysical Signs of Sexual Abuse  Masturbation under age 11Masturbation under age 11  Compulsive masturbationCompulsive masturbation  NightmaresNightmares  Fear being aloneFear being alone  May fear the offender, but may not and may be clingy to the non-May fear the offender, but may not and may be clingy to the non- offending parentoffending parent  Calls parent by first nameCalls parent by first name  Asking personal questions about parents’ relationshipAsking personal questions about parents’ relationship  Running away from homeRunning away from home  Criminal behaviorCriminal behavior  Generalized fearfulness and anxietyGeneralized fearfulness and anxiety  Regressive behavior, ie., thumbsucking, bedwettingRegressive behavior, ie., thumbsucking, bedwetting  Obsessive regarding cleanlinessObsessive regarding cleanliness  Excessive weight gain or lossExcessive weight gain or loss
  • 36. Obvious Physical Signs of SexualObvious Physical Signs of Sexual AbuseAbuse  Pain or itching in genital areasPain or itching in genital areas  Problems walking or sittingProblems walking or sitting  Frequent urinary tract infectionsFrequent urinary tract infections  Vaginal dischargeVaginal discharge  Painful urinationPainful urination  Bruises or bleeding in genital areasBruises or bleeding in genital areas
  • 37. Reoffense RatesReoffense Rates  Hanson and Bussiere (1998) found recidivismHanson and Bussiere (1998) found recidivism rates of 13.4% over a five year period, usingrates of 13.4% over a five year period, using 23,000 participants23,000 participants  A study using 10,000 participants evidenced aA study using 10,000 participants evidenced a recidivism rate of 5.3% three years after releaserecidivism rate of 5.3% three years after release from prison, which is much lower whenfrom prison, which is much lower when compared to other types of crimes (Bureau ofcompared to other types of crimes (Bureau of Justice Statistics)Justice Statistics)  Juvenile sexual offenders’ recidivism rates rangeJuvenile sexual offenders’ recidivism rates range from 7.7 % to 14.3%.from 7.7 % to 14.3%.  ATSA reported that between 40% and 45% ofATSA reported that between 40% and 45% of untreated sexual offenders reoffend (2001)untreated sexual offenders reoffend (2001)
  • 38. Offense CycleOffense Cycle
  • 39. The Sexual Offense CycleThe Sexual Offense Cycle Lifestyle Risk Factors: ex: etohLifestyle Risk Factors: ex: etoh Triggers: ex: anger; attractive personTriggers: ex: anger; attractive person Fantasy and DesireFantasy and Desire PlanPlan High Risk Situation: ex: offender encouragesHigh Risk Situation: ex: offender encourages mother to go out, he babysits kidsmother to go out, he babysits kids Thinking ErrorsThinking Errors Loss of ControlLoss of Control OffenseOffense
  • 40. Relapse Prevention: What Sex Offenders MustRelapse Prevention: What Sex Offenders Must Know about Themselves to Not ReoffendKnow about Themselves to Not Reoffend  Avoidance/abstinenceAvoidance/abstinence  Coping strategiesCoping strategies  Triggers: Thoughts,Triggers: Thoughts, feelings, people,feelings, people, places, situations etc.places, situations etc.  Grooming patternsGrooming patterns  High risk factors: AKAHigh risk factors: AKA TriggersTriggers  Lifestyle risk factors:Lifestyle risk factors: ex: isolating, anger,ex: isolating, anger, depression etc.depression etc.  Offense chain:Offense chain: events, thoughts andevents, thoughts and feelings leading up tofeelings leading up to offenseoffense  Ways to avoid relapseWays to avoid relapse
  • 41. Safety PlanningSafety Planning  The offender is never alone with minorsThe offender is never alone with minors  Family members do not bathe togetherFamily members do not bathe together  Everyone has their own bed, and ideally their own roomEveryone has their own bed, and ideally their own room  The offender will not babysit, change diapers, dress/undress children, bathe childrenThe offender will not babysit, change diapers, dress/undress children, bathe children or discuss sex or dating with minorsor discuss sex or dating with minors  Offenders have limited and brief bodily contact with minorsOffenders have limited and brief bodily contact with minors  No tickling or wrestlingNo tickling or wrestling  No secrets with childrenNo secrets with children  No swimming with childrenNo swimming with children  Offender won’t enter bedrooms, bathrooms, will lock doors while bathing, must knockOffender won’t enter bedrooms, bathrooms, will lock doors while bathing, must knock on doors, etc.on doors, etc.  Family members will be dressed at all timesFamily members will be dressed at all times  No pornography in the homeNo pornography in the home  No drug or alcohol use when children are present, and if there is an issue with drugs/No drug or alcohol use when children are present, and if there is an issue with drugs/ etoh or it played a part in offense, then it is prohibited at all timesetoh or it played a part in offense, then it is prohibited at all times  Offender will take psychiatric medication as prescribed, if relevantOffender will take psychiatric medication as prescribed, if relevant  Offender should have no disciplinary power over childrenOffender should have no disciplinary power over children
  • 42. VisitationVisitation  Safety planning rules applySafety planning rules apply  Bodily contact should be avoided as much asBodily contact should be avoided as much as possiblepossible  Offender is supervised at all times by someoneOffender is supervised at all times by someone qualified to supervisequalified to supervise  Supervisors should not be: alcoholics, addicts,Supervisors should not be: alcoholics, addicts, lack an appreciation for the seriousness oflack an appreciation for the seriousness of supervising the offender and must understandsupervising the offender and must understand the potential for reoffensethe potential for reoffense

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