Agenda<br />History<br />Members<br />Level of integration<br />Role in World Trade<br />Trade goods<br />Level of exports and imports: industries and partners<br />Agreements with countries and blocs<br />Future<br />
Introduction<br />What is the European Union?<br />A unique economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries.<br />What are its aims?<br />Peace, prosperity and freedom for its 498 million citizens — in a fairer, safer world.<br />
Level of Exports and Imports / Industries and Partners 2009<br />
Bilateral Agreements<br />Agreements between two political entities, thus legally binding these two territories only<br /><ul><li>Customs unions, free-trade, association, co-operation and partnerships
These preferential trade agreements are notified under either Article XXIV of the GATT or Article V of the GATS.</li></li></ul><li>Bilateral Agreements<br />Countries<br />
United States<br />"Framework for Advancing Transatlantic Economic Integration between the USA and the EU" <br /><ul><li>Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC) : guides and accelerates the implementation of work designed to closer integrate economies.</li></ul>Impact on economy of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) between the EU and the US:<br />For the EU, no NTMs will increase the GDP (€122 billion per year) and exports (+2.1%).<br /><ul><li>Gains: motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food and electrical machinery. </li></ul>For the US, no NTMs are estimated at €41 billion per year for GDP and 6.1% for exports. <br /><ul><li>Gain: electrical machinery, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, financial services and insurance sectors.
The US gains more in exports and the EU more in income. </li></li></ul><li>China<br /><ul><li>The EU's open market has been a large contributor to China's export-led growth.
EU is committed to open trading relations with China.
trades fairly, respects intellectual property rights and meet its WTO obligations.</li></ul>EU goods exports to China 2009: €81.6 billion <br />Machinery and transport equipment, miscellaneous manufactured articles, chemicals<br />EU goods imports from China 2009: €214.7 billion<br />The same but NO chemicals<br />
India<br />Free Trade Agreement (FTA)(2007): beginning of negotiations between EU and India to increase their trade in both goods and services <br /><ul><li>Six negotiating rounds have been held(2009)
machinery, transport equipment and chemicals.</li></li></ul><li>Andean <br />Countries<br /><ul><li>Second largest trading partner after the US. </li></ul>EU imports primary products: agricultural products (47.5%); fuels and mining products (41.1%). <br />EU exports manufactured goods: (89.6%) notably machinery and transport equipment (47.4%) and chemical products (18.4%). <br /><ul><li>The EU grants the Andean countries preferential access to its market under the EU's General System of Preferences</li></li></ul><li>ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting) <br />ASEM<br />(Asia-Europe Meeting) <br /><ul><li>Informal process of dialogue and co-operation established in 1996
non-binding dialogue forum based on equality and consensus
three pillars: addresses political, economic and cultural issues
Objective: make relationships between the two regions stronger </li></li></ul><li>ASEAN <br />Association of South <br />East Nations<br /><ul><li>In 2006, EU-ASEAN trade represented 5% of total world trade. </li></ul>average annual growth rate of 4% <br />exports to ASEAN: chemical products, machinery and transport equipment <br />imports from ASEAN: machinery and transport equipment, as well as chemicals, textiles and clothing. <br />The Trans-Regional EU-ASEAN Trade Initiative (TREATI): promote region-to-region economic relations, particularly by addressing non-tariff barriers through regulatory co-operation and ultimately to lay the foundations for a preferential regional trade agreement in the future.<br />
Africa, <br />Caribbean, <br />Pacific<br />Up to 2007, ACP countries enjoyed preferential access to the EC market. ACP countries could apply barriers on imports from the EC, whereas they had almost duty free-quota free access to EC market. <br />CotonouAgreement <br /><ul><li>Reduction and eventual eradication of poverty
Integrate the ACP countries into the world economy</li></li></ul><li>Central Asia<br /><ul><li> Geostrategic importance to the EU: A bridge to China as well as to Afghanistan and the Middle East
Source of significant energy imports for the EU
EU imports: crude oil, gas, metals and cotton fiber
EU exports: machinery and transport equipment.
All five Central Asian countries are beneficiaries of the EU's Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). </li></li></ul><li>Central <br />America <br /><ul><li>Trade remained largely stable at around 10% (last decade)
This region has actively sought to widen its export markets in Europe
Export to the EU: agricultural products (coffee, bananas and other fruits, together= 36% of exports to the EU in 2007)
Exports from the EU: machinery, chemicals, ships, boats, vehicles and fuels. </li></li></ul><li>Future<br /><ul><li>Major challenges to the future of Europe lie ahead
Institutional process of updating the rules governing the relations between the member countries