Carboxilic acids, amides and esters

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Carboxilic acids, amides and esters

  1. 1. CARBOXILIC ACIDS
  2. 2. <ul><li>Carboxylic acids are compounds which contain a carboxy group -COOH group.  </li></ul><ul><li>General formula R-COOH or </li></ul><ul><li>The rule is that functions assume their distinct identity when separated by –CH2– groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the carbonyl, C=O, and hydroxy, OH, of a carboxylic acid, RCOOH, are part of a single function and are NOT &quot;alcohol-plus-ketone&quot;: </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids <ul><li>As with aldehydes, the carboxyl group must be located at the end of a carbon chain. </li></ul><ul><li>In the IUPAC system of nomenclature the carboxyl carbon is designated #1, and other substituents are located and named accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>The characteristic IUPAC suffix for a carboxyl group is &quot; oic acid &quot;, and care must be taken not to confuse this systematic nomenclature with the similar common system. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples
  5. 7. Name the following <ul><li>A) B) </li></ul><ul><li>C) D) </li></ul>
  6. 8. Draw the following and give the IUPAC name <ul><li>Formic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Malonic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Acetic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Propionic acid </li></ul>
  7. 9. AMIDES
  8. 10. <ul><li>Amides are amine derivatives of carboxylic acids.derived from carboxylic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>A carboxylic acid contains the -COOH group, and in an amide the -OH part of that group is replaced by an -NH 2  group. </li></ul><ul><li>Amides contain the -CONH 2  group. </li></ul><ul><li>General Formula R-CONH 2 or </li></ul>
  9. 11. Nomelnclature Notice that in each case, the name is derived from the acid by replacing the &quot;oic acid&quot; ending by &quot;amide&quot;. HCONH 2 methanamide CH 3 CONH 2 ethanamide CH 3 CH 2 CONH 2 propanamide
  10. 12. Nomenclature <ul><li>If the chain was branched, the carbon in the -CONH 2  group counts as the number 1 carbon atom. For example: </li></ul>
  11. 14. ESTERS
  12. 15. <ul><li>The simple esters tend to have pleasant odors.   </li></ul><ul><li>The characteristic flavors and fragrances of flowers and fruits are due to compounds with the ester functional group. </li></ul><ul><li>General Formula R-COO-R’ or R-CO-OR’ </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul>
  13. 17. Nomenclature <ul><li>Esters are produced when carboxylic acids (COOH) are heated with alcohols (OH) in the presence of an acid catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>An ester name has two parts - the part that comes from the acid ending “ ate ” and the part that shows the alkyl group coming fro the allcohol ending “ yl ” </li></ul>
  14. 18. Nomenclature <ul><li>Notice that the ester is named the opposite way around from the way the formula is written. </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot; ethanoate &quot; bit comes from ethanoic acid. The &quot; ethyl &quot; bit comes from the ethyl group on the end. </li></ul>
  15. 19. Examples
  16. 20. Name
  17. 21. Draw
  18. 22. Answers
  19. 23. Making esters The chemistry of the reaction <ul><li>Esters are produced when carboxylic acids (COOH) are heated with alcohols (OH) in the presence of an acid catalyst. The catalyst is usually concentrated sulphuric acid . </li></ul><ul><li>The equation for the reaction between an acid RCOOH and an alcohol R'OH (where R and R' can be the same or different) is: </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>So, for example, if you were making ethyl ethano ate from ethanoic acid and ethanol , the equation would be: </li></ul>
  21. 25. Doing the reactions (Laboratory) On a test tube scale <ul><li>Carboxylic acids and alcohols are often warmed together in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid in order to observe the smell of the esters formed. </li></ul>

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