Give an example of a normal sleep-wake cycle for an infant. When does an infant begin to smile? When does the infant begin to drink from a cup? Describe separation anxiety. When does it begin?
Why should the nurse obtain an apical pulse for 1 minute on the infant? Describe abdominal respirations.
How does an infant relieve tension? Why do infants need to suck? Describe non-nutritive sucking.
Describe the grasp reflex. What is prehension? Describe the parachute reflex. What is the pincer grasp?
Describe the progression of the different developmental milestones of locomotion, prehension, and perception of the infant from 1 to 8 months.
Describe the progression of the different developmental milestones of locomotion, prehension, and perception of the infant from 9 to 15 months.
Give an example of when a parent must allow for an infant to be ready for a task. How does a sense of trust promote emotional development?
Describe how sensory stimulation is important to the development of an infant’s cognition. Give an example of an infant’s actions which convey a recognition of warmth and affection.
Describe a situation in which a nurse must utilize her critical thinking skills when determining if a child is or is not developmentally delayed, if the infant does not fit into the norm.
Give an example of how a nurse can assist parents in providing proper care for their infant. How does the nurse influence the community regarding the infant’s health? Why is it beneficial to the community for the nurse to educate and intervene regarding the health of infants in the community?
Give an example of when an infant might become lethargic and shut down from a situation. How does the environment affect the irritable or lethargic infant?
How does the manner in which the woman is holding the infant in Figure 22-4, D, on page 490, assist the colicky infant? What other measures can soothe a colicky infant?
Discuss what the parent can do to teach the infant to self-soothe.
What are the guidelines for well-baby checks in the United States? Why are vaccinations encouraged in the United States? Give an example of anticipatory guidance. Why is skin care such an issue for infants? How might the nurse educate parents regarding skin care for the infant who has a diaper rash?
Describe a method in which the nurse can assess whether the infant is receiving adequate nutrition. How does the nurse determine whether the infant is receiving adequate nutrition with a mother who is breastfeeding and a mother who is bottle feeding? Describe how growth and developmental screenings assist in illness prevention. Describe an incident in which nutritional counseling would be appropriate from the nurse. Bottle versus breastfeeding was discussed in earlier chapters. It may be helpful to review specific points in this area, including how to heat formula, how to determine if infant is getting enough to eat based on number of wet diapers, ability of infant to sleep, etc.
Audience Response Question #1 The reason solids foods are introduced slowly in the infant is to: 1. prevent choking. 2. assess ability to swallow solids. 3. allow the infant to get used to each food. 4. assess for reactions to different foods.
Refer to Table 16-3 on page 400 for more detailed information on the various formulas and their nutritional components.
Audience Response Question #2 A breastfeeding mother is running a fever of 102 º F. She reports "nasal congestion and sore throat." Should she be instructed to delay breastfeeding her infant? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Not sure
Why should new foods not be introduced when an infant is ill? Why is rice cereal preferred over other cereals? Why should baby formula not be mixed with cereal or foods? Why are orange juice, fish, strawberries, chocolate, and egg whites more likely to cause food allergies?
Provide a rationale for providing solid foods before milk feedings in the infant. If milk or formula feedings decrease as solid foods increase, how does the nurse determine hydration status?
Why do infants require more calories than toddlers, preschoolers, school-age children, and adults? To maintain their rapid growth and development in the first year of life. Why are fats essential for infants?
Why should an infant be placed in a rear-facing car seat? What measures can be taken to prevent infant injury from a swimming pool, electrical outlets, stairs, and pets? Describe toys that are not appropriate for an infant.
Audience Response Question #3 A newborn's birth weight was 6 pounds. What would you expect this child's weight to be at 6 months? 1. 10 pounds 2. 12 pounds 3. 18 pounds 4. 20 pounds