BTEC 4C: Infectious diseases and vaccines

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  • Pupils only need to know about bacteria and viruses however I think it is worth mentioning about the presence of fungi and protozoa as other forms of pathogens.
  • Recall classification: prokaryotes, no nucleus.
  • Create a table showing method, example and type of pathogen.
  • Yellow, purple, blue, green, red
  • BTEC 4C: Infectious diseases and vaccines

    1. 1. Infectious diseases WALT: To understand how vaccination can be used to prevent some diseases. WILF: State what a pathogen is and name examples. (PASS) Describe how bacteria and viruses can cause infectious disease. (MERIT) Explain how vaccinations can be used to prevent infection. (DISTINCTION) Keywords Pathogen Bacteria Virus Vaccine Memory cells
    2. 2. What is a pathogen? A microorganism that causes an infectious disease. They can be: ~ a bacteria ~ a virus E.Coli Influenza
    3. 3. Bacteria DNA DNA Cell wall Flagellum Cell membrane Diseases Caused: How? Enter the body and produce toxins that harm our cells. Cholera Food poisoning Tuberculosis (TB) Dysentery
    4. 4. Virus Genetic material Protein coat How? Viruses cannot reproduce by themselves, they need a host. They invade our cells and make copies of themselves. Diseases Caused: Influenza AIDS Measles Mumps
    5. 5. Food may contain food poisoning bacteria like salmonella. The HIV can be transferred through body fluids via sexual intercourse or sharing of syringes. Influenza and cold viruses can be spread through the air through coughs and sneezes. Houseflies can pass the dysentery bacteria from human faeces to food. Water may contain bacteria that may cause cholera.
    6. 6. So a pathogen has managed to beat all our defences, what happens next? Our immune system is ready to fight! Our immune system is made up of different types of white blood cells.
    7. 7. At the site of the infection… White blood cells that are ready and waiting. They can pull (engulf) pathogens inside them and digest them. Bacteria White blood cell
    8. 8. In your blood… If the microbes don’t all get killed, your next line of defence is launched – These zoom round in antibodies. your blood like Antibodies are guided missiles until produced by they lock onto their special white target blood cells called (pathogen), making B cells. it easier to be
    9. 9. Once you’ve defeated an infection, antibodies stay in your blood but…
    10. 10. … antibodies only last a few days, but memory cells, which remember how to make them, last a lifetime. These make antibodies so quickly that the microbes are all destroyed before they can make you ill.
    11. 11. People can become immune against a pathogen through vaccination. Vaccination involves putting a small amount of an inactive form of a pathogen, or dead pathogen, into the body. When injected into the body, they stimulate B cells to produce antibodies against the pathogen and produces memory cells. Different vaccines are needed for different pathogens.
    12. 12. Task: Create a storyboard or flow chart showing how vaccines work. Memory cells remain in the blood in case you later become infected. White blood cells produce antibodies, which attach to the pathogen. Patient is injected with an inactive pathogen, this is the vaccine. Following the antibodies being made, memory cells are then made. The patient is now immune.
    13. 13. Vaccinations-worth it? e.g. MMR vaccine Measles Mumps Rubella e.g. HPV vaccine
    14. 14. Find your answer! (Or question!) Talk to each Find the person who has your matching question OR answer. Found them? Come up to the front! other!
    15. 15. How a pathogen can enter the body? Example? Bacteria or virus? How a pathogen can enter the body? Salmonella Example? Bacteria or virus? Salmonella Contaminated water. Contaminated water. Transferred through body fluids, for example… Transferred through body fluids, for example… Influenza (flu) Influenza (flu) Houseflies landing on faeces and then onto food. How a pathogen can enter the body? Houseflies landing on faeces and then onto food. Example? Bacteria or virus? How a pathogen can enter the body? Salmonella Example? Salmonella Contaminated water. Contaminated water. Transferred through body fluids, for example… Transferred through body fluids, for example… Influenza (flu) Houseflies landing on faeces and then onto food. Influenza (flu) Houseflies landing on faeces and then onto food. Bacteria or virus?

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