Final revision 2 Questions with and without auxiliary Past Continuous Present Perfect The Future Have to / Don’t have to / Must First Conditional Second Conditional Giving advice
QUESTIONS WITH OR WITHOUT AUXILIARIES QUESTIONS WITH AN AUXILIARYQUESTION AUXILIARY SUBJECT INFINITIVEWhat music do you listen to?Who did he go with? • To make questions in the past and present simple, we normally use the auxiliary verbs do / does / did + the infinitive. • The normal order for questions in the present and past is QUASI.
QUESTIONS WITH OR WITHOUT AUXILIARIES QUESTIONS WITHOUT AN AUXILIARYSUBJECT VERBWhat happened at the weekend?Who wrote Romeo and Juliet?• When the question word (Who, What, Which, How many?) is thesubject of the verb in the question, we do not use an auxiliary (do,does, did) and the verb is in the third person.
PAST CONTINUOUS The past continuous tense is used to describe an action Subject WAS / -ING in progress at a WERE FORM specific moment in I was singing the past. He At six o’clock last She was singing It night I was singing We in a karaoke bar. You were singing They
Present Perfect Tense FORM: have / has + past participleAffirmative: I have seen the film before. She has seen the film before.Interrogative: Have you seen the film before? Has she seen the film before?Negative: They haven’t seen the film before. He hasn’t seen the film before.
Present Perfect Tense Uses of the present perfect1- Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without a definite time. We use just in positive sentences to say that something happened very recently.Would you like a coffee?No, thanks. I´ve just had one.
Present Perfect Tense2- Personal experiences: It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning Have you ever been to Japan? No, I’ve never been there.
Present Perfect Tense3- It is used to express actions which started in the past and are still continuing in the present, the time period is not finished. I have lost my keys. (And I haven’t found them yet.)
Present Perfect + already and yet We often use the present perfect tense with already and yet.Already: Something happened before now or earlier thanexpectedYou can use already in positive sentences. Put already before themain verb.Yet: Until now.You can use yet in negative sentences and questions. Yet isusually at the end. Example: A) Have you done your homework yet? B) No, I haven’t done it yet. / Yes, I’ve already done it.
Present Perfect + for and since To talk about actions and states which started in the past and are still true now. - How long have you lived in Granada? - I’ve lived in Granada since 1990 / for 20 years. (I live in Granada now.)
Present Perfect or Past Simple We use definite expressions with the Past simple tense: yesterday, last week, … ago, etc, while we don’t use definite time expressions with the Present perfect tense. I have been to France three times. When did you go there? I went there last summer.
Present Perfect or Past Simple• Use the present perfect + how long? / for and since to talk about aperiod of time from the past until now.- How long have you been married?- I´ve been married since 1999 / for 10 years.(I am still married).• Use the past simple + how long? / for or from to to talk about aperiod of time in the past.- How long were you married?- I was married for 3 years / from 1995 to 1998.(I am divorced now).
Present Perfect or Past SimplePresent Perfect or Past Simple?Rose works in a factory. She ___________ (work) there for sixmonths. Before that she ___________ (be) a waitress in arestaurant. She ___________ (work) there for two years but she___________ (not/enjoy) it very much.A ___________ (you/ever/been) to Florida?B Yes, we ___________ (go) there two years ago.A ___________ (you/have) a good time?B Yes, it ___________ (be) great.
Present Perfect + Superlatives We often use a superlative with the present perfect. That is the smallest house I have ever seen. Make sentences as in the example. • It / noisy pub / I be to • He / boring person / meet • It / bad book / I / read
THE FUTUREWILL / WON’T(BE) GOING TOPRESENT CONTINUOUS
I will take you sightseeing. Shall I open the window?
I’ll have the steak, please Meat or fish? I will have the steak, please
Predictions Decisions that you have planned before: future plans and intentions
(be) going to: predictions It is going to rain
(be) going to: future plans and intentions She’s going to save money.
Future arrangements The sentence usually contains an adverb which refers to the future
I am going to the dentist tomorrow. 18 .30 : D en tis t
FIRST CONDITIONAL1 Use IF + PRESENT SIMPLE ... WILL/WON’T + INF totalk about a future situation and its consequence.If he wakes up early, we will go for a walk.2 You can also use the imperative or can.If you need my car, take it.If you miss the bus, you can get a taxi.
FIRST CONDITIONALComplete the following sentences.1 I will go to the cinema if I .................... (have) time.2 If it is foggy this evening, I .................... (stay) at home.3 .................... (you, come) to a picnic next Sunday if it’s sunny?4 If the road .................... (be) wet, (watch out).
SECOND CONDITIONAL1 Use IF + PAST SIMPLE ... WOULD/WOULDN’T + INF totalk about an improbable / impossible or hypotheticalsituation and its consequence.If he woke up early, we would go for a walk.2 Remember with can, use could + INF:If I had money, I could go on holiday.3 With the verb be you can use were (instead of was) after I,he/she/it:If he was/were here, he’d help youIf I were you….
SECOND CONDITIONAL Complete the following sentences. 1 If I could go anywhere in the world, …………….. 2 I would be very happy if …………….. 3 I’d buy a house if …………….. 4 If I had more free time ……………..
Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’t Use have to + INF to talk about rules and obligations. She has to get up very early. Use don’t have to + INF to say there is no obligation, or something is not necessary. You don’t have to work on 11 June. Use must + INF to talk about rules and obligations. You must do your homework. Use mustn’t + INF to say something is prohibited. You mustn’t smoke here.
Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’tUse must or have to when you say what you think is necessary,when you give your opinion: Its a fantastic film. You must see it or You have to see it.When you are not giving your opinion, use have to (not must): In many countries, men have to do military service. (This is not my opinion, it’s the law in those countries.)Mustn’t and don’t have to havecompletely different meanings:You mustn’t go. = It’s prohibited.You don’t have to go. = You can come ifyou want, but it’s not necessary.
Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’t Complete the following sentences with mustn’t or dont have to.1 Gary gave me a letter to post. I __________ forget to post it.2 There’s plenty of time. You __________ to decide now.3 This is a valuable book. You __________ lose it.4 A What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big? B Well, it __________ be big - that’s not so important, but it must have a nice garden.
GIVING ADVICE Use should / shouldn’t + INF to give somebody advice. You can also use ought to / ought not to + INF or If I were you, I would + INF.A I’ve got a cold. What should I do?B You should go to the doctor. / If I were you I’d go to the doctor.
GIVING ADVICE Let’s see if you know how to give advice.1 I´m always late.2 I don’t have many friends.3 I eat too much chocolate.4 I´m late for work and my car broke down.