Final Revision Segundo


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Final Revision Segundo

  1. 1. Final revision Present Perfect The Future Have to / Don’t have to / Must First Conditional Second Conditional Giving advice
  2. 2. Present Perfect Tense <ul><li>FORM: have / has + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative : I have seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>She has seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative : Have you seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>Has she seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>Negative : They have n’t seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>He has n’t seen the film before. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>1- Recent events : It is used to describe recent events without a definite time . We use just in positive sentences to say that something happened very recently. </li></ul>Present Perfect Tense Uses of the present perfect Would you like a coffee? No, thanks. I´ve just had one.
  4. 4. Present Perfect Tense <ul><li>2- Personal experiences : It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning </li></ul>Have you ever been to Japan? No, I’ve never been there.
  5. 5. Present Perfect Tense <ul><li>3- It is used to express actions which started in the past and are still continuing in the present , the time period is not finished. </li></ul>I have lost my keys. (And I haven’t found them yet.)
  6. 6. Present Perfect + already and yet <ul><li>We often use the present perfect tense with already and yet . </li></ul>Already : Something happened before now or earlier than expected You can use already in positive sentences . Put already before the main verb. Yet : Until now. You can use yet in negative sentences and questions . Yet is usually at the end . Example : A) Have you done your homework yet? B) No, I haven’t done it yet. / Yes, I’ve already done it.
  7. 7. Present Perfect + for and since <ul><li>To talk about actions and states which started in the past and are still true now. </li></ul><ul><li>- How long have you lived in Granada? </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve lived in Granada since 1990 / for 20 years . </li></ul><ul><li>(I live in Granada now.) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Present Perfect or Past Simple <ul><li>We use definite expressions with the Past simple tense: yesterday, last week, … ago, etc, while we don’t use definite time expressions with the Present perfect tense. </li></ul><ul><li>I have been to France three times. </li></ul><ul><li>When did you go there? </li></ul><ul><li>I went there last summer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Present Perfect or Past Simple <ul><li>Use the present perfect + how long? / for and since to talk about a period of time from the past until now. </li></ul><ul><li>How long have you been married? </li></ul><ul><li>I´ve been married since 1999 / for 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>(I am still married). </li></ul><ul><li>Use the past simple + how long? / for or from to to talk about a period of time in the past . </li></ul><ul><li>- How long were you married? </li></ul><ul><li>- I was married for 3 years / from 1995 to 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>(I am divorced now). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Present Perfect or Past Simple Present Perfect or Past Simple? Rose works in a factory. She ___________ (work) there for six months. Before that she ___________ (be) a waitress in a restaurant. She ___________ (work) there for two years but she ___________ (not/enjoy) it very much. A ___________ (you/ever/been) to Florida? B Yes, we ___________ (go) there two years ago. A ___________ (you/have) a good time? B Yes, it ___________ (be) great.
  11. 11. Present Perfect + Superlatives <ul><li>We often use a superlative with the present perfect. </li></ul>That is the smallest house I have ever seen . <ul><li>Make sentences as in the example. </li></ul><ul><li>It / noisy pub / I be to </li></ul><ul><li>He / boring person / meet </li></ul><ul><li>It / bad book / I / read </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>WILL / WON’T </li></ul><ul><li>(BE) GOING TO </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENT CONTINUOUS </li></ul>THE FUTURE
  13. 13. <ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Promises </li></ul><ul><li>Offers </li></ul><ul><li>Instant decisions </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>You will win the lottery… </li></ul>Will: Predictions
  15. 15. I will always love you.
  16. 16. <ul><li>I will take you sightseeing. </li></ul><ul><li>Shall I open the window? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>I’ll have the steak, please </li></ul>Meat or fish? I will have the steak, please Meat or fish?
  18. 18. <ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions that you have planned before: future plans and intentions </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>It is going to rain </li></ul>(be) going to: predictions
  20. 20. <ul><li>She’s going to save money. </li></ul>(be) going to: future plans and intentions
  21. 21. <ul><li>Future arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>The sentence usually contains an adverb which refers to the future </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>I am going to the dentist tomorrow. </li></ul>18.30: Dentist
  23. 23. FIRST CONDITIONAL 2 You can also use the imperative or can . If you need my car, take it. If you miss the bus, you can get a taxi. 1 Use IF + PRESENT SIMPLE ... WILL/WON’T + INF to talk about a future situation and its consequence. If he wakes up early, we will go for a walk.
  24. 24. FIRST CONDITIONAL <ul><li>Complete the following sentences. </li></ul>1 I will go to the cinema if I .................... (have) time. 2 If it is foggy this evening, I .................... (stay) at home. 3 .................... (you, come) to a picnic next Sunday if it’s sunny? 4 If the road .................... (be) wet, (watch out).
  25. 25. SECOND CONDITIONAL 1 Use IF + PAST SIMPLE ... WOULD/WOULDN’T + INF to talk about an improbable / impossible or hypothetical situation and its consequence. If he woke up early, we would go for a walk. 2 Remember with can, use could + INF : If I had money, I could go on holiday. 3 With the verb be you can use were (instead of was) after I, he/she/it: If he was/were here, he’d help you If I were you….
  26. 26. SECOND CONDITIONAL Complete the following sentences. 1 If I could go anywhere in the world, …………….. 2 I would be very happy if …………….. 3 I’d buy a house if …………….. 4 If I had more free time ……………..
  27. 27. Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’t <ul><li>Use have to + INF to talk about rules and obligations. </li></ul><ul><li>She has to get up very early. </li></ul><ul><li>Use don’t have to + INF to say there is no obligation, or something is not necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t have to work on 11 June. </li></ul><ul><li>Use must + INF to talk about rules and obligations. </li></ul><ul><li>You must do your homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Use mustn’t + INF to say something is prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>You mustn’t smoke here. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’t Mustn’t and don’t have to have completely different meanings: You mustn’t go. = It’s prohibited. You don’t have to go. = You can come if you want, but it’s not necessary. Use must or have to when you say what you think is necessary, when you give your opinion : Its a fantastic film. You must see it or You have to see it. When you are not giving your opinion , use have to (not must): In many countries, men have to do military service. (This is not my opinion, it’s the law in those countries.)
  29. 29. Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’t <ul><li>Complete the following sentences with mustn’t or dont have to. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Gary gave me a letter to post. I __________ forget to post it. </li></ul><ul><li>2 There’s plenty of time. You __________ to decide now. </li></ul><ul><li>3 This is a valuable book. You __________ lose it. </li></ul><ul><li>4 A What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big? </li></ul><ul><li>B Well, it __________ be big - that’s not so important, but it must have a nice garden. </li></ul>
  30. 30. GIVING ADVICE <ul><li>Use should / shouldn’t + INF to give somebody advice. </li></ul><ul><li>You can also use ought to / ought not to + INF or If I were you, I would + INF. </li></ul><ul><li>A I’ve got a cold. What should I do? </li></ul><ul><li>B You should go to the doctor. / If I were you I’d go to the doctor. </li></ul>
  31. 31. GIVING ADVICE <ul><li>Let’s see if you know how to give advice. </li></ul><ul><li>1 I´m always late. </li></ul><ul><li>2 I don’t have many friends. </li></ul><ul><li>3 I eat too much chocolate. </li></ul><ul><li>4 I´m late for work and my car broke down. </li></ul>