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Articles and quantifiers

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  • 1. ARTICLES QUANTIFIERS
  • 2. A / An / The
    • a = indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of the same objects) with consonants She has a dog. I work in a factory.
    • an = indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of the same objects) with vowels (a,e,i,o,u) Can I have an apple? She is an English teacher.
  • 3. A / An / The
    • the = definite article (a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know) The car over there is fast. The teacher is very good, isn't he?
  • 4. A / An / The
    • The first time you speak of something use "a or an", the next time you repeat that object use "the". 
    • I live in a house. The house is quite old and has four bedrooms. I ate in a Chinese restaurant. The restaurant was very good.
  • 5. A / An / The
    • DO NOT use an article with countries, states, counties or provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a collection of states such as "The United States".
    • He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier. They live in northern British Columbia.
  • 6. A / An / The
    • Use an article with bodies of water, oceans and seas -  My country borders on the Pacific Ocean
    • DO NOT use an article when you are speaking about things in general  I like Russian tea. She likes reading books.
  • 7. A / An / The
    • DO NOT use an article when you are speaking about activities, meals, places, transport, days, months, etc.
    • I go shopping twice a month.
    • He has breakfast at home. I go to university. He comes to work by taxi.
    • I go to the gym on Tuesdays and Thursdays.
  • 8. Any / Some
    • Use "some" in positive sentences. We use some for both countable and uncountable nouns.
    • Example: I have some friends.
    • Use "any" in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns.
    • Example: Do you have any cheese? - He doesn't have any friends in Chicago.
  • 9. Any / Some
    • Use "some" in questions when offering or requesting something that is there.
    • Example: Would you like some bread? (offer) - Could I have some water? (request)
  • 10. Any / Some
    • Use "some" words - somebody, someone, somewhere and something - in positive sentences.
    • Example: He lives somewhere near here.
    • Use "any" words - anybody, anyone, anywhere and anything - in negative sentences or questions.
    • Example: Do you know anything about that boy? - She doesn't have anywhere to go.
  • 11. Quantifiers for Countable Nouns Quantifiers for Uncountable Nouns Many (A) few Much (A) little Quantifiers for Both Countable & Uncountable Nouns A lot of / lots of some plenty of QUANTIFIERS
  • 12. Little / Few
    • Little and Few imply negative ideas. Little means not much and it is used with uncountable nouns. Few means not many and it is used with countable nouns.
    • There is little time, hurry up!
    • They are quite poor, they have got very little money.
    • There are few people in the street because everybody is watching the football match.
  • 13. A little / A few
    • A little and A few are more positive ideas. A little means some and it is used with uncountable nouns. A few also means some and it is used with countable nouns.
    • Don't worry, we have a little time. (This means they have some time.)
    • I have got a few friends in Seville to visit next weekend. (This means I have some friends.)