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Ppt chapter 34
 

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    Ppt chapter 34 Ppt chapter 34 Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 34 Parenteral Medications
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins •Is the following statement true or false? The parenteral route means a route of drug administration other than oral or through the gastrointestinal tract. Question
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins True. The parenteral route means a route of drug administration other than oral or through the gastrointestinal tract. Answer
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Parenteral Administration Equipment • Syringes: all syringes contain a barrel, a plunger, and a tip or hub – Calibrated in milliliters (mL), cubic centimeters (cc), units (U), and in some cases minims (m)
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Parts of a Syringe
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Parenteral Administration Equipment (cont’d) • Needles are supplied in various lengths and gauges – Shaft: length of the needle – Gauge: diameter of the needle • Lengths vary from approximately 0.5 to 2.5 inches • Filter needles are used when withdrawing medication from a glass ampule
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Parenteral Administration Equipment (cont’d) • Needle gauge refers to width – For most injections, 18- to 27-gauge needles are used; the smaller the number, the larger the diameter
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Common Sizes of Syringes and Needles
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Parenteral Administration Equipment (cont’d) • Modified safety injection equipment: – Avoids needlestick injuries to reduce the risk for acquiring a blood-borne viral disease such as hepatitis or AIDS o Plastic shields that cover the needle after use, needles that retract into the syringe, and gas-pressured devices that inject medications without needles
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Parenteral Administration Equipment (cont’d) • Two techniques with standard equipment to prevent needlestick injuries: – Before administering an injection, the protective cap covering a needle is replaced by using the scoop method – After administering an injection, the needle is left uncapped and deposited in the nearest biohazard container
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Safety Injection Devices
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Ampule, Vial, and Prefilled Cartridge
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •What is the function of a syringe barrel? a. Holds the medication b. Withdraws the medication c. Instills the medication d. Attaches the needle
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer a. Holds the medication The barrel is the part of the syringe that holds the medication. The plunger is a part of the syringe within the barrel that moves back and forth to withdraw and instill the medication. The tip or hub is the part of the syringe to which the needle is attached.
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Drug Preparation • Ampule: sealed glass drug container • Vial: glass or plastic container of parenteral medication with a self-sealing rubber stopper – Reconstitution: process of adding liquid, known as diluent, to a powdered substance
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Withdrawing Medication From the Ampule
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Withdrawing Medication From the Vial
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Drug Preparation (cont’d) • Prefilled cartridges: sealed glass cylinder of parenteral medication – Cartridge comes with an attached needle and the cylinder is made so that it fits in a specially designed syringe • Combining medications in one syringe: exact amounts must be withdrawn from each drug container; once the drugs are in the barrel of the syringe there is no way to expel one without expelling some of the other
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes • Intradermal injections: between the layers of the skin – Diagnostic purposes o Examples: tuberculin tests and allergy testing – Injection sites: inner aspect of the forearm
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Injection equipment: tuberculin syringe – 25- to 27-gauge needle measuring one- half inch in length is commonly used • Injection technique: nurse instills the medication shallowly at a 10° to 15° angle of entry
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Which angle is used by the nurse to administer a subcutaneous injection to a thin client? a. 90° b. 15° c. 10° d. 45°
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer d. 45° The nurse inserts the needle at a 45° angle for thin clients. For obese clients, and when administering intramuscular injections, the nurse inserts the needle at a 90° angle. When giving an intradermal injection, the nurse instills the medication shallowly at a 10° to 15° angle of entry.
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Subcutaneous injections: beneath the skin but above the muscle – Medication is instilled between the skin and muscle and absorbed fairly rapidly – Commonly used to administer insulin and heparin – Injection sites: insulin and heparin are administered in the abdomen
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Injection equipment used for a subcutaneous injection depends on the type of medication prescribed – Example: insulin is prepared in an insulin syringe and heparin is prepared in a tuberculin syringe
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Injection technique (subcutaneous) – For obese clients, the nurse inserts the needle at a 90° angle – For thin clients, the nurse inserts the needle at a 45° angle
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Administering insulin: hormone required by some clients with diabetes – Common route for administration: subcutaneous or intravenous injection o Inhaled form of insulin: Exubera o Insulin syringe: calibrated in units
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Administering insulin (cont’d): injection site for insulin is rotated each time the injection is administered to avoid – Lipoatrophy: breakdown of subcutaneous fat at the site of repeated insulin injections – Lipohypertrophy: buildup of subcutaneous fat at the site of repeated insulin injections
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Low-Dose and Standard Insulin Syringes
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Preparing insulin: when preparing other than rapid-acting and short-acting insulin or the long-acting insulin, glargine (Lantus), the nurse rotates the vial between the palms to redistribute the additive and insulin before filling the syringe • Mixing insulins: insulins tend to bind and become equilibrated – Should be injected within 15 minutes of being combined
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Mixing Insulins
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Administering heparin: an anticoagulant drug administered subcutaneously as well as intravenously, heparin prolongs the time it takes for blood to clot – Nurse removes needle after withdrawal of the drug from a multidose vial and replaces it with another before administration
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Administering heparin (cont’d): – To prevent bruising in the area of the injection, the nurse changes the needle before injecting the client – The nurse rotates the sites with each injection to avoid a previous area where there has been local bleeding – The nurse does not aspirate the plunger once the needle is in place
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Intramuscular injections: in muscle tissue – Absorption from an intramuscular injection occurs more rapidly than from the other parenteral routes – Injection sites o Dorsogluteal site: upper outer quadrant of the buttocks
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Ventrogluteal site: gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles in the hip for injection • Vastus lateralis site: vastus lateralis muscle, one of the muscles in the quadriceps group of the outer thigh
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Rectus femoris site: anterior aspect of the thigh • Deltoid site: lateral aspect of the upper arm • Injection equipment: 3- to 5-mL syringes are used to administer medications by the intramuscular route
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Injection Routes (cont’d) • Injection technique: nurses use a 90° angle for piercing the skin – Z-track technique: technique for manipulating the tissue to seal medication, especially an irritant, in the muscle
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Giving Injection by Z-Track Technique
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Reducing Injection Discomfort • Nurses use these alternative techniques to reduce discomfort associated with injections: – Use the Z-track method for intramuscular injections – Apply pressure to the site during needle withdrawal – Massage the site afterward, if appropriate
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Reducing Injection Comfort (cont’d)
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Which intramuscular injection site is used for clients with debilitated and poorly developed gluteal muscles? a. Deltoid b. Vastus lateralis c. Rectus femoris d. Ventrogluteal
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer b. Vastus lateralis The vastus lateralis site is used for clients with debilitated and poorly developed gluteal muscles. The deltoid site is used for adults. The rectus femoris site is used for infants. The ventrogluteal site is used for children.
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nursing Implications • Nurses who administer parenteral medications may identify nursing diagnoses such as: – Acute pain – Anxiety – Fear – Risk for trauma
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations • Clients with diabetes often have visual problems interfering with their ability to self- administer insulin • Clients who can administer insulin injections but cannot fill their own syringes may choose to use prefilled syringes or an insulin pen
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • Age-related changes and possible chronic diseases impair the older person’s ability to absorb and metabolize medications • Injections should not be administered into limbs that are paralyzed, inactive, or affected by poor circulation – For clients with mastectomy or with a vascular site for hemodialysis, avoid arm on the affected side
    • Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • Deltoid or ventrogluteal muscles may be the preferred intramuscular sites for older adults experiencing impaired mobility • Dorsogluteal site should be avoided because of the risk of damage to the sciatic nerve with diminished musculature • Selection and identification of injection site may be difficult when working with clients experiencing dementia or musculoskeletal deformities such as contractures