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Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
Ppt chapter 22
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Ppt chapter 22

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  • 1. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 22 Infection Control
  • 2. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infection Control • Infectious diseases – Contagious or communicable diseases and community-acquired infections – Persistence of infectious diseases – The current public health problem of AIDS, HIV, and SARS
  • 3. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Facts and Myths About Transmission of HIV
  • 4. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infection • Infection: condition that results when microorganisms cause injury to a host • Colonization: condition that results when microbes are present but host is without signs or symptoms of infection • Progress of infections through distinct stages
  • 5. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Colonization is a condition that results when microorganisms cause injury to a host.
  • 6. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Colonization is a condition in which microorganisms are present, but the host does not manifest any signs or symptoms of infection.
  • 7. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Course of Infectious Diseases
  • 8. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infection Control Precautions • Infection control precautions: physical measures designed to curtail the spread of infectious diseases – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • 9. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infection Control Precautions (cont’d) • Standard precautions: reduce transmission of microorganisms from both recognized and unrecognized sources of blood, body fluids (except sweat), nonintact skin, mucous membrances • Three new elements: Respiratory Hygiene/ Cough Etiquette; Safe Injection Practices; Special Lumbar Puncture Procedures
  • 10. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infection Control Precautions (cont’d) • Transmission-based precautions – Airborne – Droplet – Contact
  • 11. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Precautions that are used to reduce pathogen transmission from close contact, usually 3 feet or less, belong to which category of precautions? a. Droplet b. Contact c. Airborne d. Isolation
  • 12. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer a. Droplet Droplet precautions are measures that block pathogens within moist droplets larger than 5 microns. They are used to reduce pathogen transmission from close contact (usually 3 feet or less) between an infected person or a person who is a carrier of a droplet-spread microorganism and others.
  • 13. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Transmission-based precautions were formerly called universal precautions.
  • 14. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Transmission-based precautions are also called isolation precautions and are measures for controlling the spread of infectious agents from clients known to be or suspected of being infected with highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogens.
  • 15. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Transmission-Based Precautions
  • 16. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infection Control Measures • Personal protective equipment – The purpose and characteristics of cover gowns – Face-protection devices – Gloves
  • 17. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Personal Protective Equipment
  • 18. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infection Control Measures (cont’d) • Personal protective equipment (cont’d) – Removing personal protective equipment – Disposing of contaminated linen, equipment, and supplies – Double bagging
  • 19. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Double-Bagging Technique
  • 20. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infection Control Measures (cont’d) • Client environment – Infection control room – Equipment and supplies • Methods of discarding biodegradable trash • Removing reusable items • Delivering laboratory specimens • Transporting clients with infectious diseases
  • 21. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Biodegradable trash can be flushed down the toilet in the client’s room.
  • 22. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer True. Biodegradable trash is refuse that will decompose naturally into less complex compounds. It includes items such as unconsumed beverages, paper tissues, the contents of drainage collectors, urine, and stool. All these items can be flushed down the toilet in the client’s room.
  • 23. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Psychological Implications • Being attentive to client sensibilities • Promoting social interaction • Combating sensory deprivation
  • 24. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Providing Sensory Stimulation
  • 25. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nursing Implications • Frequently identified nursing diagnoses when caring for clients with infectious diseases – The nursing diagnosis of risk for infection transmission • Imparting of infection prevention teaching measures to client and family
  • 26. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Preventing Infections
  • 27. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations • Susceptibility to infections among older clients due to decreased immune system function and inadequate fluid/nutrition intake • Subtler symptoms of infections among older adults • Infections more likely to have a rapid course and life-threatening consequences once established
  • 28. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • Change in behavior and mental status can signal infectious process • The high incidence of TB among older adults, especially those in long-term care • Maintaining intact skin is excellent first-line defense against nosocomial infections • Prompt perineal hygiene is best technique for preventing urinary tract infections

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