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Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
Ppt chapter 21
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Ppt chapter 21

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  • 1. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 21 Oxygenation
  • 2. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oxygenation • Oxygen: measures approximately 21% in the Earth’s atmosphere • Each cell of the human body uses oxygen to metabolize nutrients and produce energy • Without oxygen, cell death occurs rapidly
  • 3. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Expiration creates more chest space, causing the pressure within the lungs to fall below that in the atmosphere.
  • 4. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Inhalation creates more chest space, causing the pressure within the lungs to fall below that in the atmosphere.
  • 5. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing • Inspiration and expiration • Ventilation: movement of air in and out of lungs; facilitates respiration • Respiration: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • 6. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing (cont’d) • External and internal respiration – External respiration takes place at most distal point in airway: between the alveolar-capillary membranes – Internal respiration occurs at the cellular level between hemoglobin and body cells
  • 7. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Assessing Oxygenation • Physical assessment – Monitoring the client’s respiratory rate – Observing breathing pattern and effort – Checking chest symmetry – Auscultating lung sounds
  • 8. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Assessing Oxygenation (cont’d) • Arterial blood gases measure: – Partial pressure of oxygen dissolved in plasma – Percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen – The pH of blood
  • 9. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Arterial Blood Gases
  • 10. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Assessing Oxygenation (cont’d) • Pulse oximetry – Composed of a sensor and a microprocessor – Noninvasive, transcutaneous technique for periodically or continuously monitoring the oxygen saturation of blood
  • 11. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Which of the following is used for monitoring the oxygen saturation of blood? a. Arterial blood gases b. Pulse oximetry c. Incentive spirometry d. Oxygen analyzer
  • 12. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer b. Pulse oximetry Pulse oximetry is a technique for periodically or continuously monitoring the oxygen saturation of blood. Arterial blood gases monitor the pH of blood. Incentive spirometry is a technique for deep breathing using a calibrated device. Oxygen analyzer is a device that measures the percentage of delivered oxygen to the client.
  • 13. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Promoting Oxygenation • Positioning: Fowler’s position • Breathing techniques – Deep breathing o Incentive spirometry – Pursed-lip breathing – Diaphragmatic breathing – Nasal strips
  • 14. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Diaphragmatic Breathing
  • 15. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oxygen Therapy • Oxygen sources – Wall outlet – Portable tanks – Liquid oxygen unit – Oxygen concentrator • Equipment used in oxygen administration
  • 16. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oxygen Therapy (cont’d) • Equipment used in oxygen administration – Flowmeter – Oxygen analyzer – Humidifier • Common delivery devices – Nasal cannula
  • 17. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oxygen Therapy (cont’d) • Common delivery devices (cont’d) – Masks o Simple mask o Partial rebreather mask o Non-rebreather mask o Venturi mask
  • 18. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oxygen Therapy (cont’d) • Common delivery devices (cont’d) – Face tent – Tracheostomy collar – T-piece • Additional delivery devices – Nasal catheter
  • 19. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Comparison of Oxygen Delivery Devices (Refer to Table 21-4 in the textbook.)
  • 20. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oxygen Therapy (cont’d) • Additional delivery devices (cont’d) – Oxygen tent and CPAP mask – Transtracheal oxygen • Oxygen hazards – Fire potential – Oxygen toxicity
  • 21. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Administering Oxygen Safely
  • 22. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Which of the following is a common delivery device for oxygen? a. Flowmeter b. Nasal cannula c. Oxygen analyzer d. Humidifier
  • 23. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer b. Nasal cannula Nasal cannula is a common delivery device. Flowmeter, oxygen analyzer, and humidifier are equipment used in oxygen administration.
  • 24. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Related Oxygenation Techniques • Water-seal chest tube drainage – A technique for evacuating air or blood from the pleural cavity • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy – Delivery of 100% oxygen at 3 times the normal atmospheric pressure within an airtight chamber
  • 25. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nursing Implications • Nursing diagnoses: hypoxemia or hypoxia – Ineffective breathing pattern – Impaired gas exchange – Anxiety – Risk for injury (related to oxygen hazards)
  • 26. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Ineffective Breathing Pattern (Refer to Nursing Care Plan 21-1in the textbook.)
  • 27. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations • Reduced gas exchange and efficiency in ventilation; major age-related changes occur in the respiratory system • Respiratory muscles become weaker and the chest wall becomes stiffer as a result of calcification of the intercostal cartilage
  • 28. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • Diminished cough and gag reflexes, increased use of accessory muscles for breathing, increased mouth breathing, snoring • Inactive, debilitated, or chronically ill clients or smokers are at a higher risk for respiratory infections and compromised respiratory function

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