Ppt chapter 17

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Ppt chapter 17

  1. 1. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 17 Hygiene
  2. 2. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Hygiene: practices that promote health through personal cleanliness • Activities that foster hygiene – Bathing; cleaning and maintaining fingernails and toenails – Performing oral care – Shampooing and grooming hair – Maintaining hearing aids and eyeglasses Hygiene
  3. 3. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Integumentary System Components • Skin • Mucous membrane • Hair • Fingernails, toenails • Teeth
  4. 4. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Epidermis • Dermis • Subcutaneous layer Skin
  5. 5. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cross-Section of the Skin
  6. 6. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Line body passages such as the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems • Mucous membrane also lines the conjunctiva of the eye • Goblet cells in the mucous membranes secrete mucus, a slimy substance that keeps the membranes soft and moist Mucous Membrane
  7. 7. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Made up of keratin • Forms from cells at the base of a single follicle • Helps to prevent heat loss • Sebaceous glands in the hair follicles release sebum, an oily secretion Hair
  8. 8. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Fingernails and toenails are made of keratin, which in concentrated amounts gives them their tough texture • Normal nails are thin, pink, and smooth • Fingernails and toenails provide some protection to the digits Nails
  9. 9. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Present beneath the gums at birth • Contain the outer covering, enamel, a keratin structure • Exposed portion of each tooth: crown • Portion within the gum: root • Adults: 28 to 32 permanent teeth • Saliva: keeps the teeth clean and inhibits bacterial growth Teeth
  10. 10. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Sugar, plaque, and bacteria may eventually erode the tooth enamel, causing caries • Tartar leads to gingivitis while gum inflammation may cause periodontal disease Common Dental Problems
  11. 11. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Bathing • Uses a cleansing agent such as soap and water to remove sweat, oil, dirt, and microorganisms from the skin • Advantages of bathing – Eliminates body odor; reduces the potential for infection – Stimulates circulation; provides a refreshed and relaxed feeling; improves self-image
  12. 12. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Types of Bathing • Partial bathing • Bed bath – Towel bath – Bag bath
  13. 13. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Partial bathing is most common in young adults.
  14. 14. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Partial bathing is most common in older clients.
  15. 15. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Advantages of Bed Bath
  16. 16. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Giving a Towel Bath
  17. 17. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Towel bath is very expensive.
  18. 18. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Towel bath saves expense.
  19. 19. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Shaving • Removes unwanted body hair • Accomplished with an electric or a safety razor • The use of safety razor may not be possible in the following situations: – If the client has a face injury – If the client cannot shave
  20. 20. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Shaving a Client’s Face
  21. 21. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oral Hygiene • Brushing and flossing the teeth • Dentures and bridges require special cleaning and care • Oral hygiene in unconscious clients – Prevents aspiration of oral hygiene products and water
  22. 22. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Advantages of Electric Toothbrushes
  23. 23. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Dentures are best washed with hot water.
  24. 24. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Dentures are best washed with cold or tepid water.
  25. 25. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Hair Care • Apply a conditioner to loosen tangles • Use oil on the hair if it is dry • Braid the hair to help prevent tangles • Brush the hair slowly to increase circulation of sebum • Use a wide-toothed comb, combing from end to crown • Use shampoo to clean hair
  26. 26. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nail Care • Keeping the fingernails and toenails clean and trimmed • Nail care should be provided with extreme caution for the following clients: – Clients with diabetes – Clients with impaired circulation – Client with thick nails
  27. 27. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Applying alcohol to tangled hair helps remove the tangles.
  28. 28. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer True. Applying alcohol to tangled hair helps remove the tangles.
  29. 29. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Visual and Hearing Devices • Eyeglasses and hearing aids improve communication and socialization – Eyeglasses – Contact lenses – Artificial eyes – Hearing aids – Infrared listening devices
  30. 30. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Types of Contact Lenses
  31. 31. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Examples of Hearing Aids • In the ear • Behind the ear • Remote controlled (Refer to Figure 17-10 in the textbook.)
  32. 32. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Infrared listening devices (IRLDs) are used by clients with hearing impairment to hear sounds outdoors.
  33. 33. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. IRLDs cannot be used outdoors or in rooms that contain many windows or in well-lit rooms.
  34. 34. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations • Poor hygiene and grooming in older adults: signs of visual impairments, functional changes, dementia, depression, abuse, or neglect • Older adults do not need to bathe as frequently as younger adults • Use mild, superfatted, nonperfumed soap • Oils are not used in showers or bathtubs due to increased risk for falls
  35. 35. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • For older adults with limited range of motion or mobility, provide: – Long-handled bath sponges or hand-held shower attachments – Nonskid strips on the floor of bathtubs – Showers with strategically placed handles and grab bars; a tub/shower seat
  36. 36. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • Due to increased susceptibility to dry skin, tears and scratches: – Avoid skin care products containing alcohol, perfumes that aggravate dry skin – Nails: keep trimmed and smooth – Feet: regularly inspect condition • Modify clothing to promote independence • Tooth loss: periodontal disease
  37. 37. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Older adults need to bathe frequently because they perspire a lot.
  38. 38. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Older adults do not need to bathe frequently because they have diminished perspiration and sebum production.

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