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Ppt chapter 08

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  • 1. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 8 Client Teaching
  • 2. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Mandating Client Teaching • State Nurse Practice Acts • Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) • American Nurses Association – Social Policy Statement
  • 3. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Scope of Client Teaching • Teaching focuses on combinations of the following subject areas: – Plan of care; Treatment; Services – Safe self-administration of medications – Pain assessment process; Pain management methods – Directions and practice in using equipment for self-care
  • 4. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Scope of Client Teaching (cont’d) • Teaching focuses on combinations of the following subject areas (cont’d): – Dietary instructions; Rehabilitation program – Available community resources – Plan for medical follow-up – S/S of complications, actions to take
  • 5. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Benefits of Client Teaching • Reduced length of stay • Cost-effectiveness of health care • Better allocation of resources • Increased client satisfaction • Decreased readmission rates
  • 6. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Stages of Learning • Four progressive stages of learning – Recognition of what has been taught – Recall or description of information to others – Explanation or application of information – Independent use of new learning
  • 7. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Style of learning means how a person responds to learning.
  • 8. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Style of learning means how a person prefers to acquire knowledge.
  • 9. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Assessing the Learner • To implement effective teaching, determine the client’s: – Preferred learning style; literacy; age and developmental level; capacity to learn – Motivation; attention and concentration; learning readiness; learning needs; sensory deficits – Cultural differences
  • 10. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Three general domains – Cognitive domain: style of processing information by listening or reading facts and descriptions – Affective domain: style of processing that appeals to a person’s feelings, beliefs, or values – Psychomotor domain: style of processing that focuses on learning by doing Learning Styles
  • 11. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Domain
  • 12. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Activities Associated With Learning Domains
  • 13. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Age-related categories of learning – Pedagogy: science of teaching children or those with cognitive ability comparable to children – Androgogy: principles of teaching adult learners – Gerogogy: techniques that enhance learning among older adults Age and Developmental Level
  • 14. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Androgogy refers to the principles of teaching adult learners.
  • 15. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer True. There are three major categories of learners at the early and later ends of the adult spectrum. The principles of teaching adult learners is known as androgogy. Pedagogy is the science of teaching children or those with cognitive ability comparable to children. Gerogogy consists of techniques that enhance learning among older adults.
  • 16. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Age and Developmental Level (cont’d) • Unique characteristics of young adults – Technologically literate, having grown up with computers – Prefer visualizations, simulations, and other methods of participatory learning and quick responses – Expect immediate answers and feedback
  • 17. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Age and Developmental Level (cont’d) • Unique characteristics of young adults (cont’d) – Become bored with memorizing information and doing repetitious tasks – Like a variety of instructional methods from which they can choose – Respond best when they find the information to be relevant
  • 18. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Characteristics
  • 19. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Which of the following do young adult learners prefer? a. Memorizing information b. Repeating tasks c. Fewer instructional methods d. Participatory learning
  • 20. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer d. Participatory learning Young adult learners do not like memorizing information or repeating tasks. They prefer participatory learning using visuals and a choice of various instructional methods.
  • 21. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Capacity to Learn • Literacy – Determine client’s level of literacy before developing teaching plan o Illiterate o Functionally illiterate: minimal literacy skills; may disguise or compensate for learning deficits
  • 22. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? A client with minimal literacy skills is termed “functionally literate.”
  • 23. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. A client with minimal literacy skills is termed “functionally illiterate.”
  • 24. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Capacity to Learn (cont’d) • Literacy – Protect client’s self-esteem by asking, “How do you learn best?” – Use verbal and visual modes for instruction – Repeat directions several times in same sequence – Provide pictures, diagrams, or tapes (audio and video) for future review
  • 25. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Capacity to Learn (cont’d) • Sensory deficits – Older adults o May have visual and auditory deficits
  • 26. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Capacity to Learn (cont’d) • Cultural differences – Language barriers do not justify omitting health teaching o If nurse and client do not speak same language, use a translator
  • 27. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Capacity to Learn (cont’d) • Attention and concentration – Affect duration, delivery, and teaching methods employed – Helpful approaches o Observe client and implement health teaching when most alert and comfortable o Keep teaching session short
  • 28. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Capacity to Learn (cont’d) • Attention and concentration (cont’d) – Helpful approaches (cont’d) o Use client’s name frequently throughout o Show enthusiasm o Use colorful materials, gestures, variety o Involve client in an active way o Vary tone and pitch of voice
  • 29. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question •Is the following statement true or false? Increasing the duration of teaching sessions may help in overcoming problems of attention and concentration in clients.
  • 30. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Keeping teaching sessions short may help in overcoming problems of attention and concentration in clients.
  • 31. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Motivation • Learning optimal: person has purpose for acquiring new information • Desire for learning: to satisfy intellectual curiosity, restore independence, prevent complications, or facilitate discharge and return to comfort of home • Less desirable reasons: to please others, to avoid criticism
  • 32. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Readiness • Readiness refers to client’s physical and psychological well-being • In these situations, restore comfort and then attend to teaching
  • 33. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Needs • Individualized teaching and learning is best • Questions the nurse can ask to assess client’s learning needs: – What does being healthy mean to you? – What things in your life interfere with being healthy? – What don’t you understand as fully as you would like?
  • 34. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Needs (cont’d) • Questions the nurse can ask to assess client’s learning needs (cont’d) – What activities do you need help with? – What do you hope to accomplish before being discharged? – How can we help you at this time?
  • 35. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Informal and Formal Teaching • Informal teaching: occurs spontaneously at the bedside • Formal teaching: requires plan • Potential teaching needs: identified at client’s admission and amended as care and treatment progress
  • 36. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Informal and Formal Teaching (cont’d) • Teaching occurs in sessions by one or more nurses so client is not overwhelmed with: – Processing volumes of new information – Learning skills that are difficult for novices to perform
  • 37. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations • During initial assessment of levels of cognitive function: – Clients may interact in socially appropriate manner – Clients may indicate that they understand material being taught • Ask client to recall what has been discussed after approximately 15 minutes to assess retained information
  • 38. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • Mental status examination may be indicated • Cognitive impairment: support person or caregiver present for teaching sessions • Older people may be creative in methods to incorporate needed changes in health behavior if purposes or anticipated benefits are made clear at beginning of teaching session
  • 39. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • Begin teaching session with reference to older person’s actual experience • Project a calm demeanor in a quiet environment to decrease anxiety and distractions • Peer teaching or reinforcement in support- group settings may be helpful • State belief in client’s ability to change health behavior and provide encouragement