Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Chapter 1
Nursing Foundations
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Nursing Origins
• Youngest profession but oldest ar...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Nightingale Reformation
• The Crimean War
• Nig...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Nightingale Reformation (cont’d)
• Nightingale’...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Question
• Is the following statement true or false...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Answer
True.
Florence Nightingale advocated that nu...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Nursing in the United States
• U.S. nursing schools...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Nursing in the United States (cont’d)
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Contemporary Nursing
• Combining nursing art with s...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Contemporary Nursing (cont’d)
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Contemporary Nursing (cont’d)
• Defining nursing
– ...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder
• Basic educational options ...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Factors that infl...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Factors that infl...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Practical/vocatio...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Registered nurse
...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Registered nurse ...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Registered nurse ...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Registered nurse ...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Registered nurse ...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Ladder (cont’d)
• Registered nurse ...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Program (cont’d)
• Registered nurse...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Educational Program (cont’d)
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Question
• Is the following statement true or false...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Answer
False.
Geographic location of a school is on...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Future Trends
• Factors contributing to nursing sho...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
• Factors contributing to nursing shortage
(cont’d)...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Future Trends (cont’d)
• Governmental response
– Lo...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Future Trends (cont’d)
• Governmental response (con...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
• Proactive strategies
– Pursuing post-licensure ed...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Future Trends (cont’d)
• Proactive strategies (cont...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Future Trends (cont’d)
• Proactive strategies (cont...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Question
Which of the following is a factor
contrib...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Answer
a. Job dissatisfaction
Job dissatisfaction i...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Unique Nursing Skills
• Assessment skills
– Followi...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Unique Nursing Skills (cont’d)
• Caring skills
– As...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
• Counseling skills
– Communicating with client
– A...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
• Counseling skills (cont’d)
– Use active listening...
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Unique Nursing Skills (cont’d)
• Comforting skills
...
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Ppt chapter 01

  1. 1. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 1 Nursing Foundations
  2. 2. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nursing Origins • Youngest profession but oldest art • During the Middle Ages in Europe • Schism between King Henry VIII and the Catholic Church
  3. 3. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Nightingale Reformation • The Crimean War • Nightingale’s contributions – Training people for future work – Selecting those with upstanding character – Improving sanitary conditions for sick and injured
  4. 4. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Nightingale Reformation (cont’d) • Nightingale’s contributions (cont’d) – Reducing death rate of British soldiers – Providing classroom assistance and clinical teaching – Advocating nursing education should be lifelong
  5. 5. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question • Is the following statement true or false? Florence Nightingale advocated that nursing education should be lifelong.
  6. 6. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer True. Florence Nightingale advocated that nursing education should be lifelong due to continual technological advances, to demonstrate competence and ensure the public’s confidence, and to facilitate practice consistent with current nursing standards.
  7. 7. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nursing in the United States • U.S. nursing schools: – Differences between the Nightingale Training Schools and U.S. Training Schools • Expanding horizons of practice
  8. 8. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nursing in the United States (cont’d)
  9. 9. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Contemporary Nursing • Combining nursing art with science • Integrating the nursing theory – Nursing theories and application
  10. 10. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Contemporary Nursing (cont’d)
  11. 11. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Contemporary Nursing (cont’d) • Defining nursing – Nursing definitions by: o Florence Nightingale o Virginia Henderson o American Nurses Association
  12. 12. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder • Basic educational options available: – Practical (vocational) nursing – Registered nursing • Factors that influence choice of nursing program: – Career goals – Geographic location of schools
  13. 13. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Factors that influence choice of nursing program (cont’d): – Costs involved – Length of program – Reputation and success of graduate – Flexibility of course scheduling
  14. 14. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Factors that influence choice of nursing program (cont’d): – Opportunity for part-time versus full-time employment – Ease of movement into next level of education
  15. 15. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Practical/vocational nursing – Abbreviated nursing program created during World War II – Length: average between 12 and 18 months – Shortest, most economical program
  16. 16. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Registered nurse – Works under direction of physician or dentist – Manages or provide direct care to client – Educates clients and the public re: Medical conditions – Delegates client care to LPN and UAP
  17. 17. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Registered nurse (cont’d) – Three paths o Hospital-based diploma program  Traditional route for nurse  Lowest number of diploma programs compared to other basic nursing educational programs
  18. 18. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Registered nurse (cont’d) – Hospital-based diploma program (cont’d) o Reasons for decline  Movement to increase professionalism in nursing  Hospitals no longer financially able to subsidize schools of nursing
  19. 19. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Registered nurse (cont’d) – Associate degree program o Aimed at shortening nursing education o Originally-proposed title of “technical nurse” o Would not be expected to work in a management position
  20. 20. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Registered nurse (cont’d) – Baccalaureate program o Greatest flexibility in qualifying for nursing positions o Preferred in areas requiring substantial independent decision making
  21. 21. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Ladder (cont’d) • Registered nurse (cont’d) – Graduate nursing program o Master’s-prepared nurses: Clinical specialist, nurse practitioner, administrator, educator o Doctoral degree: Conduct research; advise, administer, and instruct nurses pursuing graduate and undergraduate degrees
  22. 22. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Program (cont’d) • Registered nurse (cont’d) – Continuing education o Planned learning experience beyond the basic nursing program o Rationale for acquiring continuing education
  23. 23. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Educational Program (cont’d)
  24. 24. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question • Is the following statement true or false? The geographic location of a school does not have any implication in the choice of a nursing program.
  25. 25. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Geographic location of a school is one of the factors that influences the selection of a nursing program.
  26. 26. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Future Trends • Factors contributing to nursing shortage: – Retirement rate exceeds replacement – Increased aging population requires health care – Disappointing salaries with longevity employment – Job dissatisfaction
  27. 27. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Factors contributing to nursing shortage (cont’d): – Heavier workloads and sicker clients – Publicity about mandatory overtime – Downsizing nursing staff from dwindling revenues and managed care policies – Negative stereotypes Future Trends (cont’d)
  28. 28. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Future Trends (cont’d) • Governmental response – Loan repayment programs and scholarships for nursing students – Funding for public service announcements – Career ladder programs – Establishment of nurse retention and client safety enhancement grants
  29. 29. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Future Trends (cont’d) • Governmental response (cont’d) – Grants to incorporate gerontology into nursing curricula – Loan repayment programs for nursing students who agree to teach following graduation
  30. 30. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Proactive strategies – Pursuing post-licensure education – Training for advanced practice roles – Becoming cross-trained – Learning more about multicultural diversity – Supporting legislative efforts toward national health insurance Future Trends (cont’d)
  31. 31. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Future Trends (cont’d) • Proactive strategies (cont’d) – Promoting wellness: home health and community-based programs – Helping clients with chronic diseases – Referring clients with health problems – Coordinating nursing services across health care settings
  32. 32. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Future Trends (cont’d) • Proactive strategies (cont’d) – Developing and implementing clinical pathways, standardized multidisciplinary plans for a specific diagnosis or procedure – Participating in quality assurance – Concentrating on knowledge and skills: manage health needs of older Americans
  33. 33. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Which of the following is a factor contributing to nursing shortage? a. Job dissatisfaction b. Geographic location of schools c. Length of programs d. Reputation and success of graduate
  34. 34. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer a. Job dissatisfaction Job dissatisfaction is a factor that has contributed to nursing shortage. Geographic location of schools, length of programs, and reputation and success of graduate are factors that influence the selection of a nursing program.
  35. 35. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Unique Nursing Skills • Assessment skills – Following activities requires use of assessment: o Interviewing, observing, examining client and family; reviewing client’s medical record; obtaining facts from other health care workers
  36. 36. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Unique Nursing Skills (cont’d) • Caring skills – Assisting with ADLs – Safe care of clients who require invasive or highly technical equipment – Helping client become self-reliant
  37. 37. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Counseling skills – Communicating with client – Actively listening – Offering pertinent health teaching – Providing emotional support – Using therapeutic communication techniques Unique Nursing Skills (cont’d)
  38. 38. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Counseling skills (cont’d) – Use active listening – Clarify client’s perspective – Teach clients: promote healing processes, staying well, preventing illness, and carrying out ADLs – Use empathy Unique Nursing Skills (cont’d)
  39. 39. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Unique Nursing Skills (cont’d) • Comforting skills – Provide stability and security during a health-related crisis
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