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Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
Drugs for respiratory system
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Drugs for respiratory system

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  • 1. DRUGS FOR RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Ch 32, 33, 34
  • 2. INTRODUCTION (P. 283  Respiratory system provices mechanism for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs  Upper Airway Nose Throat  trachea    Lower Airway trachea Bronchi  Lungs  Alveoli  
  • 3. DRUG CATEGORIES IN THIS UNIT Antihistamines  Decongestants  Antitussives  Mucolytics  Expectorants   Bronchodilators (sympathomimetics Corticosteroids  Leukotriene modifiers  Mast cell stabilizers  ☻
  • 4. DISORDERS  Common disorders of Respiratory System        Infections Allergic rhinitis Coughs Colds Congestion Asthma COPD
  • 5. URIS AND ALLERGIES Treated with OTC drugs if viral Treated with ABT if bacterial Also  Decongestants  Antitussives  Mucolytics  Expectorants
  • 6. LOWER RESPIRATORY AILMENTS treated with  Bronchodilators  Corticosteroids  Leukotriene modifiers  Mast cell stabilizers
  • 7. ANTITUSSIVES  Productuve Cough—secrretions are expelled  Non-productive –dry, hacking , no secretions  Atnitussive—relieves coughs  Action:  Depresses cough cneter in the medulla of the brain  Use:  relief of non-productive cough
  • 8. ANTITUSSIVES Adverse reactions (side effect)  Dizziness  Drowsiness  Sedation  GI Upset
  • 9. ANTITUSSIVES Precautions  Chronic cough  Excessive secretions  High fever  Opioids use caution as with other opioids  Avoid alcohol with codeine (additive effects)
  • 10. ANTITUSSIVE DRUG NAMES Codeine Benzonatate (Tessalon Perles) Dextromethorphan (Benylin, Robitussin, Delsym) Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
  • 11. NURSING PROCESS Risk for injury r/t dizziness, sedation Ineffective airway clearance r/t pooling secretions
  • 12. NURSING PROCESS CON’T Document type of cough Description of sputum Check vital signs Observe therapeutic effects Provide for safety from falls Codeine may cause orthostatic hypotension
  • 13. NURSING PROCESS CON’T  Depression of cough reflex can lead to pooling of secretions  In turn, can lead to pneumonia, atelectasis  Encourage C&DB, Position change, fluids  Encourage patient to contact MD if cough persists > 10 days, fever, or chest pain
  • 14. MUCOLYTICS AND EXPECTORANTS  ACTIONS:   Mucolytic—breaks down thick tenacious mucus in lower airways Expectorant—increases respiratory secretions which in turn thins secretionsease of removal by coughing (raising ) the secretions
  • 15. MUCOLYTICS AND EXPECTORANTS  USE: Lower respiratory disorders  Acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose   Adverse reactions Drowsiness  Sedation  GI upset   CI: Asthmatics
  • 16. MUCOLYTICS AND EXPECTORANTS Drug Names  Mucomyst (acetylcysteine)  guaifenesin (Robitussin, Mucines)
  • 17. NURSING PROCESS Ineffective airway clearance r/t thick mucus production Assess respiratory status Encourage fluids Take as directed
  • 18. ANTIHISTAMINES & DECONGESTANTS Histamine produced in response to allergic reaction or tissue injury Produces inflammatory response Drugs to treat (antihistamines)  Block the effects of histamine at the receptor sites
  • 19. ANTIHISTAMINES & DECONGESTANTS  Antihistamines  Action:  Block effects of histamine on H 1 receptors  Use: Allergies  Anaphylactic shock  Motion sickness  Adjunct to analgesia 
  • 20. ANTIHISTAMINES & DECONGESTANTS Side effects:  Drowsiness  Sedation  Dizziness  Dry mouth
  • 21. ANTIHISTAMINES & DECONGESTANTS Drug Names Antihistamines 1st generation ChlorTrimeton (chlorpheniramine)  Benadryl (diphenhydramine)  Phenergan ([romethazine ) 2nd generation Zyrtec (cetirizine) Allegra (fexofenadine) Claritin (loratidine) 
  • 22. ANTIHISTAMINES & DECONGESTANTS Precautions  Glaucoma  BPH  Hypertension  Kidney disease
  • 23. NURSING PROCESS  Impaired oral mucous membranes r/t dry mouth  Risk for injury r/t drowsiness   Teach no alcohol No driving if drowsiness occurs Take with food if GI upset  Empty stomach for Allegra
  • 24. DECONGESTANTS Drugs that reduce swelling of nasal passages, and drains sinuses  ACTION:   SYMPATHOMIMETIC VASOCONSTRICTION OF VESSELS IN NOSE  REDUCTION OF SWELLING  EASE OF BREATHING THROUGH NOSE   USE:   CONGESTION WITH COLD, ALLERGIES ADVERSE REACTION: Tachycardia, nervousness, insomnia  Burning, stinging, dryness w/ topical sprays 
  • 25. DECONGESTANTS  CI:   MAOI antidepressants Precautions:      Thyroid disease Hypertension BPH Glaucoma CAD
  • 26. DECONGESTANTS  Drug Names: Ephedrine  Adrenaline (epinephrine)  Neo-synephrine (phenylephrine)  Sudafed (pseudoephedrine) 
  • 27. DECONGESTANTS  Nursing Process Ineffective airway clearance r/t rebound nasal congestion  Use as directed  Overuse may cause rebound congestion 
  • 28. BRONCHODILATORS & ANTI-ASTHMA COPD—lung disease includes asthma, broncitis, and emphysema  All interfere with gas exchange in alveoli  Asthma—narrowing of airways d/t inflammation, edema, mucus plugs  Characterized by wheezing, dyspnea, chest tightness, tachypnea  Meds for asthma    Long-term Quick relief
  • 29. BRONCHODILATORS & ANTI-ASTHMA  Bronchodilators Sympathomimetics  Xanthine derivatives  ACTION: opens airway by relaxing smoole muscle and allowing more air into lungs USE: Bronchospasm Bronchitis Emphysema
  • 30. BRONCHODILATORS & ANTI-ASTHMA  Side       Effects: Tachycardia Palpitations Hypertension Nervousness Anxiety Insomnia
  • 31. BRONCHODILATORS & ANTI-ASTHMA  When inhaled, excessive use can cause paradoxical bronchospasm  Caution; Hypertension  BPH  Glaucoma   CI: cardiac arrhythmias (tachy)  Glaucoma
  • 32. BRONCHODILATORS & ANTI-ASTHMA  Drug Names       Proventil (albuterol) Ventolin (albuterol) Adrenalin (epinephrine) Alupent (metaproterenol) Brethine (terbutaline) Serevent (salmeterol)
  • 33. BRONCHODILATORS & ANTI-ASTHMA  Xanthine bronchodilators      Action: relaxation of smooth muscles of th bronchi Use: relief asthma , bronchospasm Side Effect: restlessness, nervousness Tachycardia Cautions cardiac disease, hypertension,
  • 34. BRONCHODILATORS & ANTI-ASTHMA  Drug Names Truphylline (aminophylline)  Theo-Dur, Slo Bid (theophylline)   Other Bronchodilators (Atrovent) ipratropium  Spiriva (tiotropium) 
  • 35. ANTI-ASTHMA  Inhaled corticosteroids  Most effective for long-term control of asthma  ACTION: antiinflammatory, reduce swelling  Use: management of inflammation with chronic asthma  Side Effects; fungal infection of mouth, throat irritation
  • 36.  Precautions; compromised immune systems, diabetes Drug Names: beclomethasone (QVAR)  budesonide (Pulmicort)  fluticasone (Flovent) Symbicort (budesonide/formoterol) Advair (fluticasone/salmeterol) 
  • 37. ANTI-ASTHMA  Mast Cell Stabilizers  Action: prevent release of inflammatory mediators like histamine and leukotrienes   USE: In combination with other drugs to treat asthma & allergies Leukotriene Modifiers/immunomodulators  Action: inhibit leukotrienes at receptor sites, preventing airway edema & producing bronchodilation
  • 38. ANTI-ASTHMA  Leukotriene modifiers Con’t  Use; prophylaxis for chronic asthma in adults and children over 12  Side Effects; Headache  Drug Names: Montelukast (Singulair)  Zafirlukast (Accolate) 
  • 39. ANTI-ASTHMA  Nursing Diagnoses Anxiety  Ineffective airway clearance  Impaired oral mucous membranes 

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