Chapter 013
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Chapter 013

on

  • 281 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
281
Views on SlideShare
229
Embed Views
52

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0

4 Embeds 52

http://daureengstboces.edublogs.org 49
https://m.facebook.com&_=1386197979337 HTTP 1
https://m.facebook.com&_=1386204072195 HTTP 1
https://m.facebook.com&_=1386251540277 HTTP 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • The FDA is the primary governing body of the food supply (except meat and poultry).
  • FSIS is responsible for safety of domestic and imported meat and poultry.NMFS is responsible for safety of seafood and fisheries.The EPA regulates use of pesticides and other chemicals and ensures safety of public drinking water.The FTC regulates truth in advertising and marketing.CDC monitors and investigates food-borne illness.
  • Many health-conscious Americans rely on food labels in making food choices.
  • Nutrition information includes:Amount of carbohydrates, proteins, fatsCalories Vitamins, mineralsSodiumCholesterolSaturated fatPercentage of Recommended Dietary Allowance standard per defined portion
  • Case Study:Ms. Katie is a 35-year-old business woman who is very health conscious and is very meticulous regarding what she eats. She enjoys reading health magazines and includes those on healthy eating.
  • Food labels would be a point of interest for Ms. Katie. These labels contain food standards and nutrition information.
  • Example of a food product label showing the detailed Nutrition Facts box of nutrition information mandated by the FDA under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act.
  • The FDA provides model claim statements.
  • Yes, Ms. Katie would be interested in health claims since she is concerned with what she eats and also reads much on health and nutrition.Health claims are strictly regulated by the FDATo make an association between a food product and a specific disease:FDA must approve claimFood must meet criteria set forth for that claimWording on package must be approved
  • The FSIS designates certain percentages of pesticides that are acceptable and legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds.
  • Ask students to identify some pesticides that have been found to be harmful to humans or the environment. (DDT)
  • Many farmers use an organic farming process so that pesticides and other harmful chemicals are not used during the growing process. “Natural,” “hormone free,” and “free range” are not synonymous with “organic.”
  • Official USDA organic seal, available at www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/nop.
  • Genetic modification has been used for thousands of years.More than 60% of processed foods contain some genetically modified ingredients.
  • “Food additive” is defined by the FDA as any substance used to provide a technical effect in foods. The use of food additives has become more prominent in recent years because of the increased production of prepared, processed, and fast foods.
  • In relation to pesticides:Goal is to feed a growing populationPesticides improve crop yieldsExample: Chemicals destroy many destructive insectsProblems:Pesticide residue on foodGradual leaching of chemicals into ground water and wellsOrganic farmingGrow foods without synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, sewage sludge, bioengineering, or ionizing radiationRaise animals and produce dairy products without antibiotics or growth hormonesNatural pesticides may be usedGenetic modificationReduces the need for toxic pesticides and herbicidesExample: Genetically modified corn that expresses a protein that acts as an insecticideIrradiationKills bacteria and parasites on food after harvestPrevents food-borne illnessCan increase shelf life of produceFoods that are irradiated:Have unaltered nutritional valueAre not radioactiveHave no harmful substances introduced as a result of irradiationMay taste slightly different
  • What are the most common infections in home and community outbreaks? (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, and Cryptosporidium)
  • Do not buy food past “sell by,” “use by,” or other expiration dates. Always refrigerate perishable food within 2 hours (1 hour when the temperature is above 90° F).
  • People with an infectious disease should have limited access to food handling.
  • Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent food-borne illness.
  • Gastroenteritis varies from mild diarrhea to severe attacks.Symptoms develop slowly, up to 48 hours later.Illness lasts 4 to 7 days.
  • Symptoms vary from mild intestinal disturbance to fatal dysentery in young children.
  • Listeriacan grow in the refrigerator. The refrigerator should be 40° F or lower and the freezer 0° F or lower. Use a refrigerator thermometer to check your refrigerator’s inside temperature. Can produce rare but often fatal illness, with diarrhea, flulike fever and headache, pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis, and endocarditis.One third of cases occur in pregnant women.
  • Emphasize the importance of proper hygiene in preventing the spread of E. Coli.
  • Discuss the importance of thoroughly cooking seafood, especially shellfish, to reduce the risk of vibrio infection.
  • Symptoms of staphylococcal food poisoning:Severe cramping and abdominal painNauseaVomitingDiarrheaHeadache, fever, sweatingSometimes prostration and shock
  • C. perfringensMultiply in cooked meat and meat dishesDevelop in food held at warm or room temperature for extended periodC. botulinum found in canned foods.
  • Strict control of community water and food supplies, personal hygiene, and sanitary practices of food workers are essential to protect viral contamination.
  • Discuss the two measures that have helped stop the spread of parasites in the food supply.
  • LeadChildren are especially vulnerable.Iron deficiency increases lead absorption.AflatoxinMay contaminate peanuts, tree nuts, corn, and animal feed.
  • Food contaminationReview previous slides for various answers.
  • Chronic food and nutrient shortages within a population perpetuate the cycle of malnutrition; undernourished pregnant women give birth to low-birth-weight infants.Low-birth-weight infants are highly susceptible to infant mortality or growth retardation.
  • Ask students to cite some examples of the causes of malnutrition at each level of this chart.
  • There are many possible topics of discussion regarding food assistance programs, including program outcomes, program operations and integrity, vulnerable populations, the relation between food assistance programs and the general economy, and food security in the United States.
  • Safe food handling practices from the store to the table are essential. Wash hands and surfaces often. Don’t cross-contaminate.Refrigerate promptly.Cook to safe temperatures.

Chapter 013 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Williams' Basic Nutrition & Diet Therapy Chapter 13 Community Food Supply and Health Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 14th Edition
  • 2. Lesson 13.1: Modern Food Production  Modern food production, processing, and marketing have both positive and negative influences on food safety. 2Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Food Safety and Health Promotion (p. 237)  Government control agencies  Food and Drug Administration • Law enforcement agency for food regulations • Consumer education to protect consumers • Research to evaluate foods and food components 3Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Food Safety and Health Promotion (cont’d) (p. 237)  Government control agencies (cont’d)  USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service  National Marine Fisheries Service  Environmental Protection Agency  Federal Trade Commission  Centers for Disease Control 4Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Development of Food Labels (p. 238)  Early development  Food standards: list ingredients in order of relative amount  Nutrition information: macronutrients, energy value, key micronutrients  Present FDA label regulations: two factors  Increase in variety of food products  Changing patterns of U.S. eating 5Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Current Food Label Format (p. 239)  Title is Nutrition Facts  Manufacturers may include additional information  Percent daily value  Serving size 6Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Case Study  Ms. Katie is a 35-year-old business woman who is very health conscious and is very meticulous regarding what she eats. She enjoys reading health magazines and includes those on healthy eating. 7Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Case Study (cont’d)  Would food labels be a point of interest for Ms. Katie? Explain. 8Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Food Safety and Health Promotion (cont’d) (p. 240) 9Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Health Claims (p. 240)  FDA must approve any claims linked to disease  Must use specific wording 10Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Case Study (cont’d)  Would Ms. Katie be interested in health claims that link nutrients or food groups with risk of disease?  How does the government assist Ms. Katie in ensuring that the health claims she is reading are appropriate? 11Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Food Technology (p. 240)  Agricultural and food processing industries have developed chemicals to increase and preserve food supply  Critics are concerned about how some changes have affected food safety and the environment  Pesticides  Food additives 12Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Agricultural Pesticides (p. 242)  Goal is to feed a growing population  Pesticides improve crop yields  Example: Chemicals destroy many destructive insects  Problems  Pesticide residue on food  Gradual leaching of chemicals into ground water and wells  Increased exposure of farm workers  Increased amounts required as insects develop tolerance 13Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Alternative Agriculture: Organic Farming (p. 242)  Grow foods without synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, sewage sludge, bioengineering, or ionizing radiation  Raise animals and produce dairy products without antibiotics or growth hormones  Natural pesticides may be used 14Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Food Technology (cont’d) (p. 243) 15Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Genetically Modified Foods and Irradition (p. 243)  Genetically modified foods  Reduces the need for toxic pesticides and herbicides  Example: genetically modified corn that expresses a protein that acts as an insecticide  Practice remains controversial  Irradiation  Kills bacteria and parasites  May increase shelf life  FDA symbol required  Consumer rejection 16Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Food Additives (p. 245)  Chemicals intentionally added to foods to prevent spoilage and extend shelf life  Benefits include:  Enriched food with added nutrients  Uniform quality  Standardized functional factors (e.g., thickening)  Preserves foods  Controls acidity and alkalinity 17Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Case Study (cont’d)  Discuss how pesticides and genetic modification might concern Ms. Katie. 18Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Lesson 13.2: Food-Borne Disease  Many organisms in contaminated food transmit disease. 19Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Food-Borne Disease (p. 245)  Prevalence  Disease-causing organisms found in food, water  Prevention has improved  Lapses still occur 20Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Food Sanitation (p. 247)  Buying and storing food  Start with quality food  Dry or cold storage  Clean: wash hands and surfaces often  Separate: avoid cross-contamination  Cook: to proper temperature  Chill: refrigerate promptly 21Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Preparing and Serving Food (p. 248)  Food handlers practice proper hygiene  Folllow minimal internal temperatures 22Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Food Contamination (p. 250)  Food-borne illness usually presents with flulike symptoms  High-risk individuals: age, physical condition  Young children  Pregnant women  Elderly  Individuals with compromised immune systems 23Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Bacterial Food Infections (p. 250)  Result from eating food contaminated by large colonies of bacteria  Salmonellosis  Caused by Salmonella, which grow readily in milk, custard, egg dishes, salad dressing, sandwich fillings, seafood from polluted waters  Unsanitary food handling can spread bacteria 24Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Shigellosis (p. 250)  Caused by Shigella, which grow easily in milk  Most common in young children  Usually confined to large intestine 25Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Listeriosis (p. 251)  Caused by Listeria  Grows in soft cheese, poultry, seafood, raw milk, refrigerated raw liquid whole eggs, meat products (such as pâté) 26Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 27. Escherichia Coli (p. 251)  Many strains  Most common form in North America affects 70,000 a year  Most dangerous to young children and elderly  Can result in hemolytic uremic syndrome, potentially fatal 27Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Vibrio (p. 251)  Inhabits salt-water coastal regions of North America  Ingested via contaminated seafood  Immunocompromised individuals most at risk 28Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 29. Bacterial Food Poisoning (p. 251)  Food poisoning caused by ingestion of toxins already produced by bacteria before the food is eaten  Staphylococcal food poisoning  Caused by Staphylococcus aureus  Most common bacterial food poisoning in U.S.  Rapid onset of severe symptoms in 1 to 6 hours  Recovery fairly rapid in 24 to 48 hours  Usually passed via food-worker’s hand 29Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Clostridial Food Poisoning (p. 252)  Caused mostly by Clostridium perfringens and C. botulinum  Clostridium perfringens develops in cooked meat dishes  C. botulinum much more serious, often fatal 30Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 31. Viruses (p. 253)  Upper respiratory infections  Viral infectious hepatitis  Caused by fecal contamination of water, milk, or food or by contaminated shellfish from polluted waters 31Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 32. Parasites (p. 256)  Roundworms  Example: trichina worm found in pork  Flatworms  Example: tapeworms in beef and pork 32Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 33. Environmental Food Contaminants (p. 256)  Lead  Sources include lead paint, airborne lead particles, water from lead pipes  Mercury  Sources include fish from contaminated water  Aflatoxin  Produced by fungi 33Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 34. Case Study (cont’d)  Review some ways that Ms. Katie can avoid food contamination. 34Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 35. Lesson 13.3: Poverty and the Community Food Supply  Poverty often prevents individuals and families from having adequate access to their community food supply. 35Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 36. Food Needs and Costs (p. 256)  Worldwide malnutrition  Lack of sanitation  Cultural inequality  Overpopulation  Economic and political structure  Chronic food or nutrient shortages  In the United States  More than 17.1 million households defined as “food insecure” 36Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 37. Multiple Causes of Malnutrition (p. 258) 37Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 38. Food Assistance Programs (p. 259)  Commodity Supplemental Food Program  Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)  Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)  School Meals Programs  Nutrition Services Incentive Program 38Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 39. Food Buying and Handling Practices (p. 260)  Planning ahead to control impulse buying  Buy wisely  Understand packaging, labels, brands, portion yields, measures, and food values  Only buy in quantity if savings will be achieved  Store food safely  Cook food well 39Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.