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  • In infancy, growth is rapid. Infants usually double their birth weight by 6 months before growth slows.In childhood growth occurs in spurts. Parents sometimes battle with their child over food, but the child usually remains healthy.Adolescence brings another period of rapid growth.Adulthood is the final stage, when physical growth levels off.Ask students to talk about their children, younger siblings, or children they have cared for to discuss any situations they may have dealt with related to this material.
  • What three things are critical for accurately assessing a child?Ask students if they have experienced any strong attitudes toward food. For example:“I didn’t like green peppers as a child, but I acquired a taste for them as I grew older.”“I have a nephew who won’t eat anything green.”“If a parent doesn’t eat certain foods, the child may not eat them either.”
  • Explain the concept of percentile and how the growth charts were developed.
  • Demonstrate how the chart is used by giving an example.
  • Case Study:Adam is an 8-year-old boy who weighs 60 lbs and is 52 inches tall.
  • The most appropriate chart to plot Adam’s growth would be the CDC’s chart for boys ages 2 to 20.
  • Adam’s weight for age according to the CDC growth chart for boys ages 2 to 20 is at the 74th percentile.Adam’s height for age according the CDC growth chart for boys ages 2 to 20 is at the 75th percentile.Adams is within the normal range for height and weight for a boy his age using the 50th percentile as the average height and weight.
  • Differentiate fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins.Nurses should encourage the use of foods, not tablets, to replace nutrients. It is important to stress that individuals need some of all the nutrients that are disallowed in the low-fat and low-carbohydrate crazes.
  • Ask students to explain why calcium and iron are especially needed during periods of growth.
  • Why do infants need vitamin K supplementation? (Infants are born without the bacterial flora that eventually produces vitamin K.)
  • Identify the three birth weights and their differences.Identify the differences in premature and full-term infants.Why are preterm babies subject to problems?How does nursing restore the mother’s body after childbirth?
  • Emphasize that the feeding process is an important part of the bonding relationship between parent and child.
  • Review the benefits of breast-feeding.
  • Ask students to explain how to avoid problems when preparing the formula.
  • Discuss some methods that may help wean a baby from bottle-feeding.
  • What foods should be introduced first? Give reasons.
  • Toddlers need to have a variety of foods, including hand-held foods. Precautions need to be taken with some foods, such as baby carrots, which can cause choking and aspiration.Preschoolers tend to eat on the run and in spurts. Food sprees and binges are normal.Parents should not allow children to eat while moving about because of the risk of choking.
  • School-age girls tend to grow faster than boys and may need more food. Parents should provide healthy snacks to prevent obesity.
  • For school-age children (5 to 12 years old), growth rate continues to be slow and irregular. This time is accompanied by overall body changes. Reserves are being laid a few years prior to adolescence for the rapid growth period ahead. It is important to educate on healthy eating during meal times and in the classroom. Emphasis is placed on healthy food choices rather than empty calories. Activities that involve independent choosing of healthy food items is important so child can make healthy choices as he/she gets older. Balancing food intake with exercise and fun activity is also important in this age group to promote a healthy life style as child ages.
  • Discuss the rise in obesity and interventions developed to combat it.
  • Discuss how peer pressure affects eating habits.
  • Ask students to describe how television ads affect the way adolescents feel about themselves.Ask students to identify signs and symptoms of eating disorders.Emphasize the importance of early intervention.

Transcript

  • 1. Williams' Basic Nutrition & Diet Therapy Chapter 11 Nutrition During Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence 1Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14th Edition
  • 2. Lesson 11.1: Nutrition in Infancy 1. Normal growth of individual children varies within a relatively wide range of measures. 2. Human growth and development require both nutritional and psychosocial support. 2Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Nutrition for Growth and Development (p. 195)  Life cycle growth pattern  Infancy: first year of life  Childhood: between infancy and adolescence  Adolescence: onset of puberty  Adulthood: physical maturity 3Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Measuring Childhood Growth (p. 196)  Individual growth rates: vary widely  Physical growth: WHO and CDC growth charts used  Charts use height (or length), weight, and head circumference  Psychosocial development: various assessments available 4Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Measuring Childhood Growth (cont’d) (p. 199) 5Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Measuring Childhood Growth (cont’d) (p. 200) 6Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Case Study  Adam is an 8-year-old boy who weighs 60 lbs and is 52 inches tall. 7Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Case Study (cont’d)  What is the most appropriate chart to use in order to interpret Adam’s growth? 8Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Case Study (cont’d)  Plot Adam’s weight for age  Plot Adam’s height for age  Interpret the results 9Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Energy Needs (p. 196)  Energy needs in kilocalories  Needs are relatively large in childhood  Macronutrients  Carbohydrates as main energy source  Protein for building tissue  Fat for backup energy and essential fatty acids 10Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Requirements for Water, Minerals, and Vitamins (p. 198)  Water requirements  Metabolic needs, especially during periods of rapid growth  Infants require more water per unit of body weight than do adults  Minerals and vitamins  Calcium: critical in early life for skeleton and teeth  Iron: essential for hemoglobin and cognitive development in early years 11Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Vitamin Supplements (p. 201)  Vitamin K given to nearly all infants, critical for blood clotting  Vitamin D drops recommended for breast-fed infants 12Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Age Group Needs: Infancy (p. 201)  Immature infants  Weight: defined by birth weight: LBW, VLBW, ELBW  Gestational age: premature, small-for-gestational age  Type of milk: breast milk recommended  Methods of feeding: nursing or bottle-feeding usually is possible with support 13Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Age Group Needs: Infancy (cont’d) (p. 203)  Term infants  Better developed body systems  Grow rapidly  Add iron-fortified solid foods at about 6 months 14Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Breast-Feeding (p. 203)  Ideal first food for infants  Importance of colostrum  Mature breast milk after 3 to 5 days 15Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Bottle-Feeding (p. 203)  Follow safety precautions  Standard commercial formulas or formulas for infants with allergies  Follow instructions precisely  Positioning of baby and bottle  Follow terminal sterilization method 16Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Weaning and Cow’s Milk (p. 204)  Weaning  Children set own pace  May need encouragement to wean  Cow’s milk  Never in first year of life  No reduced-fat cow’s milk for those less than 2 years 17Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Solid Food Additions (p. 205)  Not before 6 months  Development of certain motor skills is signal  Possibly vegetables or meat before fruit  Foods may be homemade 18Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Lesson 11.2: Nutrition in Childhood and Adolescence 1. A variety of food patterns and habits supply the energy and nutrient requirements of normal growth and development, although basic nutritional needs change with each growth period. 19Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Childhood (p. 206)  Toddlers (1 to 3 years)  Increase variety of foods  Pleasant surroundings  Limit sweets  Preschool children (3 to 5 years)  Growth and appetite continue in spurts  Patterns and attitudes form  Occasional food jags  Child-friendly version of MyPlate 20Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Childhood (cont’d) (p. 209)  School-age children (5 to 12 years)  Slow, irregular growth  Breakfast is important  School breakfast and lunch programs  Competitive foods harm nutrition 21Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Case Study (cont’d)  Give three recommendations for Adam for healthy eating during the school-age growth period. 22Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Common Nutrition Problems in Childhood (p. 209)  Failure to thrive: many possible causes, brief hospital stay may be used to identify etiology  Anemia: infants consuming formula or cereal not iron- fortified  Obesity: climbing since 1970s, parents play important role  Lead poisoning: from lead-based paint, damages CNS 23Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Adolescence (p. 213)  Physical growth  Rapid growth during onset of puberty  Boys and girls differ in fat, muscle gain  Risk of obesity continues  Eating patterns  Influenced by rapid growth, peer pressure  Alcohol abuse  Pressure to be thin 24Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Eating Disorders (p. 214)  Social, family, personal pressures  Self-imposed crash diets, semistarvation  Mother’s main source of pressure to remain thin  Fathers may be emotionally distant  Early detection and intervention are critical 25Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.