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  • Explain that because the body needs constant energy, without storage of energy we would need to be eating constantly.List some common voluntary activities with the students’ help.
  • Ask the students to remember what they learned about the digestive system. What are some involuntary movements made after swallowing food?Provide examples of body systems involved in each type of energy.
  • To maintain health, the average daily food energy intake should equal the daily body energy needs.
  • Ask the class to explain the difference between calorie and Calorie in their own words.The joule is used internationally as the unit of energy measurement.
  • Explain why fat is the best storage form of energy. Mention the caloric density of fat and that if the body’s major form of energy storage were protein or carbohydrate, it would take a much larger space to store the same amount of energy.
  • To help students understand density, use the example of a box full of feathers next to a box full of marbles. Both boxes are the same size, but one is more dense than the other.Explain that density can be both good and bad. Nutrient-dense foods are usually better than calorie-dense foods, although a food may be both.List examples of nutrient-dense and calorie-dense foods.Ask students to consider the nutrient density of the foods they ate at breakfast. Is their diet balanced among the various nutrients?
  • Explain why these are called “cycles.” Mention water, carbon dioxide, and heat energy.Ask the students to explain the difference between external energy and internal energy.Explain that energy is stored in the bonds of nutrients.
  • Stored energy is used when food is not available.
  • Ask students to think about their energy intake over the last 24 hours. How many think they are in energy balance?
  • How does the body supply energy during sleep? (Glycogen stored in the liver and muscles maintains normal blood glucose levels during sleep.)Where in the body is glycogen stored? (Liver and muscles)
  • Chemical changes occurring during these activities are called metabolism.
  • The TEF also is the energy required during digestion.
  • Case Study:The REE of a 35-year-old female is 1500 kcal/d. She works 6-8 hours a day and usually takes a 2-mile walk after work.
  • Case Study:An individual with an REE of 1500 kcal/day would need to consume that amount of energy over a 24-hour period to maintain current weight while at complete rest.Which organ systems use much of the body energy for their cellular functions? (Liver, brain, heart, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract)How does this requirement compare to their overall total body weight? (These organs amount to less than 5% of body weight.)
  • Case Study:What is the difference between REE and BEE? (REE refers to all internal working activities of the body at rest; BEE is measured when an individual is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.)
  • Case Study:Which organ systems use much of the body energy for cellular functions?(Liver, brain, heart, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract)
  • What is indirect calorimetry? (Measurement of the amount of energy a person uses at rest)Where is indirect calorimetry usually performed? (The subject breathes into a mouthpiece or ventilated hood system while lying down.)
  • A metabolic cart is used to measure RMR.Alternative methods for measuring RMR have been developed using fast, portable devices.
  • Ask students to estimate their body weight in kilograms. Have them calculate their RMR (also called BMR).Mention alternative formulas used to calculate RMR.Have students calculate RMR according to the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation. Is the result similar to that obtained with the formula depicted on the slide?
  • Case Study:Men: TEE (kcal/day) = (Weight [kg] x 10 + Height [cm] x 6.25 – age x 5 –5) x PAWomen: TEE (kcal/day) = (Weight [kg] x 10 + Height [cm] x 6.25 – age x 5 –161) x PAPA coefficient1.2 = Sedentary1.375 = Light activity1.550 = Moderate activity1.725 = Very active1.9 = Extra active
  • Explain the relation of iodine to thyroxine and how this hormone affects metabolism.
  • What percentage of BMR is raised by the growth hormone? (15% to 20%)A patient has a fever of 100° F. How much of an increase in BMR occurs? (Fever increases BMR 7% for each 1° F rise in temperature.)
  • Representative kilocalorie expenditures of different types of physical activities are presented in Table 6-1 in the text.How can a person increase energy expenditure to lose weight? (Increase physical activity, build lean muscle mass)What physical activities have high energy expenditure values? (Aerobics, cycling, running, fast walking, weight training)Explain that the side effects of emotional stress—muscle tension, restlessness, and agitated movements—might increase energy expenditure, but only slightly.
  • Explain that even though it does take energy to digest, absorb, and transport food, no food produces a negative energy balance. All foods provide energy, including celery and cabbage (two of the more famous foods for weight loss), even if the kilocalories are quite low.
  • If a woman weighs 150 lbs (68 kg), eats 2500 kcal/day, and does not exercise, will she gain or lose weight? (She will gain weight. [energy expenditure = 2307 while kcal intake = 2500]).Explain that the term anorexia used here is a clinical term and not the same as anorexia nervosa, the eating disorder.
  • Use Table 6-1 to find the category of the activity and the kcal/lb/hr used.
  • Talk about the extra calories needed during pregnancy and lactation and why this occurs. Ask the class how many more calories, on average, a pregnant woman needs.
  • Explain why caloric adjustments must be made in the older adult years.
  • Ask students to identify where they fit on the Food and Nutrition Board recommendations.
  • Explain that weight gain is gradual. To combat this increase, small decreases in energy intake must take place.
  • The site also explains how to use physical activity to maintain energy balance.

Chapter 006 Chapter 006 Presentation Transcript

  • Williams' Basic Nutrition & Diet Therapy Chapter 6 Energy Balance Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 14th Edition
  • Lesson 6.1: Food Energy, Body Energy, and Basal Metabolism  Food energy is changed into body energy to do work.  The body uses most of its energy supply for basal metabolic needs. 2Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Human Energy System (p. 81)  Basic energy needs  Voluntary work: conscious activities of daily living  Involuntary body work: greatest share of energy output • Circulation • Respiration • Digestion • Absorption 3Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Human Energy System (cont’d) (p. 81)  Involuntary body work (cont’d)  Chemical energy: many metabolic processes  Electrical energy: brain and nerve activities  Mechanical energy: muscle contraction  Thermal energy: to maintain body temperature 4Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Sources of Fuel (p. 81)  Provided in the form of ATP  Carbohydrate: primary source of fuel  Fat  Protein 5Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Measurement of Energy (p. 81)  Calorie is the term in common usage  Kilocalorie (1000 calories) is used in nutrition science  Amount of heat needed to raise 1 kg of water 1° C  Abbreviated as kcalorie or kcal  Joule (J): international unit  Convert kcal to kJ: multiply kcal by 4.184 6Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Food Energy: Fuel Factors (p. 82)  Carbohydrate: 4 kcal/g  Fat: 9 kcal/g  Protein: 4 kcal/g  Alcohol: 7 kcal/g 7Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Caloric and Nutrient Density (p. 82)  Density: degree of concentration of material in a given substance  Caloric density: high concentration of energy in a small amount of food  Fats have highest caloric density  Nutrient density: relative concentration of nutrients (e.g., vitamins and minerals)  Food guides recommend foods that are nutrient- dense 8Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lesson 6.2: Balancing Intake and Output; Effects of Imbalance 3. A balance between intake of food energy and output of body work maintains life and health. 4. States of being underweight and overweight reflect degrees of energy imbalance. 9Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Energy Balance (p. 82)  Two energy systems support human life  External energy cycle: plants transform radiation from the sun into stored chemical energy (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats)  Internal energy cycle: animals, including human beings, use the stored chemical energy for body needs 10Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Energy Intake (p. 82)  Energy intake  The body’s energy balance depends on energy intake in relation to energy output  Main source of energy is food, supplemented by energy stored in body tissues 11Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Sources of Food Energy (p. 82)  Sources of food energy  Carbohydrates, protein, and fat  Energy intake can be computed by tracking intake and calculating its energy value  Nutritrac on Evolve is an excellent tool for calculating energy intake  ChooseMyPlate is another free software tool for calculating energy intake 12Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Sources of Stored Energy (p. 82)  Sources of stored energy  Glycogen: 12- to 48-hour store in liver and muscles  Adipose tissue: varies by individual, most concentrated form of energy  Muscle mass: used only during longer periods of fasting or starvation 13Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Energy Output (p. 83)  Metabolism: chemical changes that occur during:  Normal body functions  Regulation of body temperature  Tissue growth and repair  Total energy demands determined by:  Resting energy expenditure  Physical activity  Thermic effect of food 14Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Resting Energy Expenditure (p. 83)  Sum of all working internal activities of the body  Expressed in kilocalories per day  Also called resting metabolic rate (RMR), basal energy expenditure (BEE) 15Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study  Sara, a 35-year-old female, has a REE of 1500 kcal/d. She works 6-8 hours a day and usually takes a 2-mile walk after work. 16Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study (cont’d)  How many calories does Sarah need to consume each day to maintain her current weight? 17Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study (cont’d)  What is the difference between REE and BEE? 18Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study (cont’d)  Which organ systems use much of the body energy for cellular function? 19Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Energy Output (p. 83)  Measuring basal metabolic rate or resting metabolic rate  Sometimes done in clinical practice  Uses indirect calorimetry  Measures exchange of carbon dioxide 20Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Energy Output (cont’d) (p. 83) 21Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Predicting Basal Metabolic Rate (p. 84)  Multiply 0.9 or 1 kcal/kg body weight by 24 (hours in a day)  Other measures are available  Mifflin-St. Jeor equation found to give most reliable RMR 22Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study  Calculate YOUR resting metabolic rate. 23Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study  Calculate YOUR RMR according to the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation. What is the result? 24Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Predicting Basal Metabolic Rate (cont’d) (p. 84)  Thyroid function tests also can be used  Thyroid hormone regulates metabolism 25Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Factors That Influence Basal Metabolic Rate (p. 84)  Lean body mass: greater metabolic activity in lean tissues  Growth periods: growth hormone stimulates cell metabolism and raises BMR  Body temperature: fever increases BMR  Hormonal status: example: hypothyroidism decreases BMR 26Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Physical Activity (p. 86)  Exercise reduces risk of many diseases, improves quality of life  Energy expenditure can be estimated by categorizing activity and multiplying RMR by category factor (1.0 to 2.5) 27Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Thermic Effect of Food (p. 88)  Digestion  Absorption  Transportation of nutrients to cells 28Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Total Energy Requirement (p. 88)  Total energy requirement made up of:  RMR + physical activity + TEF  To maintain daily energy balance:  Food energy intake = body energy output  Intake > output = Weight gain (extreme: obesity)  Intake < output = Weight loss (extreme: anorexia) 29Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Total Energy Requirement (cont’d) (p. 89)  Use Clinical Applications box, “Evaluate Your Daily Energy Requirements”  Record food and activities for a day  Calculate energy intake (kilocalories) and output (kilocalorie expenditure) 30Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Recommendations for Dietary Energy Intake (p. 90)  General life cycle  Growth periods • Extra energy needed to build new tissues • Greatest growth is infancy through adolescence • Pregnancy and lactation also require increased energy intake 31Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • General Life Cycle (p. 90)  Adulthood  Energy needs plateau as full growth achieved  BMR then declines 1% to 2% per decade, reducing energy needs  Rapid decline occurs at age 40 (men) and 50 (women) 32Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes (p. 90)  Use Table 6-4  Note average weight, height, BMI, and PAL for each group 33Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (p. 91)  Prevent/reduce overweight/obesity through improved eating and physical activity  Control calorie intake to manage body weight  Increase physical activity and reduce sedentary activities  Adjust calorie balance to stage of life  Select eating pattern that meets nutrient needs over time 34Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Choose MyPlate (p. 91)  Web site: www.choosemyplate.gov  Determine calorie level and serving sizes from each good group  Based on age, gender, weight, height, activity level 35Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.