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Chapter 003
 

Chapter 003

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  • Fat provides 9 kcal/g versus 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates. Explain that this is an effective way to store energy.
  • Fat is stored in adipose tissue. What are some common sites of adipose tissue deposits?Explain that a special fat covering protects nerve fibers and helps relay nerve impulses.
  • The primary digestion action occurring in the mouth is mechanical. Foods are broken up into smaller particles through chewing and are moistened for passage into the stomach.Little, if any, chemical fat digestion takes place in the stomach. Why do you think this is? (Prompt the students to remember the principle of “like attracts like”; stomach acid is more attracted to hydrophilic compounds than hydrophobic compounds.)
  • Why is fat considered a backup fuel source for the body? (Carbohydrates are the primary fuel, followed by fat when needed.)Explain that each class of fat serves a different purpose in the body and all are considered lipids.
  • Saturated fats are heavier, denser, and more solid than unsaturated fats.Unsaturated fats are usually in oil form.What foods supply monounsaturated fats? (Olive and olive oil, peanuts and peanut oil, canola oil, almonds, pecans, and avocados)
  • What are some of the sources of unnecessary trans fats? (Restaurant foods, fast foods, packaged foods)
  • Explain that essential means these fats MUST come from the foods we eat. We cannot produce these as we can the other types of fatty acids.
  • How much of a daily dietary intake needs to be from fat to supply adequate amounts of essential fatty acids? (10%)
  • Ask students to name some of the obvious fats.Ask students to identify some of the sources of invisible fats. Are any of the students surprised by these sources of fats?
  • The FDA regulates food labeling. Explain how and why it does so.Do the students think that food manufacturers would add the voluntary information if it showed an amount of a nutrient the consumer would see as “bad”?
  • How could an individual follow some of the FDA’s recommendations contained in its pending claims?
  • Why are excess calories stored as fat and not carbohydrate or protein? (Explain that storing excess energy as fat is the way the body is supposed to work. It is a machine meant to store the most energy in the least amount of space.)Heart disease continues to be one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. Much attention is focused on reducing risk factors leading to this disease.
  • Case Study:K. M. is a 52-year-old male who consumes a diet high in fat. He has coronary artery disease and hypertension. Blood tests show elevated lipid levels. Body mass index of 32 places him in the obesity 1 category. List other risk factors of chronic disease that K. M. may also be at risk for if he continues not to change his lifestyle.Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death, and excess dietary fat contributes to risk factors including obesity, diabetes, elevated triglyceride levels, and elevated blood pressure.
  • Tell the class how much cholesterol is in one egg. According to these guidelines, can one egg be eaten every day?
  • Case Study:Calculate the recommended amount of fat per day that should comprise K. M.’s meal plan to promote a healthy lifestyle.It is recommended that the fat content of the diet should not exceed 20% to 35% of the total kilocalories, that less than 10% of the kilocalories should come from saturated fats, and that dietary cholesterol be limited to a maximum of 300 mg/day.Trans-fatty acid consumption should be as low as possible as well, along with reducing the intake of calories from solid fats.In K.M.’s situation a total fat intake near the lower end of the recommended range may prove advantageous at this time to promote weight loss and assist in lowering lipid levels.
  • Ask the students which essential acid is omega-6 and which is omega-3.What can the students eat more of to make their ratio closer to the recommended ratio?
  • By using these tips, people can significantly reduce their fat intake.Ask students to describe some other tips that can help reduce fat in the diet.
  • Case StudyWhat specific changes in K.M.’s meal planning would you suggest at this time?Considerations may include using the MyPlate method to assist with planning a well-balanced diet with recommendations for fat intake. After assessing food likes and dislikes, reviewing appropriate food choices including choosing fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, replacing protein foods that are higher in solid fats with choices lower in solid fat and calories and/or are sources of oil, and using oils to replace solid fats where possible are other considerations. Considerations may also include reviewing specific calculated total fat requirements per day with attention to decreasing saturated fats and trans fats.How would you assess if he is able to follow his meal plan?Suggestions may include follow-up and interviewing how he feels about the changes, weight measures, lipid levels, food diary/records, and activity level.

Chapter 003 Chapter 003 Presentation Transcript

  • Williams' Basic Nutrition & Diet Therapy Chapter 3 Fats Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 14th Edition
  • Lesson 3.1: Fats 1. Dietary fat supplies essential body tissue needs, both as an energy fuel and structural material. 2. Foods from animal and plant sources supply distinct forms of fat that affect health in different ways. 3. Excess dietary fat, especially from animal food sources, is a negative risk factor in overall health. 2Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Functions of Fat in Foods (p. 36)  Fat in foods provides:  Energy  Essential nutrients  Flavor and satisfaction  Fat substitutes are not absorbed and therefore do not provide energy or essential nutrients but may provide flavor and satisfaction 3Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Functions of Fat in the Body (p. 36)  Adipose tissue  Protects organs  Helps regulate temperature  Cell membrane structure  Forms part of cell membrane  Helps transport nutrients across cell membranes 4Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Digestion of Fats (p. 39)  Mouth  Stomach  Small intestine  Bile from the gallbladder  Enzymes from the pancreas  Enzymes from the small intestine  Absorption 5Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Nature of Fats (p. 31)  Dietary importance  Concentrated fuel for energy  Classes of fats  Lipids  Glycerides • Triglycerides  Fatty acids  Lipoproteins 6Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Fatty Acids (p. 31)  Saturated fatty acids  Filled or “saturated” with hydrogen  Unsaturated fatty acids  Not completely filled with hydrogen  Less heavy, less dense  Monounsaturated: one unfilled spot  Polyunsaturated: two or more unfilled spots 7Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Fatty Acids (cont’d) (p. 33)  Trans-fatty acid  Naturally occurring  Hydrogen atoms around carbon double bond are on opposite sides  Negative health consequences, cardiovascular disease  Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids  Determined by position of first carbon involved in double bond 8Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Fatty Acids (cont’d) (p. 34)  Essentiality of fatty acids  Definition of essential  Absence will create specific deficiency  Body can create it  Two essential fatty acids  Linoleic  Alpha-linoleic  Role of essential fatty acids 9Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Food Sources of Fat (p. 37)  Animal fats  Plant fats 10Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Characteristics of Food Fat Sources (p. 37)  Visible fats  Invisible fats 11Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Food Label Information (p. 37)  Calories from fat  Calories from saturated fat  Total fat  Saturated fat  Polyunsaturated fat  Monounsaturated fat  Cholesterol  Voluntary information 12Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • FDA Health Claims (p. 37)  A diet low in total fat may reduce the risk of some cancers  Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease  Other claims are pending 13Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Dietary Fat and Health (p. 42)  The American diet is high in fat.  Excess calories are stored as fat.  Animal food sources contribute to excess cholesterol and saturated fat in the diet.  A decrease in saturated fat reduces serum total cholesterol.  Monounsaturated fats reduce LDL cholesterol when substituted for saturated fat. 14Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study  K. M. is a 52-year-old male who consumes a diet high in fat. He has coronary artery disease and hypertension. Blood tests show elevated lipid levels. Body mass index of 32 places him in the obesity 1 category. 15Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Dietary Fat Requirements (p. 42)  Healthy diet guidelines:  Stress the health benefits of a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol  Recommend that the fat content should not exceed 20% to 35% of total kilocalories • Less than 10% of kilocalories should be from saturated fat • Dietary cholesterol should be limited to 300 mg/day 16Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study: Total Fat Intake per Day  K. M. is assessed to require 1800 total calories per day to assist in weight loss and a fat-controlled meal plan. 17Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes (p. 43)  Linoleic acid:  17 g/day for men  12 g/day for women  Linolenic acid:  1.6 g/day for men  1.1 g/day for women  Current U.S. diet at ratio of 8:1 to 12:1  Recommended ratio of 2:1 to 3:1 18Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (p. 44)  Control saturated fat and cholesterol  Use only lean cuts of all meats; use more poultry and seafood  Limit eggs to two or three per week  Use low-fat or fat-free milk and milk products  Avoid adding too much fat in food preparation 19Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Case Study: Food Choices  K.M. is motivated upon interviewing to make a change in his lifestyle and take part in self- management of his nutrition plan of care. 20Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.