Fat provides 9 kcal/g versus 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates. Explain that this is an effective way to store energy.
Fat is stored in adipose tissue. What are some common sites of adipose tissue deposits?Explain that a special fat covering protects nerve fibers and helps relay nerve impulses.
The primary digestion action occurring in the mouth is mechanical. Foods are broken up into smaller particles through chewing and are moistened for passage into the stomach.Little, if any, chemical fat digestion takes place in the stomach. Why do you think this is? (Prompt the students to remember the principle of “like attracts like”; stomach acid is more attracted to hydrophilic compounds than hydrophobic compounds.)
Why is fat considered a backup fuel source for the body? (Carbohydrates are the primary fuel, followed by fat when needed.)Explain that each class of fat serves a different purpose in the body and all are considered lipids.
Saturated fats are heavier, denser, and more solid than unsaturated fats.Unsaturated fats are usually in oil form.What foods supply monounsaturated fats? (Olive and olive oil, peanuts and peanut oil, canola oil, almonds, pecans, and avocados)
What are some of the sources of unnecessary trans fats? (Restaurant foods, fast foods, packaged foods)
Explain that essential means these fats MUST come from the foods we eat. We cannot produce these as we can the other types of fatty acids.
How much of a daily dietary intake needs to be from fat to supply adequate amounts of essential fatty acids? (10%)
Ask students to name some of the obvious fats.Ask students to identify some of the sources of invisible fats. Are any of the students surprised by these sources of fats?
The FDA regulates food labeling. Explain how and why it does so.Do the students think that food manufacturers would add the voluntary information if it showed an amount of a nutrient the consumer would see as “bad”?
How could an individual follow some of the FDA’s recommendations contained in its pending claims?
Why are excess calories stored as fat and not carbohydrate or protein? (Explain that storing excess energy as fat is the way the body is supposed to work. It is a machine meant to store the most energy in the least amount of space.)Heart disease continues to be one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. Much attention is focused on reducing risk factors leading to this disease.
Case Study:K. M. is a 52-year-old male who consumes a diet high in fat. He has coronary artery disease and hypertension. Blood tests show elevated lipid levels. Body mass index of 32 places him in the obesity 1 category. List other risk factors of chronic disease that K. M. may also be at risk for if he continues not to change his lifestyle.Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death, and excess dietary fat contributes to risk factors including obesity, diabetes, elevated triglyceride levels, and elevated blood pressure.
Tell the class how much cholesterol is in one egg. According to these guidelines, can one egg be eaten every day?
Case Study:Calculate the recommended amount of fat per day that should comprise K. M.’s meal plan to promote a healthy lifestyle.It is recommended that the fat content of the diet should not exceed 20% to 35% of the total kilocalories, that less than 10% of the kilocalories should come from saturated fats, and that dietary cholesterol be limited to a maximum of 300 mg/day.Trans-fatty acid consumption should be as low as possible as well, along with reducing the intake of calories from solid fats.In K.M.’s situation a total fat intake near the lower end of the recommended range may prove advantageous at this time to promote weight loss and assist in lowering lipid levels.
Ask the students which essential acid is omega-6 and which is omega-3.What can the students eat more of to make their ratio closer to the recommended ratio?
By using these tips, people can significantly reduce their fat intake.Ask students to describe some other tips that can help reduce fat in the diet.
Case StudyWhat specific changes in K.M.’s meal planning would you suggest at this time?Considerations may include using the MyPlate method to assist with planning a well-balanced diet with recommendations for fat intake. After assessing food likes and dislikes, reviewing appropriate food choices including choosing fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, replacing protein foods that are higher in solid fats with choices lower in solid fat and calories and/or are sources of oil, and using oils to replace solid fats where possible are other considerations. Considerations may also include reviewing specific calculated total fat requirements per day with attention to decreasing saturated fats and trans fats.How would you assess if he is able to follow his meal plan?Suggestions may include follow-up and interviewing how he feels about the changes, weight measures, lipid levels, food diary/records, and activity level.