1.communicable disease teminology


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1.communicable disease teminology

  1. 1. Communicable Diseases HistoryKnow the following and their contributions
  2. 2. Leeuwenhoek Father of Microbiology  He was the first to observe and describe single celled organisms which we now refer to as microorganisms  He was also the first to record microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels)
  3. 3. Jenner 'Father of Immunology’  Developed Smallpox Vaccine which has irradicated smallpox '  Highly contagious often fatal- caused by Pox Virus – Blisters, Pustules
  4. 4. Pasteur  He created the first vaccine for rabies and anthrax.  He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization.
  5. 5. Koch  A Prussian Physician • He is considered one of the founders of microbiology • He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his tuberculosis findings in 1905. •He became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis
  6. 6. Lister Father of Modern Antiseptic Surgery  Lister was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, who promoted the idea of sterile surgery. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds
  7. 7. Salk  Best known for his discovery and development of the first safe and effective polio vaccine. (1955)  Vaccine killed Polio Virus of 3 types
  8. 8. Sabin  Developed Oral Polio Vaccine In 1957-1959 first tested outside of US
  9. 9. Chain of Infection
  10. 10. Methods of Spreading Infection 1. Contact 1. Direct Contact – Person to person 2. Indirect Contact – Person to object to person. 2. Droplet – Carry in air, three feet 3. Airborne – Remain suspended in air
  11. 11. Spreading of Infection  Vehicle  Mode of transmission of a microorganism from one reservoir to susceptible host  VECTOR  Insect, rodent, mosquito that transmit disease  FOMITE  An object that transmits pathogens
  12. 12. List methods of controlling Infections: Breaking the chain of infection  Hand wash  Use of PPE  Use of correct isolation precautions  Wearing no jewelry  Wearing hospital scrubs  Immunization  Antiseptics – Disinfectant - Sterilization
  13. 13. List 5 typical Microorganisms Describe each and name at least two diseases caused by each
  14. 14. Bacteria  Classified according to shape  Cocci  Bacilla  Spirilla  Diphtheria  Pertussis  Lyme Disease
  15. 15. Virus  Virus  Can only be seen with electron microscope  Must live in another living cell to survive      Measles Mumps Cold Hepatitis HIV
  16. 16. Rickettsia  Typhus  Rocky Mount  Spot Fever
  17. 17. Protozoa  Malaria  Mosquito born disease caused by a parasite  Symptoms include:  Fever  Chills  Flu-like illness
  18. 18. Helminth  Worm  Types include:  Flukes  Tapeworms  Roundworms
  19. 19. Fungi  Ringworm  Thrush  Yeast
  20. 20. Antiseptic  Any agent that retards growth of microorganisms
  21. 21. Disinfectant  Destroys microorganisms  Process of destroying microorganism by chemical means
  22. 22. Types of Disinfection  Concurrent disinfection  Daily handling and disposing of contaminated material or equipment  Terminal disinfection  Cleansing of equipment and rooms when patient is discharged
  23. 23. Communicable Disease Progression  Communicable period  Time span when disease is contagious  Incubation period  Time between exposure to a disease and the appearance of symptoms  Prodrome / Prodromal  In medicine, a prodrome is an early symptom (or set of symptoms) that might indicate the start of a disease before specific symptoms occur
  24. 24. Terms  Resistance Ability to fight off a disease  Carrier Person who harbors germs, transmits germs to others while not showing signs/symptoms  Host An organism (may be himan) from which another obtains nourishment
  25. 25. Terms  Parasite  Organism that lives in or on another at their expense  Pathogen  An organism capable of causing disease  Virulent  Strength of an organism to cause disease
  26. 26. Epidemiology  Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health and illness and associated factors at the population level. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment
  27. 27. Types of “demics”  Endemic  Usual number of cases of a disease in an area (expected)  Epidemic  Occurrence of a large number of cases of a disease in an area at a time (sudden unexpected)  Pandemic  World wide high incidence of a communicable disease
  28. 28. Mortality Rate  Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths in some population  Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 in a population of 100,000 would mean 950 deaths per year in that entire population
  29. 29. Morbidity Rate  Morbidity rate, which refers to the number of individuals in poor health during a given time period or the number of newly appearing cases of the disease Disease rate or number of cases of a specific disease
  30. 30. Terms  Antigen  Foreign substance that invades body and stimulates immune response  Antibody  Immune substance produced in the body in response to specific antigen  Immunity  When antigen enters body, specific antibody neutralizes invading antigen
  31. 31. Types of Immunity  Natural Immunity  Inborn resistance  Passive Immunity  Ready made antibodies given to susceptible host, provide immediate short lived protection  Acquire by infant from mother, cross placenta last from 3 to 6 months  Gammaglobulin
  32. 32. Immunity  Acquired Immunity  Develops over a person’s lifetime as person is exposed to disease  Naturally active acquired  Artificially active acquired  Naturally Active Acquired  Occurs as direct result of infection by a microorganism  When exposed to disease body makes antibodies against the disease
  33. 33. Immunity Cont’d  Artificial Active Acquired  Result from administration of dead or weakened microorganism  Not having disease but getting inoculation that stimulate production of antibody to specific diseases  Vaccine  Toxoids (weakened toxin)
  34. 34. Gamma Globulin  Gammaglobulin is a type of protein found in the blood.  When gammaglobulins are extracted from the blood of many people and combined, they can be used to prevent or treat infections.
  35. 35. Toxin  A poisonous substance, especially a protein, that is produced by living cells or organisms and is capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues but is often also capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies or antitoxins.
  36. 36. Anti-toxin  An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants, and bacteria. Although they are most effective in neutralizing toxins, they can kill bacteria and other microorganisms.
  37. 37. Types of Vaccines        Live-attenuated Inactivated Subunit Toxoid Conjugate DNA Recombinant vector
  38. 38. Live-attenuated Vaccine  Weakened (attenuated) or killed antigen developed to create immunity to a certain disease  A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins.  Weakened, diluted, thinned, reduced, diminished.  An attenuated virus is a weakened, less vigorous virus.
  39. 39. Toxoid Vaccine  Toxoid  a bacterial toxin whose toxicity has been weakened or suppressed either by chemical or heat treatment  Toxoids are used in vaccines to produce immunity-secretes a toxin that is the main cause of the illness  Tetnus toxoid
  40. 40. Inactivated Vaccine  The disease is killed in this vaccine  These vaccines are more stable and safer than live vaccines  The dead microbes cannot mutate back to their disease producing state  Easily stored and transportable  Stimulate a weaker immune response than live vaccines
  41. 41. Subunit Vaccines  Include only the antigens that best stimulate the immune system  Chemists grow the microbe in a lab, break it apart and only gather the antigens that are important  Example:Hepatitis B vaccine
  42. 42. Conjugate Vaccines  If a bacterium possesses an outer coating of sugar molecules called polysaccharides, as many harmful bacteria do, researchers may try making a conjugate vaccine for it.  Polysaccharide coatings disguise a bacterium’s antigens so that the immature immune systems of infants and younger children can’t recognize or respond to them.  Conjugate vaccines, a special type of subunit vaccine, get around this problem
  43. 43. DNA Vaccines  Still in experimental stages  Once the genes from a microbe have been analyzed, scientists could attempt to create a DNA vaccine against it.  Researchers have found that when the genes for a microbe’s antigens are introduced into the body, some cells will take up that DNA.  The DNA then instructs those cells to make the antigen molecules. The cells secrete the antigens and display them on their surfaces. In other words, the body’s own cells become vaccine-making factories, creating the antigens necessary to stimulate the immune system.
  44. 44. Recombinant Vector Vaccines  Recombinant vector vaccines are experimental vaccines similar to DNA vaccines, but they use an attenuated virus or bacterium to introduce microbial DNA to cells of the body. “Vector” refers to the virus or bacterium used as the carrier.
  45. 45. Macule  Flat red  Freckles
  46. 46. Papule  Papule  a circumscribed, solid elevation of skin with no visible fluid, varying in size from a pinhead to 1 cm.  They can be either brown, purple, pink or red in color.  The papules may open when scratched and become infected and crusty.
  47. 47. Vesicle  A vesicle and be visualized as a bubble of liquid  Fluid filled papule
  48. 48. Pustule  Elevated  Pus filled
  49. 49. Types of Tests  Dick Test  A skin test formerly used for determining susceptibility or immunity to scarlet fever  Inject toxin of Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus  The Dick test is named after George Dick and Gladys Dick, American bacteriologists who worked on the diagnosis and treatment of scarlet fever in the 1920s. The Dick test involves administering two different injections, one into each arm of a patient. In one arm, toxin (poison) taken from a culture of scarlet fever bacteria is injected. In the other arm, neutralized toxin is injected to act as a control (a standard of comparison). If the toxin causes redness, tenderness and swelling after 24 hours, the person is not immune to scarlet fever. The control normally shows no swelling for comparison.    
  50. 50. Types of Tests  Schick test  invented between 1910 and 1911 is a test used to determine whether or not a person is susceptible to diphtheria.  Inject dilute diphtheria toxin   A small amount of diphtheria toxin is injected into the skin; the injection will produce an area of redness and swelling in individuals with low levels of antibody (i.e., little immunity) against the toxin. If the individual is immune to diphtheria, the antibody in the system will neutralize the toxin and no skin reaction will occur.
  51. 51. Types of Tests  Mantoux test  (also known as the Mantoux screening test, Tuberculin Sensitivity Test, Pirquet test, or PPD test for Purified Protein Derivative) is a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis.