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Reflect Back… <ul><li>Think about your Module 2 strategies </li></ul><ul><li>What did you do or try in your setting? </li>...
Promoting Children’s Success   Review of Modules 1 & 2 Building Relationships, Creating Supportive Environments, and Socia...
The Teaching Pyramid Promotes Social Emotional Competence Teacher Training and Implementation Administrative Supports Prog...
Agenda <ul><li>Solidifying the Foundations of the Pyramid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building relationships </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Building on the Foundation <ul><li>Be Safe & Healthy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a comfortable space for yourself </li></ul...
Building Our Relationships  <ul><li>You will have an opportunity to interview a colleague </li></ul><ul><li>We’d like you ...
Harvesting Reflections <ul><li>Interview Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me about a time when you felt at your best in yo...
Before We Add the Module 3 Layer <ul><li>We need to build the Pyramid  Foundations… </li></ul><ul><li>In your school group...
Module 1: Relationships Supportive Environments Module 1 Building Positive Relationships with Children, Families, and Othe...
Why Build Relationships? <ul><li>Relationships are at the foundation of everything we do. Build relationships early – don’...
Building Positive Relationships <ul><li>Adults’ time and attention are very important to children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ev...
Module 1: Environments Supportive Environments Module 1 Building Positive Relationships with Children, Families, and Other...
Designing Supportive Environments <ul><li>Physical Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules & Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Tr...
How Do Children Know What Is Expected of Them? <ul><li>The Leadership Team developed program-wide expectations </li></ul><...
Developing Expectation Examples <ul><li>Keep examples positive – what you see when the behavior meets the expectation </li...
General Guidelines about Teaching Expectations <ul><li>Post the expectations and examples visually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Module 2: Social Emotional Strategies Supportive Environments Module 1 Building Positive Relationships with Children, Fami...
We Need to Teach! “ If a child doesn’t know how to read,  we teach . If a child doesn’t know how to swim,  we teach . If a...
Teach Me What to Do Instead <ul><li>Friendship skills </li></ul><ul><li>Following expectations, routines and directions </...
When To Teach Identifying Teachable Moments
How to Teach: Strategies <ul><li>Adult Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling with Puppets </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing Peer P...
Steps to Teaching Throughout the Day: <ul><li>Identify  the skill you want to teach </li></ul><ul><li>Teach  the Social Sk...
Maintain Your Foundation! <ul><li>Each layer of this pyramid is important </li></ul><ul><li>By focusing on the bottom of t...
When is Behavior a Problem? <ul><li>Think back over the years you’ve been in classrooms with children. Have you ever had <...
Persistently Challenging Behavior <ul><li>What do we mean when we say “persistently challenging behavior?” </li></ul><ul><...
Tim – Before Intervention
Tim – Before Intervention
Tim – Before Intervention
Group Discussion: Focus on Tim <ul><li>What might be the reasons for the behaviors we saw? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategi...
For Persistent, Challenging Behavior <ul><li>We need a comprehensive approach, all environments and all stakeholders </li>...
Individualized Intensive Interventions: Determining the Meaning of Challenging Behavior (Module 3a) WestEd San Marcos
The Teaching Pyramid Designing Supportive Environments Building Positive Relationships Social Emotional Teaching Strategie...
Intensive Individualized Interventions <ul><li>Intensive individualized interventions are used with children who have very...
Positive Behavior Support (PBS) <ul><li>An approach for changing a child’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Is based on humanist...
Research on PBS <ul><li>Effective for all ages of individuals with disabilities 2-50+ years </li></ul><ul><li>Effective fo...
Old Way – New Way <ul><li>Old Way </li></ul><ul><li>General intervention for all behavior challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Int...
Video 3a.2: Brendan – Before PBS
Video 3a.3: Brendan’s Family – Before PBS
Video 3a.4: Brendan’s Family –Before PBS (Cont.) .
Video 3a.5: Brendan – With PBS
Video 3a.5: Brendan – With PBS
Video 3a.6: Brendan’s Family – With PBS
Behavior Basics <ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Has different  forms </li></ul><ul><li>Serves a specific  function </li...
Consider Form & Function <ul><li>Form  (type of behavior) can be anything </li></ul><ul><li>Function  (purpose of behavior...
Children Communicate  in Many Ways: <ul><li>Forms  of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Observe Carefully <ul><li>A single  form  of behavior may serve more than one  function </li></ul><ul><li>Several  forms  ...
Children’s Behavior Communicates <ul><li>Behavior communicates a message when a child does not have language </li></ul><ul...
Children Communicate  a Variety of Messages <ul><li>Functions  of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request object, acti...
Challenging Behavior Works <ul><li>Children engage in challenging behavior because “it works” for them. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Designing Effective Interventions <ul><li>To address persistently challenging behavior, we need to determine the function ...
Functional Assessment <ul><li>Observe the child in selected routines and various settings over a few days </li></ul><ul><l...
2 3 1 4 7 5 8 * 0 6 9 #
ABC DEF GHI JKL MNO PQRS TUV WXYZ TONE OPER 2 3 1 4 7 5 8 * 0 6 9 #
Behavior Equation Ian is playing with a toy train. Thuy reaches for the train and says “Please.” Ian turns away and says “...
Finding the Function Ian is playing with a toy train. Thuy reaches for the train and says “Please.” Ian turns away and say...
Behavior Equation + Function Ian is playing with a toy train. Thuy reaches for the train and says “Please.” Ian turns away...
Behavior Equation Joey is asked to come to circle. Teacher provides physical prompt to move him to group. Joey resists, cr...
Behavior Equation + Function Joey is asked to come to circle. Teacher provides physical prompt to move him to group. Joey ...
Evan <ul><li>Evan is playing with Duplos. He tries to attach a block to his stack of 3. He can’t quite get the blocks to c...
Evan Playing with Duplos, can’t connect blocks. Possible Function:   Get help Looks up at adult, fusses, holds up blocks, ...
Shana <ul><li>Shana is sitting in her high chair with nothing on the tray. Her mother is stirring her oatmeal. Shana begin...
Shana Mom says, “It’s not cool enough, just a minute,” then gives oatmeal. Sitting in high chair with nothing on tray, mom...
Gabriella <ul><li>Gabriella is playing in her room.  Her mom says, “Come on Gabriella.  Time to go to school.”  Her mom pu...
Gabriella Possible Function:   Escapes-prolong transition Playing in room, time to get in car for school. Mom pulls on arm...
Luis <ul><li>Luis is riding a trike on the playground bike path. He sees a child move to the sandbox where Luis had just f...
Luis A child moves to the sandbox where Luis has just built something. Tackles and hits child. Adult intervenes and scolds...
Madison <ul><li>Madison is in housekeeping, putting on high heels and a hat. Emily moves into the area and selects a purse...
Madison Another child moves to area and gets a toy (purse). Shouts “no,” bites child. Sent to “thinking chair,” other chil...
How Do We Use The  Behavior Equation? <ul><li>We must have enough information to see a pattern </li></ul><ul><li>We want t...
Observation Card Example Possible Function:   Escape Art Child’s Name: Kara Observer: Teacher Ana Date:  1/22 Time:  10 am...
Video 3a.7: Tim – Before PBS
Observation Card Tim Sample Possible Function:   Obtain (Get) Toy Child’s Name: Tim Observer: Teacher Joel Date:  1/22 Tim...
Practice Makes Permanent <ul><li>Time to practice! </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s watch some children in action and capture the i...
Video 3a.10: Observation Vignette #1
Observation Card Tim #1 Possible Function:   Initiate social interaction/join play Child’s Name: Tim Observer: Teacher Joe...
Video 3a.11: Observation Vignette #2
Observation Card Tim #2 Possible Function:   Obtain the toy (same truck) Child’s Name: Tim Observer: Teacher Ana Date:  1/...
Video 3a.12: Observation Vignette #3
Observation Card Brendan #1 Possible Function:   Obtain computer/ adult attention Child’s Name: Brendan Observer: Dad Date...
Video 3a.13: Observation Vignette #4
Observation Card Brendan #2 Possible Function:   Escape/avoid going into the library (prolonged)  (and adult attention) Ch...
Video 3a.14: Observation Vignette #5
Observation Card Ryan #1 Possible Function:   Adult attention Child’s Name: Ryan Observer: Teacher Ana Date:  1/22 Time:  ...
Video 3a.15: Observation Vignette #6
Observation Card Ryan #2 Possible Function:   Adult attention Child’s Name: Ryan Observer: Teacher Ana Date:  1/22 Time:  ...
Drawing From Observation Cards <ul><li>In group play situations (outside play/centers), Tim uses verbal aggression (threat...
Summarizing Observations Function: Why? What Happened Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just Afte...
Getting to the Function “The Why” <ul><li>Tim engaged in challenging behavior: </li></ul><ul><li>In an attempt to get peer...
Tim Function: Obtain toys/Play What Happened Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maint...
Tim’s PB Support Planning Chart - First Step Function : obtain toy/play Trigger (What Happens Before)   Behavior Maintaini...
Setting Event <ul><li>Event that occurs at another time that increases the likelihood the child will have challenging beha...
Behavior Equation Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program. Quan moves his picture to indicate that he i...
Behavior Equation Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program. Quan moves his picture to indicate that he i...
Summary Statements <ul><li>Take from the many Observation Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers of the challenging behavior </l...
What is the Function? <ul><li>Billy will initiate a chase game or request to be held by pulling the adult’s hand or positi...
Not Sure About the Function? <ul><li>What would make the  challenging behavior   stop ?  Is it something you would provide...
Summary Statement + Function <ul><li>Billy uses tantrums to request a social interaction.   </li></ul><ul><li>Billy will i...
What is the Function? <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>When she is asked to transition from an activity (e.g., playing in the s...
Summary Statement + Function <ul><li>Marcia tantrums to escape moving to a new activity.   </li></ul><ul><li>When she is a...
Functional Assessment Interview <ul><li>Define behavior (describe what you see) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe frequency and i...
Video 3a.8: Tim – With PBS
Video 3a.9: Importance of PBS
Tim’s Plan ~ Prevention <ul><li>Trigger(s)/Social Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group play situations </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Tim’s Plan ~ New Skills <ul><li>Old Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal aggression (threats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ph...
Tim’s Plan ~ Responses <ul><li>Maintaining Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer relinquishes the desired toy </li></ul>...
Tim’s PB Support Planning Chart - Second Step Function : obtain toy/play Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence <ul><li>...
Getting Information From Home <ul><li>Interview the family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have ongoing conversations </li></ul></ul...
Summarizing <ul><li>Challenging behavior has meaning for the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Children use behavior to access some...
So What Will You Do Next? <ul><li>Time to meet in your school groups and discuss how the information from this afternoon g...
Continuous Improvement <ul><li>Liked the videos </li></ul><ul><li>Dissecting the videos </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing the pa...
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Mod 3a generic

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  • WestEd Center for Child &amp; Family Studies
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos This sums it all up for me.
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Fall 2009 Linda Brault Essential CSEFEL
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos What would make the challenging behavior stop ? Is it something you would provide or allow the child to access? Or is there something to remove? Or can you allow the child to leave? If still unsure, collect more data in the same context. Some challenging behavior may have the same form but serve multiple functions . Some challenging behaviors may begin around one function (e.g., escape) and continue to serve another function (e.g., gain attention).
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Teaching Pyramid Module 3a September 2008 WestEd San Marcos
  • Transcript of "Mod 3a generic"

    1. 2. Reflect Back… <ul><li>Think about your Module 2 strategies </li></ul><ul><li>What did you do or try in your setting? </li></ul><ul><li>How have you set a positive tone with children & families? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you have questions about? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it going in general? </li></ul><ul><li>And take time to make deposits in your colleagues piggy banks. </li></ul><ul><li>Write them a note about something they did over the past month! </li></ul>
    2. 3. Promoting Children’s Success Review of Modules 1 & 2 Building Relationships, Creating Supportive Environments, and Social-Emotional Teaching Strategies WestEd Center for Child & Family Studies
    3. 4. The Teaching Pyramid Promotes Social Emotional Competence Teacher Training and Implementation Administrative Supports Program Philosophy Well defined procedures Designing Supportive Environments Building Positive Relationships Social Emotional Teaching Strategies Individualized Intensive Interventions Module 1 Module 2 Module 3a, 3b
    4. 5. Agenda <ul><li>Solidifying the Foundations of the Pyramid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching social emotional skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moving to the Top of the Pyramid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the meaning of challenging behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to Functional Assessment  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the Function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting Observations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observation Activity: Finding the Meaning/Function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Next Steps and Wrap Up </li></ul>
    5. 6. Building on the Foundation <ul><li>Be Safe & Healthy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a comfortable space for yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take breaks as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move if you need to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Respectful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be an attentive listener </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value everyone’s ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Friendly & Kind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step up/Step back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay on topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share air time </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Building Our Relationships <ul><li>You will have an opportunity to interview a colleague </li></ul><ul><li>We’d like you to pick someone you do not know well from a different center or classroom </li></ul><ul><li>You will have approximately 20 minutes (10 minutes each) for the interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Feel free to spread around </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for the chimes for the mid-point and the end time </li></ul>
    7. 8. Harvesting Reflections <ul><li>Interview Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me about a time when you felt at your best in your classroom or job this past few months. When did you feel most alive or most excited about your work? What made it and exciting experience? Describe the event in detail. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the most successful strategy you use when dealing with children with challenging behaviors? </li></ul>
    8. 9. Before We Add the Module 3 Layer <ul><li>We need to build the Pyramid Foundations… </li></ul><ul><li>In your school groups, you will have a chance to pick out the critical elements for each layer </li></ul><ul><li>Here are the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Start with Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 1 Notebook Tab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint TM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory of Practice </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Module 1: Relationships Supportive Environments Module 1 Building Positive Relationships with Children, Families, and Other Professionals Module 1 Social-Emotional Teaching Strategies Module 2 Individualized Intensive Interventions Module 3a/b Few children Children at-risk All Children Module 4: Leadership Strategies
    10. 11. Why Build Relationships? <ul><li>Relationships are at the foundation of everything we do. Build relationships early – don’t wait until there is a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn and develop in the context of relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with the most challenging behaviors especially need these relationships, and yet their behaviors often prevent them from benefiting from those relationships. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Building Positive Relationships <ul><li>Adults’ time and attention are very important to children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every child needs one person who is crazy about them! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make deposits regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need to give time and attention at times other than when they are engaging in challenging behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on what you want the child to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intentionally notice and acknowledge the positive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family members and other colleagues (therapists, behaviorists, etc.) are critical partners in building children’s social emotional competence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We should all work together to ensure children’s success and prevent challenging behavior </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Module 1: Environments Supportive Environments Module 1 Building Positive Relationships with Children, Families, and Other Professionals Module 1 Social-Emotional Teaching Strategies Module 2 Individualized Intensive Interventions Module 3a/b Few children Children at-risk All Children Module 4: Leadership Strategies
    13. 14. Designing Supportive Environments <ul><li>Physical Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules & Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Large/Small Group Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations for Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring & Positive Attention </li></ul>
    14. 15. How Do Children Know What Is Expected of Them? <ul><li>The Leadership Team developed program-wide expectations </li></ul><ul><li>The three expectations are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be Friendly and Kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be Respectful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be Safe and Responsible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To help children understand these expectations, you developed examples </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s review… </li></ul>
    15. 16. Developing Expectation Examples <ul><li>Keep examples positive – what you see when the behavior meets the expectation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Be Safe and Responsible an example could be picking up toys (to prevent tripping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about what you might take a picture of as you illustrate the examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep examples short and simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on behaviors, not attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example for Be Friendly and Kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being nice NO (what does “nice” look like?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing a toy with a classmate YES </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 17. General Guidelines about Teaching Expectations <ul><li>Post the expectations and examples visually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take pictures of the children in your class/site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teach the expectations systematically </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to use the key words/statements regularly </li></ul><ul><li>When first learning the expectations, call attention to children when they follow them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wow, you walked quietly to the bathroom. That was really respectful ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you picked up your toys, you were being safe ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I saw you take turns with the ball. You are friendly ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involve the children in developing more examples </li></ul>
    17. 18. Module 2: Social Emotional Strategies Supportive Environments Module 1 Building Positive Relationships with Children, Families, and Other Professionals Module 1 Social-Emotional Teaching Strategies Module 2 Individualized Intensive Interventions Module 3a/b Few children Children at-risk All Children Module 4: Leadership Strategies
    18. 19. We Need to Teach! “ If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach . If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach . If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach . If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we……..... …….teach? ……punish? Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” Tom Herner (NASDE President ) Counterpoint 1998, p.2)
    19. 20. Teach Me What to Do Instead <ul><li>Friendship skills </li></ul><ul><li>Following expectations, routines and directions </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying feelings in self and others </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling anger and impulse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tucker Turtle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution Kit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-Solving Steps </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. When To Teach Identifying Teachable Moments
    21. 22. How to Teach: Strategies <ul><li>Adult Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling with Puppets </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing Peer Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Songs </li></ul><ul><li>Flannel Board Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Fingerplays </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Priming </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Games </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Children’s Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Social Stories </li></ul>
    22. 23. Steps to Teaching Throughout the Day: <ul><li>Identify the skill you want to teach </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the Social Skills Concept –during large group, small group and provide individualized instruction for children who need it </li></ul><ul><li>Give children opportunities to practice – role play,  prompting children through an interaction (scaffolding), embedding instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Model the behaviors in every day interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce the behavior in context – use positive descriptive feedback to comment on children engaging in the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Involve children in reflecting on the skills – individually or in a group </li></ul>
    23. 24. Maintain Your Foundation! <ul><li>Each layer of this pyramid is important </li></ul><ul><li>By focusing on the bottom of the pyramid, you will be meeting the needs of most children </li></ul><ul><li>Use Social Emotional Teaching Skills for the children who need additional support </li></ul>
    24. 25. When is Behavior a Problem? <ul><li>Think back over the years you’ve been in classrooms with children. Have you ever had </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A child hit another child? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A child bite another child? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A child ignore your request? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This behavior isn’t a problem when it happens only once in a while </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the frequency, intensity, duration …and the behavior is seen differently! </li></ul>
    25. 26. Persistently Challenging Behavior <ul><li>What do we mean when we say “persistently challenging behavior?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any repeated pattern of behavior that interferes with learning or engagement in pro-social interactions with peers and adults. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors that are not responsive to the use of developmentally appropriate guidance procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, disruptive vocal and motor behavior (e.g., screaming, stereotypic movements), property destruction, self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawal. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Tim – Before Intervention
    27. 28. Tim – Before Intervention
    28. 29. Tim – Before Intervention
    29. 30. Group Discussion: Focus on Tim <ul><li>What might be the reasons for the behaviors we saw? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies that we have learned in Modules 1 or 2 might you try? </li></ul><ul><li>For behaviors that are persistent, the general application of a strategy or two probably won’t completely change the child’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed is a more comprehensive approach </li></ul>
    30. 31. For Persistent, Challenging Behavior <ul><li>We need a comprehensive approach, all environments and all stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If all stakeholders are not interested or able to implement the approach at the same time, begin with the classroom setting and share results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If other services are needed you can start supporting the child in the current setting while pursuing them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematic plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan based on understanding the child and the problem behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is intensive (Intensive for the adults, not the child) and individualized </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Individualized Intensive Interventions: Determining the Meaning of Challenging Behavior (Module 3a) WestEd San Marcos
    32. 33. The Teaching Pyramid Designing Supportive Environments Building Positive Relationships Social Emotional Teaching Strategies Few children Children at-risk All Children Individualized Intensive Interventions Module 3a, 3b
    33. 34. Intensive Individualized Interventions <ul><li>Intensive individualized interventions are used with children who have very persistent and severe challenging behavior and do not respond to the typical preventive practices, child guidance procedures, or social emotional teaching strategies that would normally work with most children </li></ul>
    34. 35. Positive Behavior Support (PBS) <ul><li>An approach for changing a child’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Is based on humanistic values and research. </li></ul><ul><li>An approach for developing an understanding of why the child has challenging behavior and teaching the child new skills to replace challenging behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>A holistic approach that considers all of the factors that impact on a child, family, and the child’s behavior. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Research on PBS <ul><li>Effective for all ages of individuals with disabilities 2-50+ years </li></ul><ul><li>Effective for diverse groups of individuals with challenges: mental retardation, oppositional defiant disorder, autism, emotional behavioral disorders, children at risk, etc </li></ul><ul><li>PBS is the only comprehensive and evidence-based approach to address challenging behavior within a variety of natural settings </li></ul>
    36. 37. Old Way – New Way <ul><li>Old Way </li></ul><ul><li>General intervention for all behavior challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention is reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on behavior reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Quick fix </li></ul><ul><li>New Way </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention matched to purpose of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention is proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on teaching new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term interventions </li></ul>
    37. 38. Video 3a.2: Brendan – Before PBS
    38. 39. Video 3a.3: Brendan’s Family – Before PBS
    39. 40. Video 3a.4: Brendan’s Family –Before PBS (Cont.) .
    40. 41. Video 3a.5: Brendan – With PBS
    41. 42. Video 3a.5: Brendan – With PBS
    42. 43. Video 3a.6: Brendan’s Family – With PBS
    43. 44. Behavior Basics <ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Has different forms </li></ul><ul><li>Serves a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Is predicted by events that take place before (triggers/antecedents or social context) </li></ul><ul><li>Is maintained by events that take place after (consequences or social reactions) </li></ul>
    44. 45. Consider Form & Function <ul><li>Form (type of behavior) can be anything </li></ul><ul><li>Function (purpose of behavior) typically falls under one of two general areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain access to something, someone or an outcome, (positive reinforcement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid or escape from something, someone or an outcome (negative reinforcement) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The function identifies the “purpose” of the challenging behavior, “why” it is happening </li></ul>
    45. 46. Children Communicate in Many Ways: <ul><li>Forms of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures/sign language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point to a picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye gaze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulling adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tantrums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>? </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. Observe Carefully <ul><li>A single form of behavior may serve more than one function </li></ul><ul><li>Several forms of behavior may serve one function </li></ul><ul><li>This is why “cookbook” approaches rarely work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If child ________ (fill in the form of the behavior), do this. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t know what to do until we know the function (WHY) ! </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. Children’s Behavior Communicates <ul><li>Behavior communicates a message when a child does not have language </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior may be used instead of language by a child who has limited social skills or has learned that challenging behavior will result in meeting his or her needs </li></ul>
    48. 49. Children Communicate a Variety of Messages <ul><li>Functions of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request object, activity, person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape a person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request sensory stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape sensory stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>? </li></ul></ul>
    49. 50. Challenging Behavior Works <ul><li>Children engage in challenging behavior because “it works” for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging behavior meets the function for the child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gaining access to something or someone (i.e., obtain/request) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoiding something or someone (i.e., escape/protest/avoid). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes our reactions serve as the social reaction/maintaining consequence! </li></ul>
    50. 51. Designing Effective Interventions <ul><li>To address persistently challenging behavior, we need to determine the function of the behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a Functional Assessment : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process for developing an understanding of a person’s challenging behavior and, in particular, how the behavior is governed by environmental events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observe carefully to identify the form and assess the function (see Behavior Equation Chart ) </li></ul><ul><li>This is the first step in designing a positive behavior support plan </li></ul>
    51. 52. Functional Assessment <ul><li>Observe the child in selected routines and various settings over a few days </li></ul><ul><li>Collect information (data) on child behavior, looking for situations that may predict problem behavior (trigger/social context) and also look for situations that are linked with appropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Interview persons most familiar with the child </li></ul><ul><li>Review records </li></ul>
    52. 53. 2 3 1 4 7 5 8 * 0 6 9 #
    53. 54. ABC DEF GHI JKL MNO PQRS TUV WXYZ TONE OPER 2 3 1 4 7 5 8 * 0 6 9 #
    54. 55. Behavior Equation Ian is playing with a toy train. Thuy reaches for the train and says “Please.” Ian turns away and says “No.” Thuy hits Ian and grabs the train. Ian begins crying and walks away. Thuy begins playing with the train. What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    55. 56. Finding the Function Ian is playing with a toy train. Thuy reaches for the train and says “Please.” Ian turns away and says “No.” Thuy hits Ian and grabs the train. Ian begins crying and walks away. Thuy begins playing with the train. Possible Function: Get Toy
    56. 57. Behavior Equation + Function Ian is playing with a toy train. Thuy reaches for the train and says “Please.” Ian turns away and says “No.” Thuy hits Ian and grabs the train. Ian begins crying and walks away. Thuy begins playing with the train. Possible Function: Get Toy What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    57. 58. Behavior Equation Joey is asked to come to circle. Teacher provides physical prompt to move him to group. Joey resists, cries, and hits teacher. Teacher moves away from Joey and allows Joey to select a different activity. What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    58. 59. Behavior Equation + Function Joey is asked to come to circle. Teacher provides physical prompt to move him to group. Joey resists, cries, and hits teacher. Teacher moves away from Joey and allows Joey to select a different activity. <ul><li>Possible Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid circle </li></ul><ul><li>Continue existing activity </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid adult prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Do a different activity </li></ul>What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    59. 60. Evan <ul><li>Evan is playing with Duplos. He tries to attach a block to his stack of 3. He can’t quite get the blocks to connect. He looks up at the adult and begins fussing. He holds the stack of blocks up, looks at the blocks, and looks at the adult. The adult helps him put the blocks together. </li></ul>
    60. 61. Evan Playing with Duplos, can’t connect blocks. Possible Function: Get help Looks up at adult, fusses, holds up blocks, looks at block/adult. Adult helps put blocks together. What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    61. 62. Shana <ul><li>Shana is sitting in her high chair with nothing on the tray. Her mother is stirring her oatmeal. Shana begins crying and bangs her head on the back of the seat. Her mother says to her, &quot;It's not cool enough, honey; just a minute.&quot; Shana stops crying when the oatmeal is placed on her tray . </li></ul>
    62. 63. Shana Mom says, “It’s not cool enough, just a minute,” then gives oatmeal. Sitting in high chair with nothing on tray, mom stirring oatmeal. Cries, bangs head. Possible Function: Get Oatmeal Get Attention What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    63. 64. Gabriella <ul><li>Gabriella is playing in her room. Her mom says, “Come on Gabriella. Time to go to school.” Her mom pulls on her arm to try to get Gabriella to stand and go to the car. Gabriella yells, screams, and begins kicking at her toys. Her mother says, “All right, 5 more minutes. But then we must go.” Gabriella’s mom walks away, and Gabriella continues playing with her toys. </li></ul>
    64. 65. Gabriella Possible Function: Escapes-prolong transition Playing in room, time to get in car for school. Mom pulls on arm to get to stand. Mom gives her 5 more minutes of play time. Yells, screams, kicks at toys. What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    65. 66. Luis <ul><li>Luis is riding a trike on the playground bike path. He sees a child move to the sandbox where Luis had just finished building a road-way. He leaps off his trike and tackles the child. He hits the child. An adult comes over to intervene. She comforts the child and scolds Luis. Luis goes to the sandbox and continues construction on his road-way. </li></ul>
    66. 67. Luis A child moves to the sandbox where Luis has just built something. Tackles and hits child. Adult intervenes and scolds Luis, comforts other child. Luis continues road-way. Possible Function: Get Toy What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    67. 68. Madison <ul><li>Madison is in housekeeping, putting on high heels and a hat. Emily moves into the area and selects a purse from the dress-ups box. Madison shouts “no” and bites Emily. A teacher comes over; she asks Madison to go to the thinking chair and takes Emily to the bathroom to look at the bite. After 4 minutes, Madison leaves the thinking chair and returns to housekeeping. She grabs the purse Emily had selected and continues to play. Emily leaves the bathroom with the teacher and then begins an art activity where the teacher is present. </li></ul>
    68. 69. Madison Another child moves to area and gets a toy (purse). Shouts “no,” bites child. Sent to “thinking chair,” other child consoled, 4 minutes later, Madison leaves chair and returns to play with purse. Possible Function: Avoid Sharing Purse What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence)
    69. 70. How Do We Use The Behavior Equation? <ul><li>We must have enough information to see a pattern </li></ul><ul><li>We want to see a child in multiple settings, with different people, and on different days </li></ul><ul><li>We collect this information on Observation Cards adding a bit of background </li></ul><ul><li>Once we have enough Observation Cards, we can pull together the information for the Behavior Equation Summary </li></ul>
    70. 71. Observation Card Example Possible Function: Escape Art Child’s Name: Kara Observer: Teacher Ana Date: 1/22 Time: 10 am Activity: Choice Time/ Art Location: Art Area What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) Playing alone in house. Teacher comes over to Kara and asks her to come to the art table for art. When she doesn’t respond, the teacher tries to assist her by taking her arm to nudge her to stand. Kara pulls away and begins to protest by saying, “No! I not go to art!” as she pulls away from the teacher. The teacher walks away and says, “I will be back in a few minutes to see if you are ready.”
    71. 72. Video 3a.7: Tim – Before PBS
    72. 73. Observation Card Tim Sample Possible Function: Obtain (Get) Toy Child’s Name: Tim Observer: Teacher Joel Date: 1/22 Time: 10 am Activity: Small Group Time Location: Small Block Area What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) Playing alongside three other children with small one-inch blocks, some small dolls, and wheeled toys. Maya takes some of the one-inch blocks that were close to Tim while his back was turned. Joey warns Maya that those are Tim’s. Tim hears, turns around and moves toward Maya Tim reaches for the block. When Maya pulls her arm away and protests, Tim straddles her and begins pulling her hair with both hands. Maya looks to adult for help.
    73. 74. Practice Makes Permanent <ul><li>Time to practice! </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s watch some children in action and capture the information </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll use the observation cards for practice </li></ul><ul><li>Write in whatever language is more comfortable for you </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling doesn’t count! </li></ul>
    74. 75. Video 3a.10: Observation Vignette #1
    75. 76. Observation Card Tim #1 Possible Function: Initiate social interaction/join play Child’s Name: Tim Observer: Teacher Joel Date: 1/22 Time: 10 am Activity: Choice Time Location: Block Area What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) Playing alone in block play. Goes over to a group of children playing. Tim sticks out his tongue and makes raspberry sound, hits boy, scratches his shoulder. Boy yells at him, friend brings him a lizard, boy yells to teacher.
    76. 77. Video 3a.11: Observation Vignette #2
    77. 78. Observation Card Tim #2 Possible Function: Obtain the toy (same truck) Child’s Name: Tim Observer: Teacher Ana Date: 1/22 Time: 10 am Activity: Free Play Location: Outside in sand box What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) Playing near two other children. Girl goes to basket and gets truck just like the other child’s truck. He tries to take her truck, shoves, pushes, and continues tugging for toy. Gets toy for a second, continues to fight girl for toy, teacher reprimands and carries him away.
    78. 79. Video 3a.12: Observation Vignette #3
    79. 80. Observation Card Brendan #1 Possible Function: Obtain computer/ adult attention Child’s Name: Brendan Observer: Dad Date: 1/22 Time: 10 am Activity: Computer Time Location: Home Office What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) Brother Josh is having a turn at the computer. Brother sits. Mom says “1. Josh, 2. Brendan.” Brendan says, “It’s Brendan’s turn.” Brendan yells, falls to ground, pulls chair, kicks, cries. Josh protests, Mother says, “Do you want me to carry you?” Brendan says,“Carry me.” She carries him away.
    80. 81. Video 3a.13: Observation Vignette #4
    81. 82. Observation Card Brendan #2 Possible Function: Escape/avoid going into the library (prolonged) (and adult attention) Child’s Name: Brendan Observer: Teacher Ana Date: 1/22 Time: 10 am Activity: Entering Library Location: Entrance to Library What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) Mother says, “Let’s go inside.” Then she counts down. Brendan. drops to floor, resists moving, screams, kicks, tries to run, drops, resists, screams, becomes “wet noodle.” Mother pulls him through doors then picks him up as he resists.
    82. 83. Video 3a.14: Observation Vignette #5
    83. 84. Observation Card Ryan #1 Possible Function: Adult attention Child’s Name: Ryan Observer: Teacher Ana Date: 1/22 Time: 10 am Activity: End of Circle Time Location: Rug area What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) Teacher kisses children’s cheeks with puppet. Says, “Say good-bye to MiMi.” Teacher gets up to put away puppet. Ryan begins hitting himself on head with fist, pull at shirt. Adult says “Ready to dance? Want to dance Ryan?” Goes and sits in her lap and is smiling.
    84. 85. Video 3a.15: Observation Vignette #6
    85. 86. Observation Card Ryan #2 Possible Function: Adult attention Child’s Name: Ryan Observer: Teacher Ana Date: 1/22 Time: 10 am Activity: Center Time Location: Quiet corner What Happened Just Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) Teacher helps Ryan to sit then walks away to find him a toy while saying, “Let Ms. Genie get you some balls.” Ryan pulls arm out of shirt, hits self on head with fist, thrusts backwards, pulls at shirt, kicks. Teacher returns, talks to Ryan, helps him get shirt back on, and hugs him.
    86. 87. Drawing From Observation Cards <ul><li>In group play situations (outside play/centers), Tim uses verbal aggression (threats), physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch), and property destruction (throwing or banging toys) to obtain toys and/or join play. When this occurs, the peer relinquishes (give up) the desired toy and leaves the play area and/or an adult intervenes and provides Tim with excessive negative attention. </li></ul>
    87. 88. Summarizing Observations Function: Why? What Happened Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) What is the common element or situation across observations? How do you generally describe the primary behavior(s)? What is the usual response? What typically happens?
    88. 89. Getting to the Function “The Why” <ul><li>Tim engaged in challenging behavior: </li></ul><ul><li>In an attempt to get peer or teacher attention </li></ul><ul><li>In an attempt to obtain or keep a desired toy or activity </li></ul><ul><li>In an attempt to initiate social interaction </li></ul>
    89. 90. Tim Function: Obtain toys/Play What Happened Before? (Trigger) What Behavior(s) Occurred? What Happened Just After? (Maintaining Consequence) <ul><li>Group play: centers and outside play </li></ul>Verbal aggression (threats), physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch), property destruction <ul><li>Peers give up toys/items </li></ul><ul><li>Peers leave area </li></ul><ul><li>Adults intervene with negative attention on Tim </li></ul>
    90. 91. Tim’s PB Support Planning Chart - First Step Function : obtain toy/play Trigger (What Happens Before) Behavior Maintaining Consequence (What Happens After ) <ul><li>Group play: centers and outside play </li></ul>Verbal aggression (threats), physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch), property destruction <ul><li>Peers give up toys/items </li></ul><ul><li>Peers leave area </li></ul><ul><li>Adults intervene with negative attention on Tim </li></ul>Preventions New Skills New Responses
    91. 92. Setting Event <ul><li>Event that occurs at another time that increases the likelihood the child will have challenging behavior. Setting events serve to “set the child up” to have challenging behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatically changed morning routine (parent’s out of town, aunt is staying with the child) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth of a new sibling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being with a different custodial parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many more… </li></ul></ul>
    92. 93. Behavior Equation Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program. Quan moves his picture to indicate that he is next. Quan observes and waits for his turn. Child leaves computer and Quan sits down and begins working. Function: Get computer Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence
    93. 94. Behavior Equation Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program. Quan moves his picture to indicate that he is next. Quan observes and waits for his turn. Child leaves computer and Quan sits down and begins working. Function: Get computer Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence Quan was up most the night with an asthma attack. He arrives at school looking sleepy and with dark circles under his eyes.
    94. 95. Summary Statements <ul><li>Take from the many Observation Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers of the challenging behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Description of the challenging behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Responses that maintain the challenging behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reveals the </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose or function of the behavior </li></ul>
    95. 96. What is the Function? <ul><li>Billy will initiate a chase game or request to be held by pulling the adult’s hand or positioning the adult. If the adult does not comply, Billy will cry loudly, scream, and bring his hands to his face or ears. Often the adult will comply with his request or pick him up. </li></ul>
    96. 97. Not Sure About the Function? <ul><li>What would make the challenging behavior stop ? Is it something you would provide or allow the child to access? Or is there something to remove? Or can you allow the child to leave? </li></ul><ul><li>If still unsure, collect more data in the same context. </li></ul><ul><li>Some challenging behavior may have the same form but serve multiple functions . </li></ul><ul><li>Some challenging behaviors may begin around one function (e.g., escape) and continue to serve another function (e.g., gain attention). </li></ul>
    97. 98. Summary Statement + Function <ul><li>Billy uses tantrums to request a social interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Billy will initiate a chase game or request to be held by pulling the adult’s hand or positioning the adult. If the adult does not comply, Billy will cry loudly, scream, and bring his hands to his face or ears. Often the adult will comply with his request or pick him up. </li></ul>
    98. 99. What is the Function? <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>When she is asked to transition from an activity (e.g., playing in the sandbox) to another activity, she will whine, cry, pretend to vomit, slap at the adult, and scream. When she does this, the adult lets her stay a little longer with the original activity or picks her up kicking and screaming. </li></ul>
    99. 100. Summary Statement + Function <ul><li>Marcia tantrums to escape moving to a new activity. </li></ul><ul><li>When she is asked to transition from an activity (e.g., playing in the sandbox) to another activity, she will whine, cry, pretend to vomit, slap at the adult, and scream. When she does this, the adult lets her stay a little longer with the original activity or picks her up kicking and screaming. </li></ul>
    100. 101. Functional Assessment Interview <ul><li>Define behavior (describe what you see) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe frequency and intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Explore possible setting events </li></ul><ul><li>Identify predictors (triggers) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify maintaining consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Identify current communicative functions </li></ul><ul><li>Describe efficiency of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Describe previous efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Identify possible reinforcers </li></ul>
    101. 102. Video 3a.8: Tim – With PBS
    102. 103. Video 3a.9: Importance of PBS
    103. 104. Tim’s Plan ~ Prevention <ul><li>Trigger(s)/Social Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group play situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing toys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-teach skills via social story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual cards to help him remember lessons when in difficult situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring form to work on social goals </li></ul></ul>
    104. 105. Tim’s Plan ~ New Skills <ul><li>Old Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal aggression (threats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property destruction (throwing or banging toys) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Skills (Replacement Skills) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking to play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone can play with the toys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility, accepting other’s ideas/space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking for teacher’s help </li></ul></ul>
    105. 106. Tim’s Plan ~ Responses <ul><li>Maintaining Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer relinquishes the desired toy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer leaves the play area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An adult intervenes and provides Tim with excessive negative attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responses (to new behavior & old behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediately respond to his requests for help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt new behavior using cue cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervene to prevent harm by providing attention/support to child who is attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide certificate and praise at end of each day for successfully achieving goals. Fade certificate. </li></ul></ul>
    106. 107. Tim’s PB Support Planning Chart - Second Step Function : obtain toy/play Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence <ul><li>Group play: centers and outside play </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Events (if applicable): </li></ul>Verbal aggression (threats), physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch), property destruction <ul><li>Peers give up toys/items </li></ul><ul><li>Peers leave area </li></ul><ul><li>Adults intervene with negative attention on Tim </li></ul>Preventions New Skills New Responses <ul><ul><li>Pre-teach skills via social story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual cards to help him remember lessons when in difficult situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring form to work on social goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking to play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone can play with the toys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility, accepting other’s ideas/space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking for teacher’s help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediately respond to his requests for help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt new behavior with cue cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervene to prevent harm by providing attention/support to child who is attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide certificate and praise at end of each day for successfully achieving goals. Fade certificate. </li></ul></ul>
    107. 108. Getting Information From Home <ul><li>Interview the family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have ongoing conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use “My Teacher Wants to Know” as a way to help family members organize their thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are observation tools for parents to use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of “My Teacher Wants to Know” includes a chart like the top of the Child Success Support Team Planning Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can use other simple observation cards </li></ul></ul>
    108. 109. Summarizing <ul><li>Challenging behavior has meaning for the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Children use behavior to access something or someone (obtain/request) or avoid something or someone (escape/protest). </li></ul><ul><li>The process of Functional Assessment is used to determine the function or purpose of challenging behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Part one of the Student Success Team Positive Behavior Planning Chart describe what happens before (triggers), challenging behavior, what happens after (maintaining consequences), and the function of the behavior. </li></ul>
    109. 110. So What Will You Do Next? <ul><li>Time to meet in your school groups and discuss how the information from this afternoon gets adapted for and implemented at your site </li></ul><ul><li>We will reconvene for Continuous Improvement </li></ul>
    110. 111. Continuous Improvement <ul><li>Liked the videos </li></ul><ul><li>Dissecting the videos </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing the past two months </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Cards </li></ul><ul><li>New ideas for how to get the information </li></ul><ul><li>Three A’s </li></ul><ul><li>Food!! </li></ul><ul><li>Come in later… </li></ul><ul><li>Working lunch </li></ul><ul><li>More comfortable seats </li></ul><ul><li>Skipping the afternoon break and getting out earlier </li></ul>
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