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Why open education matters in South Africa
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Why open education matters in South Africa

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A presentation at Tedx Ed Cape Town June 2012 about open education (especially open content), why it matters, and what needs to be done

A presentation at Tedx Ed Cape Town June 2012 about open education (especially open content), why it matters, and what needs to be done

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  • 26 th June 1955, Those writing The Freedom Charter said” The Doors of Learning and Culture Shall be Opened!” What would they have thought about what opening educationmeans today?
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5535034664/sizes/o/in/photostream/Many dimensions to open education
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jannemei/1023015396/sizes/o/in/photostream/http://www.flickr.com/photos/jannemei/1023015396/Can be overwhelming
  • Two key- research and teaching
  • All kinds of content which can be useful for education, both formal content and informal
  • Seer and prophet whose ill health led to utilisation of plants for therapeutic purpose. Could not read or write, but visions recorded by spiritual director and Church granted permission to share. Despite illiteracy entered into considerable correspondence across Europe helping physical/spiritual ailment. “The labours of knowledge must have public benefit.”
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJWbVt2Nc-IDegreed Why Open Education mattersEquity, access, freedom,, democratisation of knowledge, moral imperative
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/adamcrowe/620058057/The coreAt the center of the Internet are about 80 core nodes through which most traffic flows. Remove the core, and 70 percent of the other nodes are still able to function through peer-to-peer connections.Credit: Lanet-vi program of I. Alvarez-Hamelin et al.Notes about internetIt is an infrastructure, web runs on top of itProvides a huge amount of information (550 million websites , acc to http://www.onlineeducation.net/world-without-internet)Changes the way dissemination happens, file sharing becomes EASY and cheapMuch more access to information, sharing of information much easierVia: www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/18944/2.1 billion – Internet users worldwide. 922.2 million – Internet users in Asia. 476.2 million – Internet users in Europe. 271.1 million – Internet users in North America. 215.9 million – Internet users in Latin America / Caribbean. 118.6 million – Internet users in Africa.
  • Steve Song April 2012Technological infrastructure is becoming less of a problem
  • Mobile cell coverage is at nearly 90%, and there were 101 mobile cell subscriptions per 100 people in South Africa in 2010, according to the World Bank. See World Bank Data http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2SA has 45 million active cell phones (population 49 million) – ranking in the top 5 globally in terms of cell phone coverage. http://www.sagoodnews.co.za/newsletter_archive/sas_global_rankings_are_we_in_for_a_big_surprise_part_3_.htmlOpportunity for inclusivity
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/63009926/http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/63009926/
  • Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: 469. "As a historical trend, dominant functions and processes in the information age are increasingly organized around networks. Networks constitute the new social morphology of our societies, and the diffusion of networking logic substantially modifies the operations and outcomes in processes of production, experience of power and culture".In the past, social networks were more limited in different spheres. Networks were more exclusive. The Internet changed the nature of networks by making them more inclusive and easy to participate in.Thanks to Leslie Chan
  • Open is not binaryIt’s a continuum, a spectrumNot Binary, Closed or openFlexible modelDifferent levels of controlSpectrum members of the Open.Michigan team includingGarinFons, Pieter Kleymeer, Kathleen Ludewig, Susan Topol, and Greg Grossmeier
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/planetina/405489316/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  • Openness provides the key to unlock the knowledge that is currently accessible to very few, especially in South Africa
  • http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2012/04/funding/coping-with-the-terrible-twins-periodicals-price-survey-2012/Coping with the Terrible Twins | Periodicals Price Survey 2012By LJ on April 30, 201
  • http://www.righttoresearch.org/learn/whyOA/index.shtml
  • If this test had been made available in a closed journal (the HS was 1600$ a title), the lead time for publication would be really slow , the lag means that lives are lost. Openess means immediacy . This literally means that open content can save lives.
  • Knowledge production
  • Publishing and disseminating books in a print context is really difficult and expensive, and distributing across borders a vexed process.
  • Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: 469. "As a historical trend, dominant functions and processes in the information age are increasingly organized around networks. Networks constitute the new social morphology of our societies, and the diffusion of networking logic substantially modifies the operations and outcomes in processes of production, experience of power and culture".In the past, social networks were more limited in different spheres. Networks were more exclusive. The Internet changed the nature of networks by making them more inclusive and easy to participate.
  • Explain!
  • ead the articles on opensource.com2 reasons why the term "crowdsourcing" bugs meWhy the open source way trumps the crowdsourcing wayDo you aspire to build a brand community or a community brand?Does your organization think like Ptolemy?Ten ways our world is becoming more SharableCrowdsourced ideas make participating in government cool againCreated by Libby Levi for opensource.comhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4370250237/in/set-72157623343013541
  • Mark Graham March 2012This is content being put online from the south. Wikipedia content- 6th most popular web site etc
  • “This and past studies show the importance of publicly funded and academic research for private sector innovation and …performance…”Crisis of unemployment, SME touted as the solution, they don’t have R&D funds, open access to content is even more critical in South Africa.
  • Good news for academics
  • Stacey Stent
  • Thanks to Sam Gross’ New Yorker cartoon
  • Academics need their work to be available and read in order to make this impact, read and citations are the measure of this
  • Things as they are have to change, business as usual has met a dead end. Created by Critter for opensource.comhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5161094177/in/set-72157623343013541
  • We need to know how to engage with open content, as educators and students, the critical information literacy is more important than ever , it is foundational in a networked society
  • http://education-copyright.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Finding%20Open%20Stuff%20General%202012.pptx
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5538035556/in/set-72157625612605617Image source:www.flickr.com/photos/horiavarlan/4268897748/www.flickr.com/photos/11247304@N06/1340979055/Created by Libby Levi for opensource.com
  • If Uruguay can do it why can’t we
  • http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/intelligent-energy/a-solar-powered-tablet-for-every-child/11981Tablet could come with a built in library, plus access to more open content
  • Turn green papers into leguslation
  • "Determine ways to provide support for the production and sharing of learning materials asOER at higher education institutions" (p27) Distance Ed frameworkCT and open learning The Green Paper promotes the central role of ICT in delivering effective teaching and learning and increasing institutional capacity in this regard. Of particular interest is the proposal that learning resources should be made available as open educational resources (p. 57, 59), and the Green Paper declares an interest in a government-managed development programme for open textbooks (p. 43; 60)[2]. In making this proposal, the document explicitly refers to the UNESCO initiative for the promotion of OER policies in member nations[3].However, the Green Paper does not address open access and open research.IP policy development In the light of these provisions for the adoption of OER, the Green Paper calls for supporting IPR policy development, suggesting ‘the adoption or adaptation, in accordance with national needs, of an appropriate Open Licensing Framework for use by all education stakeholders, within an overarching policy framework on intellectual property rights and copyright in higher education’ (p. 60).
  • This file is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.Address by NalediPandor MP, Minister of Science and Technology, at thelaunch of the Mandela Digital Archive Project, 27 March 2012
  • As the Charter says, The Doors of Learning and Culture Shall be Opened!With open education we will have the world at our feet
  • Transcript

    • 1. Open educationWhy it matters to South Africa
    • 2. • Open scholarship • Open access • Open licensing • Open education practices • Open education resources • Open source • Open data • Open research • Open science • Open web • Open knowledgehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5535034664/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • 3. ttp://www.flickr.com/photos/jannemei/1023015396/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • 4. OPEN CONTENTPublished open license or public domain Free for the user
    • 5. Books Study guides Journal articles Course readings Notes Images AnimationsRecorded lectures/classes Podcasts Reading lists Textbooks Blogs Reviews ReportsConference presentations
    • 6. An old tradition “The labours of knowledge must have public benefit.” St Hildegard , Seer 1098-1179
    • 7. ENABLERS OF OPENNESS
    • 8. Steve Song April 2012
    • 9. The network society
    • 10. Networks constitute the new social morphology of our societies, and the diffusion of networking logic substantially modifies the operations and outcomes in processes of production, experience of power and cultureCastells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society.
    • 11. Enabling legal frameworks
    • 12. BENEFITS OF OPENNESS
    • 13. Openness is like sunshinehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/pixthepixie/188345043/sizes/z/in/photostream/
    • 14. Openness exposes content online and enables growthhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/planetina/405489316/sizes/o/in/photostream/ Thanks to Amber Thomas
    • 15. ACCESS TO KNOWLEDGE For everyone Scholars Students Policy makers Civil society
    • 16. But scholarly resourcesare locked away in expensive journals
    • 17. Alternative: open content 2000+ 30% of journals
    • 18. OPENNESS ENABLES DEVELOPMENT doctors farmers civil society the public government itself
    • 19. “….too many doctorsand patients aremaking decisionswithout the benefit ofthe latest research.” Obama 2009
    • 20. A case: the sleeping sickness test• Njiru ZK, Mikosza ASJ, Armstrong T, Enyaru JC, Ndungu JM, et al. (2008) Loop- Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Method for Rapid Detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2(2): e147. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000147
    • 21. OPENNESS ENABLES PARTICIPATION
    • 22. African universities are essentially consumers of knowledge produced in developed countries.Minister of Higher Education, Blade NzimandeUNESCO Conference on Higher Education, 2009
    • 23. Books publishedthe opposite of open is “broken”
    • 24. In the past, social networks were more limited in different spheres. Networks were more exclusive. The Internet changed the nature of networks by making them more inclusive and easy to participate in.Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society.
    • 25. Conventional north – south relationships
    • 26. …can be replaced with networked relationships
    • 27. OPENNESS ENABLES INNOVATION
    • 28. Open access benefits the private sectorHoughton, J; Swan, A & Brown, S (2011)
    • 29. OPENNESS INCREASES VISIBILITY
    • 30. My question is “Am I making an impact?”http://www.flickr.com/photos/cindy_mc/6967806783/ Thanks to Sam Gross
    • 31. Open access increases citations by 45% - 600%http://www.flickr.com/photos/87913776@N00/5129607997 CC-BY
    • 32. A rising tide globally A RISING TIDE elsewhere CC Brian Colson http://www.flickr.com/photos/bpc009/3456099658/
    • 33. United Kingdom We will make publicly funded academic research free of charge to readers. . . .Science Minister Willits 2 May 2012
    • 34. European Union
    • 35. WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?
    • 36. Be open scholars & educators Stacey Stent
    • 37. Create open resourceshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/recyclethis/185807557/in/photostream
    • 38. LEGISLATEOpen content with public funds
    • 39. The more we all have direct access to information and knowledge, the better our lives will be…. ….Information and knowledge are valuable and are not generally online for free….. …the DST is championing the open access route in South Africaarkus Possel Naledi Pandor, Minister of Science and Technology, March 2012
    • 40. LAURACZERNIEWICZ.UCT.AC.ZA @czernie

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