DISAGGREGATION
IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
EXPLANATIONS & IMPLICATIONS
Laura Czerniewicz
8th
International Conference on E-Le...
THE CONTEXT
Higher Education Trends
GLOBAL TRENDS
o Massification
• 2000-2008 enrolments from 100 million to
150 million students
• Implications include
• Fin...
GLOBAL TRENDS
o Cuts in government funding
• E.g. UK , California system
• Effects of financial crisis throughout system
o...
TRENDS IN AFRICA
o Massive increases in student numbers
• 1991-2006 increase from 2.7 million to
9.3 million students
• 20...
TRENDS IN AFRICA
o Challenges include
• Shortages of resources, infrastructure, funds
• Staff teaching in both public & pr...
TRENDS IN SOUTH AFRICA
o Gross enrolment rate (no of students at particular level)
• 16%, Low internationally, & consideri...
TRENDS IN SOUTH AFRICA
o Low participation high attrition system
o Throughput & success critical concerns
o Serious divide...
TECHNOLOGY
o Pervasive
• A cause of change in the higher education
environment
• Seen as solution for higher education
pro...
THE CONTEXT
Affordances of the digital
AFFORDANCES
o …the properties and possibilities inherent
in a technology making certain uses
and behaviours possible and o...
DIGITAL CONTENT
o Granular
o Dynamic
o Non-linear
o Device-agnostic
o Free & easy to share
• Sharing means multiplying not...
THE STATUS QUO
Teaching and learning
Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
Content
SINGLE PACKAGE
Time Space
DISAGGREGATION
Content
Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
Time Platform
DISAGGREGATION
Content
Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
Time Platform
DIGITAL CONTENT
o From products to services
• From tangible to intangible
• Control no longer with customer when
purchased...
Authorised
Digital
Analogue
Unauthorised
Textbooks
Some
photocopying
E-
TextbooksOpen
Education
Resources
Photocopying
Pir...
OPEN CONTENT
o Free to user
• To download (gratis)
• To re-use & remix (libre)
o Available under an open license
or public...
OPEN CONTENT
o From small chunks to whole courses
o May include some inbuilt pedagogical
aspects
o Stand alone
o Abundance...
CHANGES IN TEACHING &
LEARNING
Content
Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
Time Place
On campus Remote
Internet
supported
Fully online
F2F only
MOOCsFormsofprovision
Location
of students
Internet
dependent
On...
http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/sheilamacneill/2013/03/19/preparing-for-the-second-wave/
  Open content MOOC Online course
Cost to user
(for access)
Scale
Entrance
requirements
Providers
Analytics and
automation...
THE VALUE OF MOOCS
o The jury is out
But
o They have served to legitimise online
learning
DISAGGREGATION
Content
Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
Time Place
DISAGGREGATION
Content
Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
Time Platform
http://www.deltainitiative.com/bloggers/author-phil-hill/snapshot-of-lms-market-for-large-online-programs-in-the-us-2
DISAGGREGATION
Content
Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
Time Platform
CERTIFICATION
BADGES
o Micro, granular certification
o Some sort of formal(ised) recognition
• for informal learning processes
• for chu...
PRIVATE ASSESSMENT
If
content is open
and
the course/interaction is increasingly
out- sourced to the private sector
& certification is taking...
WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH
SAY
about teaching, learning & technology?
WHAT THE RESEARCH SAYS
About teaching and learning - a lot
About distance education - a lot
About online learning - quite ...
TEACHING AND LEARNING
What we know
WHAT WE KNOW
o We know what our key challenges are
• Diversity of academic readiness
• Inequality
• Throughput rates
o We ...
WHAT WE KNOW --
ENGAGEMENT
o Learning is more likely to happen when
students are actively engaged
WHAT WE KNOW - MEDIATION
o Learning requires mediation
WHAT WE KNOW ---
ALIGNMENT
o We are more likely to get the learning
outcomes we want when the curriculum is
aligned
• and ...
WHAT WE KNOW – FLEXIBILITY
o Learning is more likely to be successful
where the teaching is cognizant of what
students bri...
WHAT WE KNOW --
TRANSFORMATION
o Learning involves some degree of
transformation of self.
Knowing
Acting
Being
..students ...
F2F Blended Fully on-
line
Engagement ✓ ✓ ✓
Mediation ✓ ✓ ?
Alignment x ? ?
Flexibility X ✓ ?
Transformation ✓ ✓ ?
THE TES...
DIVERSITY?
STUDENTS ONLINE
o Surveyed 40 000 students in
nearly 500 000 courses
o Findings
• …While all types of students ...
HOW WILL GOOD LEARNING
HAPPEN
in a disaggregated environment?
PLAYERS IN HE LANDSCAPE
o New players (& roles)
• For profit educational / service providers
• Eg Coursera
• Non-profit ed...
http://chronicle.com/article/Major-Players-in-the-MOOC/138817/
FUNDERS
WITH
INTERESTS
INCREASED PRIVATE SECTOR
INVOLVEMENT
http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/
VALUES & CONTROL?
o Values
• Private sector imperatives
vs
• Higher education as a public good
o Control
• How much & whic...
MANY CLAIMS
..the budding
revolution in
online
education.
Nothing has
more potential
to lift more
people out of
poverty-
Friedman 2013...
THE IRON TRIANGLE
Quality
CostAccess
In the f2f classroom none
can be stretched without
damaging the other
In the digitall...
IT IS UP TO US TO TAKE CONTROL
The disaggregated teaching and learning
landscape will make a difference
to higher education
THANK YOU
Laura Czerniewicz
@czernie
http://openuct.uct.ac.za
Laura.czerniewicz@uct.ac.za
http://lauraczerniewicz.uct.ac.za
REFERENCES
o Altbach, P (2011) The Past, Present, and Future of the Research University in Altbach, P
and Salmi, J (Eds) 2...
Czerniewicz disaggregation in teaching and learning explanations & implications
Czerniewicz disaggregation in teaching and learning explanations & implications
Czerniewicz disaggregation in teaching and learning explanations & implications
Czerniewicz disaggregation in teaching and learning explanations & implications
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Czerniewicz disaggregation in teaching and learning explanations & implications

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Presentation of keynote at 8th International E-learning Conference, June 2013, about the changing nature of teaching and learning in higher education, and its implications

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  • Open content can include whole courses…show UCT Physics…. This is not a taught course with a taught community….
  • Coursera’s fees will vary, depending on the size of the class. For a large course, universities would pay about $8 a student to use the Coursera platform. In addition, for use of content developed at a different university, Coursera would charge $30 to $60 per student per course. A version of this article appeared in print on May 30, 2013, on page A15 of the New York edition with the headline: Universities Team With Online Course Provider.
  • Traditional colleges and universities are considering badges and other alternative credentials as well. In December the Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced that it will create MITx, a self-service learning system in which students can take online tests and earn certificates after watching free course materials posted by the university. MIT also has an arrangement with a company called OpenStudy, which runs online study groups, to give online badges to students who give consistently useful answers in discussion forums set up around the free lecture materials the university has long posted as part of its OpenCourseWare project Hundreds of educational institutions, traditional and nontraditional, have flocked to a $2-million grant program run in coordination with the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, seeking financial support to experiment with the educational-badge platform. The University of Southern California's service-learning division, for example, is among the first-round winners of the MacArthur grant to try the new badge platform. Called the Joint Educational Project, the USC program works with professors to run community-service projects that grant students extra credit for volunteer work. "The service-learning community has struggled with how to identify and recognize the outcomes that students learn, like civic knowledge and diversity," explains Susan Harris, an associate director of the project. One of its proposed badges would recognize "Mentorship." Ms. Harris hopes such a badge would carry more cachet than simply listing volunteer work on a résumé.
  • http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/
  • http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/27/opinion/sunday/friedman-revolution-hits-the-universities.html?_r=0 By THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN Published: January 26, 2013 283 Comments
  • Can stretch triangle by broadening access and increasing numbers while keeping total cost and quality similar (per-student cost goes down). Why there are private sector players: profit opportunities (return on investment) opened up. c/f Baumol’s cost disease and productivity http://musicfordeckchairs.wordpress.com/2013/06/02/business-as-usual/
  • Czerniewicz disaggregation in teaching and learning explanations & implications

    1. 1. DISAGGREGATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING EXPLANATIONS & IMPLICATIONS Laura Czerniewicz 8th International Conference on E-Learning 27 June 2013
    2. 2. THE CONTEXT Higher Education Trends
    3. 3. GLOBAL TRENDS o Massification • 2000-2008 enrolments from 100 million to 150 million students • Implications include • Financial challenges • Infrastructure challenges • Quality questions • More graduates than the economy can sustain Altbach 2011
    4. 4. GLOBAL TRENDS o Cuts in government funding • E.g. UK , California system • Effects of financial crisis throughout system o The emergence and pressures of the market • Private higher education • Long standing, new forms & effects • Rise of private for profit for teaching only o Tensions of public interest and private sector aims Altbach 2011
    5. 5. TRENDS IN AFRICA o Massive increases in student numbers • 1991-2006 increase from 2.7 million to 9.3 million students • 2015 projections of 18-20 million (World Bank) o Gross underfunding of higher education o Huge rise in number of private providers • Soon more than public institutions Jegede 2012
    6. 6. TRENDS IN AFRICA o Challenges include • Shortages of resources, infrastructure, funds • Staff teaching in both public & private universities affecting quality & performance • Privates focusing on marketable courses (reducing revenue for public universities) • Absence of research (affects quality of teaching) Jegede 2012
    7. 7. TRENDS IN SOUTH AFRICA o Gross enrolment rate (no of students at particular level) • 16%, Low internationally, & considering 700 000 matriculants qualifying for HE o Low participation - high attrition system o Throughput & success critical concerns o Serious divides continue • Participation rates over 50% for white students, 13% for African students • White students twice as likely to graduate in 5 years • Only 5% of African youth succeed in any form of higher education o 1st year attrition • 40% of 1st year students leave HE Fisher & Scott 2011, Letseka & Maile 2008.
    8. 8. TRENDS IN SOUTH AFRICA o Low participation high attrition system o Throughput & success critical concerns o Serious divides continue • Participation rates over 50% for white students, 13% for African students • White students twice as likely to graduate in 5 years • Only 5% of African youth succeed in any form of higher education o 1st year attrition • 40% of 1st year students leave HE Fisher & Scott 2011 Letseka & Maile 2008. 2013
    9. 9. TECHNOLOGY o Pervasive • A cause of change in the higher education environment • Seen as solution for higher education problems • Mediating all higher education practices
    10. 10. THE CONTEXT Affordances of the digital
    11. 11. AFFORDANCES o …the properties and possibilities inherent in a technology making certain uses and behaviours possible and others unlikely or impossible o .. how the characteristics and qualities of different technologies can be instantiated in different contexts, & through users’ individual preferences and interactions
    12. 12. DIGITAL CONTENT o Granular o Dynamic o Non-linear o Device-agnostic o Free & easy to share • Sharing means multiplying not dividing o Communication visible • a form of content
    13. 13. THE STATUS QUO Teaching and learning
    14. 14. Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Content SINGLE PACKAGE Time Space
    15. 15. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Time Platform
    16. 16. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Time Platform
    17. 17. DIGITAL CONTENT o From products to services • From tangible to intangible • Control no longer with customer when purchased • From ownership to access/license o Intermediary - platforms • Services via an intermediary • May need to buy the platform, or access to the platform, not the content
    18. 18. Authorised Digital Analogue Unauthorised Textbooks Some photocopying E- TextbooksOpen Education Resources Photocopying Pirate sites File sharing ACCESS TO LEARNING CONTENT
    19. 19. OPEN CONTENT o Free to user • To download (gratis) • To re-use & remix (libre) o Available under an open license or public domain o Grants permissions not copyright
    20. 20. OPEN CONTENT o From small chunks to whole courses o May include some inbuilt pedagogical aspects o Stand alone o Abundance, not scarcity
    21. 21. CHANGES IN TEACHING & LEARNING Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Time Place
    22. 22. On campus Remote Internet supported Fully online F2F only MOOCsFormsofprovision Location of students Internet dependent Online- intensive Blended (mixed mode): combines F2F and online
    23. 23. http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/sheilamacneill/2013/03/19/preparing-for-the-second-wave/
    24. 24.   Open content MOOC Online course Cost to user (for access) Scale Entrance requirements Providers Analytics and automation Certification Synchronous (time limits) Copyright Pay to re-use Free Student pays fees Massive Small(er) scale No Yes, as per f2f Residential universities Private-university partnerships Traditionally distance ed providers No, not conventional Equivalent to f2f Yes, important No, or limited Register, start & end date, asynchronous within Register, start & end date, asynchronous within Variable, often proprietary including user generated content Generally proprietary may include open content Free All sizes None All None None None Open license or public domain No Yes, mostly likely Yes
    25. 25. THE VALUE OF MOOCS o The jury is out But o They have served to legitimise online learning
    26. 26. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Place
    27. 27. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Platform
    28. 28. http://www.deltainitiative.com/bloggers/author-phil-hill/snapshot-of-lms-market-for-large-online-programs-in-the-us-2
    29. 29. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Platform
    30. 30. CERTIFICATION
    31. 31. BADGES o Micro, granular certification o Some sort of formal(ised) recognition • for informal learning processes • for chunks of content • for competencies
    32. 32. PRIVATE ASSESSMENT
    33. 33. If content is open and the course/interaction is increasingly out- sourced to the private sector & certification is taking new forms What is the role of the university?
    34. 34. WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH SAY about teaching, learning & technology?
    35. 35. WHAT THE RESEARCH SAYS About teaching and learning - a lot About distance education - a lot About online learning - quite a lot especially from the global north About MOOCs - nearly nothing
    36. 36. TEACHING AND LEARNING What we know
    37. 37. WHAT WE KNOW o We know what our key challenges are • Diversity of academic readiness • Inequality • Throughput rates o We know a lot about what constitutes good learning Shay 2013 Slides 42-48
    38. 38. WHAT WE KNOW -- ENGAGEMENT o Learning is more likely to happen when students are actively engaged
    39. 39. WHAT WE KNOW - MEDIATION o Learning requires mediation
    40. 40. WHAT WE KNOW --- ALIGNMENT o We are more likely to get the learning outcomes we want when the curriculum is aligned • and assessment is key
    41. 41. WHAT WE KNOW – FLEXIBILITY o Learning is more likely to be successful where the teaching is cognizant of what students bring with them: prior knowledge, language, experience o Flexibility- multiple entry points, multiple pathways
    42. 42. WHAT WE KNOW -- TRANSFORMATION o Learning involves some degree of transformation of self. Knowing Acting Being ..students begin to understand the stakes not merely of studying physics or philosophy but of understanding and engaging the world as physicists or philosophers do. They become fully vested in the knowledge they have gathered, which ceases to be something external and becomes a part of who they are (SUES). ..students begin to understand the stakes not merely of studying physics or philosophy but of understanding and engaging the world as physicists or philosophers do. They become fully vested in the knowledge they have gathered, which ceases to be something external and becomes a part of who they are (SUES).
    43. 43. F2F Blended Fully on- line Engagement ✓ ✓ ✓ Mediation ✓ ✓ ? Alignment x ? ? Flexibility X ✓ ? Transformation ✓ ✓ ? THE TEST: pedagogy - technology alignment
    44. 44. DIVERSITY? STUDENTS ONLINE o Surveyed 40 000 students in nearly 500 000 courses o Findings • …While all types of students in the study suffered decrements in performance in online courses, some struggled more than others to adapt: males, younger students, Black students, and students with lower grade point averages Xu and Jaggars’ 2013
    45. 45. HOW WILL GOOD LEARNING HAPPEN in a disaggregated environment?
    46. 46. PLAYERS IN HE LANDSCAPE o New players (& roles) • For profit educational / service providers • Eg Coursera • Non-profit educational providers • eg Ed-X • Varying degrees of expertise in T & L • Eg Futurelearn o New roles for old players • E.g. Educational publishers as providers of services
    47. 47. http://chronicle.com/article/Major-Players-in-the-MOOC/138817/ FUNDERS WITH INTERESTS
    48. 48. INCREASED PRIVATE SECTOR INVOLVEMENT http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/
    49. 49. VALUES & CONTROL? o Values • Private sector imperatives vs • Higher education as a public good o Control • How much & which parts of higher education do universities want to outsource?
    50. 50. MANY CLAIMS
    51. 51. ..the budding revolution in online education. Nothing has more potential to lift more people out of poverty- Friedman 2013 http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/27/opinion/sunday/friedman-revolution-hits-the-universities.html? _r=0
    52. 52. THE IRON TRIANGLE Quality CostAccess In the f2f classroom none can be stretched without damaging the other In the digitally mediated landscape it is possible that these can be stretched Daniel, 2013
    53. 53. IT IS UP TO US TO TAKE CONTROL The disaggregated teaching and learning landscape will make a difference to higher education
    54. 54. THANK YOU Laura Czerniewicz @czernie http://openuct.uct.ac.za Laura.czerniewicz@uct.ac.za http://lauraczerniewicz.uct.ac.za
    55. 55. REFERENCES o Altbach, P (2011) The Past, Present, and Future of the Research University in Altbach, P and Salmi, J (Eds) 2011  The Making of World-Class Research Universities- The Road to Academic Excellence, The World Bank o Daniel, J (2013), Education Across Space and Time, Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, 2013 Summit – Sydney, 4 February 2013 o Fisher G and Scott (2011) ‘The Role of Higher Education in Closing the Skills Gap in South Africa’ The World Bank, Human Development Group, Africa Region, October 2011, Background paper for the World Bank project 'Closing the Skills and Technology Gap in South Africa'. o Jegede, O (2012), The Status of Higher Education in Africa, paper for Panel Discussion in the Launch of Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education- A project of the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) held at the Institute of International Education, New York, , February 1, 2012 o Letseka, M. and Maile, S. 2008. High University drop-out rates: a threat to South Africa’s future. HSRC Policy Brief. www.hsrc.ac.za. o Shay, S (2013) What we Know about Good Learning, presentation at UCT Online Education Workshop, 4 June 2013 o Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to Online Learning: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas,  CCRC Working Paper No. 54. Community College Research Center.
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