DISAGGREGATION
IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
‘Being parties in the work’

A view of the changing digitally-mediated
teaching an...
A University is, according to the
usual designation, an Alma
Mater, knowing her children one
by one, not a foundry, or a m...
THIS TALK
o About technology
• The characteristics of new technologies
• How technology is changing the possible shape of
...
HIGHER EDUCATION UNDER
PRESSURE
o Financial crisis
• Government cuts in many countries
• Under funded and resource constra...
TECHNOLOGY
o Pervasive
• A cause of change in the higher education
environment
• Seen as solution for higher education
pro...
TECHNOLOGY
Principles of new media
Affordances of the digital
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF NEW
MEDIA
o Numerical representation
• new media objects exist as data

o Modularity
• the different...
SOME KEY DIGITAL
AFFORDANCES
o Granular
o Dynamic
o Communication visible
• a form of content

o Sharing - free & easy
• S...
MODULARITY: DISAGGREGATION IN
TEACHING & LEARNING
Disaggregation of
Content
Teaching & learning
interaction
Certification
TRADITIONAL FORM OF TEACHING &
LEARNING
SINGLE PACKAGE
Time

Space
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
DISAGGREGATION
Platform

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
DISAGGREGATION
Platform

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
ACCESS TO LEARNING CONTENT
Analogue
Textbooks
Some
photocopying

Photocopying

Legal

Illegal
ETextbooks
Open
Education
Re...
DIGITAL CONTENT
o From products to services
• From tangible to intangible
• Control no longer with customer when
purchased...
OPEN CONTENT
o Free to user
• To download (gratis)
• To re-use & remix (libre)

o Available under an open license
or publi...
http://www2.macleans.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/music_piracy_small.jpg

http://jmgregoirebooks.com/2013/03/31/show-your...
CHANGES IN TEACHING &
LEARNING
Place

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
MOOCs

Forms of provision

Fully online
Onlineintensive

Blended
(mixed
mode):
Internet
combines dependent
F2F and
online
...
http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/sheilamacneill/2013/03/19/preparing-for-the-second-wave/

…has legitimised online education & dis...
DISAGGREGATION
Place

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
DISAGGREGATION
Platform

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
Free
content

Pay to
access
platform
DISAGGREGATION
Platform

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
CERTIFICATION
BADGES
o Micro, granular certification
o Some sort of formal(ised) recognition
• for informal learning processes
• for chu...
PRIVATE ASSESSMENT
IN SUMMARY
Numerical
representation Learning analytics
New media objects exist as data

Modularity Disaggregation of teach...
IN SUMMARY
A modularised, variable, transcoded
teaching and learning landscape
TECHNOLOGICAL
DETERMINISM?
TECHNOLOGY AND THE
GLOBAL
HIGHER EDUCATION
Increased private sector investment
LANDSCAPE

New opportunities for the privat...
THE INTERNET
The network society
Promises and perils
Dominant functions and processes
in the information age are
increasingly organized around
networks.
Networks constitute th...
In the past, social networks
were more limited in different
spheres. Networks were more
exclusive.
The Internet changed th...
Conventional core– periphery relationships
http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4370250237/in/set-72157623343013541

…can be replaced with networked relationsh...
AT THE SAME TIME
GLOBAL MARKETISATION
DISCOURSE
http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/

INCREASED PRIVATE SECTOR
INVOLVEMENT
THE GLOBAL MARKET PLACE
o Online education is in the hand of
the private sector
• “In the US the for-profit sector has a m...
Source: Kris Olds (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Susan L. Robertson (University of Bristol)
http://www.aca-secretar...
http://chronicle.com/article/Major-Players-in-the-MOOC/138817/

VARIETY
OF
INTERESTS
PLAYERS IN HE LANDSCAPE
o New players
• For profit educational / service providers
• Eg Coursera

• Non-profit educational...
http://techcrunch.com/2013/09/10/google-expands-role-in-digital-education-teams-up-with-edx-to-build-a-youtube-for-free-on...
If you are not paying for the product
you are the product
Access via the
platform
THE GLOBAL MARKET PLACE
o The developing
world as the new
market to solve
crises at northern
universities
GLOBAL REACH

http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/globalhighered/mapping-courseras-global-footprint
https://www.edx.org/press/queen-rania-foundation-partners-edx
MODELS- MONETISATION
Traditional

New model
(MOOC)

Fees to
enter

Pay

No

Entrance
requirement

Yes

No

Content

May be...
MODELS- MONETISATION
Traditional

New model
(MOOC)

Fees to
enter

Pay

No

Entrance
requirement

Yes

No

Content

May be...
MODELS- MONETISATION
Traditional

New model
(MOOC)

Fees to
enter

Pay

No

Entrance
requirement

Yes

No

May be free/inc...
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
(A South African example)
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
TRADITIONAL MODEL: COSTS OF
SUPPORT
o Student support
Relative costs over 8 year
lifecycle of a Distance Education
course
...
From: Tim Gore Making Sense of MOOCs Brussels 10th October 2013
https://chronicle.com/article/Providers-of-Free-MOOCs-Now/136117/

EXAMPLE: ANALYTICS
TENSIONS IN THE ECO SYSTEM
o Values
• Private sector imperatives
• Higher education role - as a public good, for
sake of k...
BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK
Access
YES, BUT: A PAUSE FOR BOURDIEU
o In a network society, forms of capital are
forms of power
•
•
•
•
•
•

Economic capital
S...
WHERE DOES THE POWER LIE?
o In a network society, forms of capital are
forms of power
•
•
•
•
•
•

Economic capital
Social...
ELECTRICITY

http://www.masterresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/earth_night.jpg
UNDERSEA CABLES

http://submarine-cable-map-2013.telegeography.com/
CONNECTIVITY IS INCREASING
but unevenly
CONNECTIVITY DIVIDES
o Households with/ without Internet
• Developed countries 78%,
• Developing countries 28%

o Speed
• ...
MORE LEVEL PLAYING FIELD
o Mobiles: eg South Africa

LSM
Living
Standards
Measure
MOBILE BROADBAND
o % cost
BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK
Access
o In a network society, forms of capital are
forms of power
•
•
•
•
•
•

Economic capital
Social capital- (networks across...
ACCESS
To promote

equity of access and fair chances of success
to all who are seeking to realise their potential
through ...
http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_educ

GLOBAL SCARCITY
http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_education.html
EQUITY: STUDENTS ONLINE
o Surveyed 40 000 students in
nearly 500 000 courses
o Findings
• …While all types of students in ...
Access without support is not
opportunity.
Effective student support does not
arise by chance. It requires
intentional, st...
We were on the front pages of
newspapers and magazines, and at
the same time, I was realizing, we
don't educate people as ...
Online education: MOOCs taken by educated few, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Nature 503, 342 (21 Nov 2013)
http://theory.cribchronicles.com/2013/01/04/the-mooc-is-dead-long-live-the-mooc/
http://clarissasblog.com/2013/11/24/moocs...
https://chronicle.com/article/MOOCs-Are-Usefully-Middlebrow/143183/

25 NOVEMBER 2013
BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK
Participation
…Power, money, and information are primarily

organized around flows which link up distant
locales, and unite them in a sh...
MEANING MAKING
& the geo politics of content
African universities are
essentially consumers of
knowledge produced in
developed countries.

Minister of Higher Education...
Flick 2011

FLICKR CONTENT
o Flick 2011

USER-GENERATED CONTENT GOOGLE
o Flick 2011

WIKIPEDIA CONTENT
o Flick 2011

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE/POPULATION
BARRIERS TO PARTICIPATION
A MORE DEMOCRATIC CASE?
SEE: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21829122.200-free-for-all-lifting-the-lid-on-a-wikipediacrisis.html#.UphtIcQW0r...
BUT: MOOC PROVIDERS

Mediation?
Recontextualisation?
http://openuct.uct.ac.za/blog/mooc-less-africa
In order for education to be most
effective, content must be
presented in a way that allows the
student to relate the info...
MOOC LICENSES
o Review of 8 providers
o Almost entirely full copyright
• Udacity- some content CC-NC-ND (not
whole course)...
POLITICS OF PARTICIPATION
o The Read-Write web
• Who reads and who writes
• Replicating global power relations
CONCLUSION
The ecosystem includes a great deal of
existing knowledge about good learning
GOOD LEARNING
o Good learning requires mediation
o We are more likely to get the learning outcomes we
want when the curric...
IN SHORT
Asserting the interests of good
learning is essential
The realignment of interests
in the networked society
enabled by new technologies is
not necessarily serving
the requireme...
Let’s ensure that those networked relationships don’t
only serve the interests of the educated & advantaged
W must be
e
parties in the
work!
 
Image: Stacey Stent

THANK YOU
REFERENCES
o

o

o
o
o
o

o
o
o

ACA Seminar ‘Making Sense of MOOCs’ Brussels 10 th October 2013, talks by Tim Gore and
Kr...
REFERENCES
o

o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o

 Flick, C, (2011) Geographies of the World’s Knowledge , Convoco Foundation, Oxford
in...
A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013
A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013
A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013
A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013
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Keynote presentation at HELTASA 2013 Pretoria, November 27-29 November, UNISA

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  • Alma mater Nourishing., fostering, bountiful, dear mother
  • Massification 1991-2006 - 2.7 million to 9.3 million students
    2015 projections 18-20 million (WB), SO High numbers Low infrastructure
    Urgent need for good teaching and for students to succeed, last point is very important
    For example, the University of California system took a cut of $900 million — 27% of its operating budget — between 2008 and 2012.  Over the same period, Pennsylvania state universities saw an 18% cut.  The immediate response was increased tuition, which has led to criticism over academic inefficiencies.
    Serious divides continue
    Participation rates over 50% for white students, 13% for African students
    White students twice as likely to graduate in 5 years
    Only 5% of African youth succeed in any form of higher education
    1st year attrition
    40% of 1st year students leave HE
    Shortages of resources, infrastructure, funds
    Staff teaching in both public & private universities affecting quality & performance
    Privates focusing on marketable courses (reducing revenue for public universities)
    Absence of research (affects quality of teaching)
    Low participation high attrition system
    Throughput & success critical concerns
    Global Massification
    2000-2008 enrolments from 100 million to 50 million students
    Implications include
    Financial challenges
    Infrastructure challenges
    Quality questions
    More graduates than the economy can sustain
    Altbach, P (2011) The Past, Present, and Future of the Research University in Altbach, P and Salmi, J (Eds) 2011 The Making of World-Class Research Universities- The Road to Academic Excellence, The World Bank
    Fisher G and Scott (2011) ‘The Role of Higher Education in Closing the Skills Gap in South Africa’ The World Bank, Human Development Group, Africa Region, October 2011, Background paper for the World Bank project 'Closing the Skills and Technology Gap in South Africa'.
    Jegede, O (2012), The Status of Higher Education in Africa, paper for Panel Discussion in the Launch of Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education- A project of the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) held at the Institute of International Education, New York, , February 1, 2012
  • View of technology= critical perspective, not determinist, a socio – material perspective
    Technology not neutral. Co-constructed. Interests determine how affordances are exploited.
  • Helen Macdonald
  • Ideas are not property as physical objects are. building on others' ideas is the ways knowledge grows. Attribution is important. But copyright has been appropriated by commercial companies.
    Lawrence Lessig - http://wiki.lessig.org/Against_perpetual_copyright
    ‘Copyright law has from its inception in the early 18th century imposed a term limit upon intellectual property. This limit recognizes the great benefit conferred upon the public, and on the common good, to the vast majority, if the state refrains from punishing those who copy and share works for violating an author's "copyright," after a certain point in time.
    The framers understood that the state-created property monopoly of copyright was justifiable only to the extent that it would "promote the progress of Science and the Useful Arts." It created therefore a fixed, and originally very short, period of time in which one might sell copies of one's works with state protection. Without this protection, in the nature of intellectual things, piracy was naturally rampant. After authors have been given a decent interval to exploit their property, the monopoly to the work is ended, and the work may be reabsorbed into the culture at large, be remixed into new works, for the public benefit for the rest of time: hence the name "Public Domain" which refers to the domain of this public good.
    Tangible goods are rivalrous goods
    For one person to gain some tangible item, another person must lose it. For one person to gain the ownership of some piece of land, the previous owner must surrender ownership. This is the ordinary state of physical property, and the laws around physical property are designed around this fact. Property taxes, zoning laws, and similar legal constructs are examples of how the law relates to physical property.
    Intellectual works are non-rivalrous
    Intellectual works are ordinarily non-rivalrous. It is possible for someone to teach a work of the mind to another without unlearning it himself. For example, one, or two, or a hundred people can memorize the same poem at the same time. Here the term "work of the mind" refers not to physical items such books or compact discs or DVD's, but rather to the intangible content those physical objects contain.
    What about fair use?
    Ideas as building
  • F2F on campus traditional for residential universities
    Distance education traditionally print based
    Blended learning becoming widespread in SA
    Fully online now on the agenda, brings F2F and distance education together
  • Place replaced by platform which creates a learning environment.
  • Platforms need to be accessed (just like places do)
    This can be difficult, expensive, require new competencies
  • Being taken increasingly seriously
  • Private assessment centres. Can be used for formal certification of MOOC courses.
  • Manovich , L 2002, The Language of New Media
  • No, but technology is not neutral, and is taken up by interests. Presently, private education and commodification interests.
  • Basis is the Internet. It is an infrastructure, web runs on top of it, Changes the way content dissemination and communication happens,
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/adamcrowe/620058057/
    The core, At the center of the Internet are about 80 core nodes through which most traffic flows. Remove the core, and 70 percent of the other nodes are still able to function through peer-to-peer connections. Credit: Lanet-vi program of I. Alvarez-Hamelin et al.
  • Because of internet we have the network society, Of course globalisation was happening before the Internet
    But the internet changes the way it plays out, http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/63009926/
    The nature of these networks is not neutral
  • We know this…..but what does it mean for power and culture?
    Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: 469.
  • This is the positive spin!
    Changes the dynamics of global relationships
  • Explain!
  • Created by Libby Levi for opensource.com, http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4370250237/in/set-72157623343013541
  • Into this distributed world, inserts the market economy, increased opportunities
    http://www.evolllution.com/distance_online_learning/edupreneurs-shape-future-higher-education-marketplace/
    http://www.wfs.org/worldfuture-2012/sessions/when-ivory-towers-fall-emerging-education-marketplace
  • http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/,
  • Public colleges and universities are not moving into online distance learning fast enough to meet the demand: ‘If public
    institutions do not step up to the plate, then the corporate for-profit sector will’. Bate sIn Daniels
    Daniel, J (20120 Higher Education in a Decade of Disruption , speech to Council of College and Military Educators (CCME)  Annual Conference
    14-16 February 2012, Orlando, Florida, Commonwealth of Learning
  • European MOOCs in Global Context, 10 October 2013
    Academic Co-operation Association, Seminar on Making Sense of MOOCs, October 2013
    http://www.aca-secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Kris_Olds.pdf
    Kris Olds, Professor and Chair
    Department of Geography
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
    Email: kolds@wisc.edu
    Twitter: https://twitter.com/GlobalHigherEd
    Private sector has always been a player in HE
    Many reasons for increase & changes
    Rise of online education as a mainstream activity puts private sector at an advantage
    New shape of landscape offers opportunities
    http://krisolds.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/oldsbrussels10oct2013.pdf
  • Interests and reasons for investment differ enormously
  • For profit and not-for-profit companies have different drivers, and different expectations of success.
  • Google is not free, Google is not altruistic.
    Ref Manovich- the datafication of everything.
    Chilling for students’ learning behaviour to become part of the Google dataset.
    http://techcrunch.com/2013/09/10/google-expands-role-in-digital-education-teams-up-with-edx-to-build-a-youtube-for-free-online-courses/
  • Pearson, new role, new services
    To access the free open sources, via the Pearson LMS
  • http://www.studyinstates.org/2013/11/05/the-state-department-partners-with-coursera-to-support-free-education-in-over-30-countries/
    Government- private sector collaboration in HE
    USA dominance
    Discourse of generosity, beneficence
    Obscures market imperative and intention
  • Explicit - http://ihe.britishcouncil.org/news/shape-things-come-higher-education-global-trends-and-emerging-opportunities-2020
    British Council 2012 The shape of things to come: higher education global trends and emerging opportunities to 2020, British Council
    Also Peter Sharpe, Department of Information Studies, Aberystwyth University
    pes@aber.ac.uk, Northern land grab vs. Southern autonomy : or a third way?
    Barriers to authentic North-South partnerships
     
  • http://globalhighered.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/courseramapoct2013.jpg
    http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/globalhighered/mapping-courseras-global-footprint
    Mapping Coursera's Global Footprint
    November 19, 2013 - 6:41pm
    Kris Olds
    Read more: http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/globalhighered/mapping-courseras-global-footprint#ixzz2lMeG0B8d Inside Higher Ed 
  • https://www.edx.org/press/queen-rania-foundation-partners-edx
  • http://regenesysfoundation.org/overview-of-the-free-business-education-initiative/
  • http://regenesysfoundation.org/overview-of-the-free-business-education-initiative/
  • Weller, M some MOOC thoughts, presentation to UCT, November xx. 2013
    Support= feedback etc
  • Tim Gore Making Sense of MOOCs Brussels 10th October-
    University of London International Programmes
    http://www.aca-secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Tim_Gore.pdf
    The Academic Cooperation Association (ACA)
  • https://chronicle.com/article/Providers-of-Free-MOOCs-Now/136117/
  • Capital presents itself in four fundamental forms: economic, social, cultural and symbolic. Economic capital refers to assets either in the form of or convertible to cash. Social capital is about connections, social obligation and  networks ie who you know (or don’t know) advantages or disadvantages a person. Cultural capital occurs in three states. embodied cultural capital refers to “ long-lasting dispositions of the mind and body” (ibid), expressed commonly as skills, competencies, knowledge and representation of self image. Objectified cultural capital refers to physical objects as “ cultural goods which are the trace or realization of theories or critiques of these theories” (Bourdieu mentions pictures, books, dictionaries, instruments, machines, ibid). I institutional cultural capital is the formal recognition of knowledge usually in the form of educational qualifications. Symbolic capital is appropriated when one of the other capitals is converted to prestige, honor, reputation, fame -  it is about. recognition, value and status.
    Importantly, one form of capital can be converted into another. The different forms of capital are different forms of power, but the relative importance of the different forms will vary according to the field.
  • Importantly, one form of capital can be converted into another. The different forms of capital are different forms of power, but the relative importance of the different forms will vary according to the field.
  • http://www.masterresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/earth_night.jpg
  • http://submarine-cable-map-2013.telegeography.com/
  • US Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Economic Council, Four Years of Broadband Growth, June 2013
    US rural urban access not too different, but speed very different
    Under 2% using the Internet
    Eritrea, Timor-Leste, Myanmar, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Niger, Ethiopia , Guinea, Congo DR, Madagascar , Chad
    Over 90% using the Internet
    Luxembourg, Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Falkland Islands
    South Africa- 41%, USA- 77%
  • SAARF Much more equal!
    Living Standards Measure Cell phone access South Africa November 2012
    SAARF AMPS Insert LMS categories explanations
    Survey 25000 people sampled across SA
    The SAARF LSM is a unique means of segmenting the South African market. It cuts across race and other outmoded techniques of categorising people, and instead groups people according to their living standards using criteria such as degree of urbanisation and ownership of cars and major appliances.
    Use LSMs in conjunction with other marketing differentiators such as life stages, income, etc. If you want to use LSM 6 to 10 for targeting, you are basically targeting one third of the South African population - so you need to filter on other variables as well if you want to define your target market more closely.
    Don't confuse LSMs with income. Think of a student, who lives in his parents' upmarket home in Sandton. Yes, he might live in an LSM 10 home, and yes, he will be different from a person living in, say, an LSM 4 home, but if his only income is derived from a part-time job while he is studying, his disposable income will be low
    Sources: SAARF. Available at: http://saarf.co.za/LSM/lsm-diy.asp [Accessed: 23 August 2013].
  • Price of mobile-broadband services by region, early 2013†
    Find ICU stat re mobile broadband being relatively cheaper
    ITU (2013) The World in 2013: ICT Facts and Figures
    www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/.../facts/ICTFactsFigures2013.pdf‎
  • Daphne Koller, the launch of Coursera-
    http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_education.html
    1,153,670 Views, At 4 Sept
    Daphne Koller: What we're learning from online education
  • COURSERA will solve the world’s education problems?
  • …This is troubling from an equity perspective: If this pattern holds true across other states and educational sectors, it would imply that the continued expansion of online learning could strengthen, rather than ameliorate, educational inequity.
    Xu and Jaggars’s recent study Adaptability to Online Learning: Differences Across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas (2013) surveys over 40,000 students in close to 500,000 courses and studied how students adapt to the online environment. Students who adapt poorly, reasonably display lower academic performance and lower persistence (the consequence of which is higher institutional attrition rates). The researchers further found that while attrition and lack of academic success was systematically more pronounced in online courses than in their face-to-face equivalents, the patterns found do not proportionally mirror those found in face-to-face courses when controlling for social variables and ethnicity. While the difference between face-to-face instruction and online courses not differ significantly between ethnic groups, i.e. Asian and Black students dropped out of the online courses more frequently, but proportionally so, the same did not apply to performance:
  • Regional Symposia on Student Success, 19 - 23 August 2013
    http://www.che.ac.za/content/regional-symposia-student-success-19-23-august-2013
  • Thrun, enthusiastic founder who predicted there would only be 10 universities in the world.
    http://www.fastcompany.com/3021473/udacity-sebastian-thrun-uphill-climb
    http://www.slate.com/articles/life/education/2013/11/sebastian_thrun_and_udacity_distance_learning_is_unsuccessful_for_most_students.html
  • http://theory.cribchronicles.com/2013/01/04/the-mooc-is-dead-long-live-the-mooc/
    http://clarissasblog.com/2013/11/24/moocs-are-dead-lets-move-on/
    https://chronicle.com/article/MOOCs-May-Not-Be-So-Disruptive/140965/
  • https://chronicle.com/article/MOOCs-Are-Usefully-Middlebrow/143183/
    MOOCs are easy, education and scholarship are difficult. MOOCs not real education. MOOCs nevertheless useful for “the deserving poor”
  • Content from the global north
    Flick, C, Convoco Foundation, Oxford internet Institute (2011)
    Geographies of the World’s Knowledge
    Oxford internet Institute
    www.oii.ox.ac.uk/publications/convoco_geographies_en.pdf‎
  • The findings suggest that there is a clear and highly uneven geography of information in Wikipedia. For example, Europe and North America are home to 84% of all articles.
    Almost all of Africa is poorly represented in the Wikipedia encyclopaedia. There are more Wikipedia articles (7800) written about Antarctica than any country in Africa or South America.
    Because of the high visibility of Wikipedia in online information ecosystems, countless decisions and opinions are formed based on information available in the encyclopaedia. This kind of imbalanced digital landscape of information reproduces existing representational asymmetries.
    Wikipedia & Knowledge Production, Distribution & Perception (p.22):
    Wiki is ranked 7th most popular site in the world (http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org).
    Europe and North America are home to 84% of all articles.
    Largest % generated in the US
    Flick, C, Convoco Foundation, Oxford internet Institute (2011)
    Geographies of the World’s Knowledge
    Oxford internet Institute
    www.oii.ox.ac.uk/publications/convoco_geographies_en.pdf‎
  • An elite network
  • In 2010, a group of Kenyan Wikipedia users tried to create an entry for Makmende, a hero with a headband and 1980s styling, who is widely known in Kenya. His moniker initially emerged as slang, thanks to the Clint Eastwood line "Go ahead, make my day". The term was used to mock; someone attempting an overambitious task would be asked if they thought they were Makmende. Later, a local band made a video featuring Makmende and jokes were phoned-in to Kenyan radio stations. Yet attempts to create a Wikipedia entry were repeatedly rebuffed because, among other things, editors said the topic lacked notability.
    This was odd, because Wikipedia is not exactly highbrow. A similarly frivolous meme, based around the US actor Chuck Norris, has been the subject of a Wikipedia entry since 2006. The Makmende entry was eventually allowed, but only after the controversy over its creation attracted attention outside Kenya. To many observers, it seemed that the article had been rejected not because the topic was insignificant, but because it meant nothing to the editors who do most of the work on the encyclopedia.
    The most active editors live in the US and Europe (see illustration, page 40), and this means the supposedly global project is skewed towards Western interests. According to a 2011 study by Mark Graham at the University of Oxford and colleagues, the snowy wastes of Antarctica have more articles dedicated to them than all but one of the countries in Africa. In fact, many African nations have fewer articles than the fictional realm of Middle Earth. These regions, notes Graham, are "virtual terra incognita".
    Wiki-opoly. By: Giles, Jim, New Scientist, 02624079, 4/13/2013, Vol. 218, Issue 2912
  • http://globalhighered.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/courseramapoct2013.jpg
    http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/globalhighered/mapping-courseras-global-footprint
    Mapping Coursera's Global Footprint
    November 19, 2013 - 6:41pm
    Kris Olds
    Read more: http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/globalhighered/mapping-courseras-global-footprint#ixzz2lMeG0B8d Inside Higher Ed 
  • http://edutechnica.com/moocmap/#
  • In order for education to be most effective, content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dewey
  • Review of Coursera EdX Udacity FutureLearn CourseSites Canvas Network Open2Study Udemy , by OpenUCT- http://openuct.uct.ac.za
  • http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/makers-or-takers
  • Shay, S Good Learning: What we Know. Presentation at Heads of Department Workshop, University of Cape Town, April 2013
  • Created by Libby Levi for opensource.com, http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4370250237/in/set-72157623343013541
  • ACA seminar Making Sense of MOOCs Brussels 10th October 2013, talks by Tim Gore and Kris Olds
    http://www.aca-secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Tim_Gore.pdf
    http://www.aca-secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Kris_Olds.pdf
  • A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013

    1. 1. DISAGGREGATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING ‘Being parties in the work’ A view of the changing digitally-mediated teaching and learning landscape Laura Czerniewicz 28 November 2013
    2. 2. A University is, according to the usual designation, an Alma Mater, knowing her children one by one, not a foundry, or a mint, or a treadmill. The best telescope does not dispense with eyes; the printing press or the lecture room will assist us greatly, but we must be true to ourselves, we must be parties in the work.   John Henry Newman, The Idea of the University, 1824 Photo- http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/newman/jhnbio2.html
    3. 3. THIS TALK o About technology • The characteristics of new technologies • How technology is changing the possible shape of teaching and learning, and of course provision o The global role players in the teaching and learning landscape • Values and interests o What this means for access, participation & learning • with a particular view from South Africa
    4. 4. HIGHER EDUCATION UNDER PRESSURE o Financial crisis • Government cuts in many countries • Under funded and resource constrained o Massification globally • SA: Gross enrolment rate (no of students at particular level) • 16%. Low internationally, Low considering 700 000 matriculants officially qualifying for HE o SA: Low participation high attrition system • In SA, 40% students leave HE in 1st year
    5. 5. TECHNOLOGY o Pervasive • A cause of change in the higher education environment • Seen as solution for higher education problems • Mediating all higher education practices • Assumed to be increasingly ubiquitious
    6. 6. TECHNOLOGY Principles of new media Affordances of the digital
    7. 7. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF NEW MEDIA o Numerical representation • new media objects exist as data o Modularity • the different elements of new media exist independently o Automation • new media objects can be created & modified automatically o Variability • new media objects exist in multiple versions o Transcoding • the logic of the computer influences how we understand and represent ourselves Manovich , L 2002, The Language of New Media
    8. 8. SOME KEY DIGITAL AFFORDANCES o Granular o Dynamic o Communication visible • a form of content o Sharing - free & easy • Sharing means multiplying not dividing o Affords more closed/ lock down as well as more open & accessible
    9. 9. MODULARITY: DISAGGREGATION IN TEACHING & LEARNING Disaggregation of Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification
    10. 10. TRADITIONAL FORM OF TEACHING & LEARNING
    11. 11. SINGLE PACKAGE Time Space Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification
    12. 12. DISAGGREGATION Platform Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification
    13. 13. DISAGGREGATION Platform Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification
    14. 14. ACCESS TO LEARNING CONTENT Analogue Textbooks Some photocopying Photocopying Legal Illegal ETextbooks Open Education Resources Pirate sites File sharing Digital
    15. 15. DIGITAL CONTENT o From products to services • From tangible to intangible • Control no longer with customer when purchased o From ownership to access/license o Intermediary - platforms • Services via an intermediary • May need to buy the platform, or access to the platform, not the content
    16. 16. OPEN CONTENT o Free to user • To download (gratis) • To re-use & remix (libre) o Available under an open license or public domain o Grants permissions not copyright
    17. 17. http://www2.macleans.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/music_piracy_small.jpg http://jmgregoirebooks.com/2013/03/31/show-your-support-and-take-a-stand-against-ebook-piracy/ http://betanews.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Piracy-crime-scene-PC-300x200.jpg http://www.gambling911.com/poker/new-harry-reid-cyber-security-bill-lik http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/piracy DISCOURSES OF PIRACY
    18. 18. CHANGES IN TEACHING & LEARNING Place Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification
    19. 19. MOOCs Forms of provision Fully online Onlineintensive Blended (mixed mode): Internet combines dependent F2F and online Internet supported F2F only On campus Location of students Remote
    20. 20. http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/sheilamacneill/2013/03/19/preparing-for-the-second-wave/ …has legitimised online education & distance education at elite residential universities ..introduced new possibilities for business models
    21. 21. DISAGGREGATION Place Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification
    22. 22. DISAGGREGATION Platform Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification
    23. 23. Free content Pay to access platform
    24. 24. DISAGGREGATION Platform Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification
    25. 25. CERTIFICATION
    26. 26. BADGES o Micro, granular certification o Some sort of formal(ised) recognition • for informal learning processes • for chunks of content • for competencies
    27. 27. PRIVATE ASSESSMENT
    28. 28. IN SUMMARY Numerical representation Learning analytics New media objects exist as data Modularity Disaggregation of teaching & the different elements of new media exist independently Automation new media objects can be created & modified automatically Variability new media objects exist in multiple versions learning Automated assessment Versions of content Transcoding Culture of technology shapes the logic of the computer influences how we understand and represent ourselves social /pedagogical culture
    29. 29. IN SUMMARY A modularised, variable, transcoded teaching and learning landscape
    30. 30. TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM?
    31. 31. TECHNOLOGY AND THE GLOBAL HIGHER EDUCATION Increased private sector investment LANDSCAPE New opportunities for the private sector New players Globalisation: extended reach
    32. 32. THE INTERNET
    33. 33. The network society Promises and perils
    34. 34. Dominant functions and processes in the information age are increasingly organized around networks. Networks constitute the new social morphology of our societies and the diffusion of networking logic substantially modifies ….processes of production, experiences of power and culture Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society.
    35. 35. In the past, social networks were more limited in different spheres. Networks were more exclusive. The Internet changed the nature of networks by making them more inclusive and easy to participate in. Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society.
    36. 36. Conventional core– periphery relationships
    37. 37. http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4370250237/in/set-72157623343013541 …can be replaced with networked relationships
    38. 38. AT THE SAME TIME
    39. 39. GLOBAL MARKETISATION DISCOURSE
    40. 40. http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/ INCREASED PRIVATE SECTOR INVOLVEMENT
    41. 41. THE GLOBAL MARKET PLACE o Online education is in the hand of the private sector • “In the US the for-profit sector has a much higher proportion of the total online market (32%) than its share of the overall higher education market (7%). • Seven of the 10 US institutions with the highest online enrolments are for-profits. • For-profits seem better placed to expand online because they do not have to worry about resistance from academic staff, nor about exploiting their earlier investment in campus facilities.” Daniels, J 2012
    42. 42. Source: Kris Olds (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Susan L. Robertson (University of Bristol) http://www.aca-secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Kris_Olds.pdf
    43. 43. http://chronicle.com/article/Major-Players-in-the-MOOC/138817/ VARIETY OF INTERESTS
    44. 44. PLAYERS IN HE LANDSCAPE o New players • For profit educational / service providers • Eg Coursera • Non-profit educational providers • eg Ed-X o New roles for old players • E.g. Educational publishers as providers of services o Old players with new value • Eg distance education providers
    45. 45. http://techcrunch.com/2013/09/10/google-expands-role-in-digital-education-teams-up-with-edx-to-build-a-youtube-for-free-online-cours If you are not paying for the product you are the product
    46. 46. If you are not paying for the product you are the product
    47. 47. Access via the platform
    48. 48. THE GLOBAL MARKET PLACE o The developing world as the new market to solve crises at northern universities
    49. 49. GLOBAL REACH http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/globalhighered/mapping-courseras-global-footprint
    50. 50. https://www.edx.org/press/queen-rania-foundation-partners-edx
    51. 51. MODELS- MONETISATION Traditional New model (MOOC) Fees to enter Pay No Entrance requirement Yes No Content May be free/included in fees May be paid Support Free/included in fees May be paid Certification Free/included in fees Paid User generated content Private, owned by student Owned by provider Ownership of course Not traditionally shared Proprietary, paid for re-use adaptation May be licensed or open May be licensed or open Platform
    52. 52. MODELS- MONETISATION Traditional New model (MOOC) Fees to enter Pay No Entrance requirement Yes No Content May be free/included in fees May be paid Support Free/included in fees May be paid Certification Free/included in fees Paid User generated content Private, owned by student Owned by provider Ownership of course Not traditionally shared Proprietary, paid for re-use adaptation May be licensed or open May be licensed or open Platform
    53. 53. MODELS- MONETISATION Traditional New model (MOOC) Fees to enter Pay No Entrance requirement Yes No May be free/included in fees May be paid Content Support Certification What does this mean for the coherencefees Free/included in of teaching and learning Free/included in fees processes? May be paid Paid User generated content Private, owned by student Owned by provider Ownership of course Not traditionally shared Proprietary, paid for re-use adaptation May be licensed or open May be licensed or open Platform
    54. 54. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL” (A South African example)
    55. 55. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL”
    56. 56. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL”
    57. 57. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL”
    58. 58. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL”
    59. 59. TRADITIONAL MODEL: COSTS OF SUPPORT o Student support Relative costs over 8 year lifecycle of a Distance Education course From: Weller, M some MOOC thoughts, presentation to UCT, November xx. 2013
    60. 60. From: Tim Gore Making Sense of MOOCs Brussels 10th October 2013
    61. 61. https://chronicle.com/article/Providers-of-Free-MOOCs-Now/136117/ EXAMPLE: ANALYTICS
    62. 62. TENSIONS IN THE ECO SYSTEM o Values • Private sector imperatives • Higher education role - as a public good, for sake of knowledge, workplace etc • Learning & pedagogy needs o Control & participation • Who has control, of what, at which point? • Role and control of technology? o Geopolitics • How do these tensions play out locally? • Whose global interests are served?
    63. 63. BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK Access
    64. 64. YES, BUT: A PAUSE FOR BOURDIEU o In a network society, forms of capital are forms of power • • • • • • Economic capital Social capital- (networks across/within) Embodied cultural capital (expertise, competence) Objectified cultural capital (the object, technology) Institutional cultural capital (qualifications) Symbolic cultural capital (recognition, status, legitimacy)
    65. 65. WHERE DOES THE POWER LIE? o In a network society, forms of capital are forms of power • • • • • • Economic capital Social capital- (networks across/within) Embodied cultural capital (expertise, competence) Objectified cultural capital (the object/technology) Institutional cultural capital (qualifications) Symbolic cultural capital (recognition, status, legitimacy)
    66. 66. ELECTRICITY http://www.masterresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/earth_night.jpg
    67. 67. UNDERSEA CABLES http://submarine-cable-map-2013.telegeography.com/
    68. 68. CONNECTIVITY IS INCREASING but unevenly
    69. 69. CONNECTIVITY DIVIDES o Households with/ without Internet • Developed countries 78%, • Developing countries 28% o Speed • Dramatic differences, Asian countries fastest, African countries slowest o Education levels o Rural/urban o Income
    70. 70. MORE LEVEL PLAYING FIELD o Mobiles: eg South Africa LSM Living Standards Measure
    71. 71. MOBILE BROADBAND o % cost
    72. 72. BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK Access
    73. 73. o In a network society, forms of capital are forms of power • • • • • • Economic capital Social capital- (networks across/within) Embodied cultural capital (expertise, competence) Objectified cultural capital (the object, technology) Institutional cultural capital (qualifications) Symbolic cultural capital (recognition, status, legitimacy)
    74. 74. ACCESS To promote equity of access and fair chances of success to all who are seeking to realise their potential through higher education Department of Education ( 1997) Education White Paper 3: A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education,
    75. 75. http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_educ GLOBAL SCARCITY
    76. 76. http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_education.html
    77. 77. EQUITY: STUDENTS ONLINE o Surveyed 40 000 students in nearly 500 000 courses o Findings • …While all types of students in the study suffered decrements in performance in online courses, some struggled more than others to adapt: males, younger students, Black students, and students with lower grade point averages Xu & Jaggar 2013 Adaptability to Online Learning: Differences Across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas
    78. 78. Access without support is not opportunity. Effective student support does not arise by chance. It requires intentional, structured, and proactive action that is systematic in nature and coordinated in application. Prof. Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Regional Symposia on Student Success 19 - 23 August 2013, South Africa
    79. 79. We were on the front pages of newspapers and magazines, and at the same time, I was realizing, we don't educate people as others wished, or as I wished. We have a lousy product. It was a painful moment. These were students from difficult neighbourhoods, without good access to computers, and with all kinds of challenges in their lives …. It's a group for which this medium is not a good fit. http://www.fastcompany.com/3021473/udacity-sebastian-thrun-uphill-climb Sebastian Thrun founder of Udacity, November 2013
    80. 80. Online education: MOOCs taken by educated few, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Nature 503, 342 (21 Nov 2013)
    81. 81. http://theory.cribchronicles.com/2013/01/04/the-mooc-is-dead-long-live-the-mooc/ http://clarissasblog.com/2013/11/24/moocs-are-dead-lets-move-on/ https://chronicle.com/article/MOOCs-May-Not-Be-So-Disruptive/140965/
    82. 82. https://chronicle.com/article/MOOCs-Are-Usefully-Middlebrow/143183/ 25 NOVEMBER 2013
    83. 83. BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK Participation
    84. 84. …Power, money, and information are primarily organized around flows which link up distant locales, and unite them in a shared logic. The variable geometry of networked integration and switched off exclusion of the network society translates into the juxtaposition between two spatial forms/processes: the space of flows, on the one hand, the space of places, on the other hand. People still live in places, and construct their . experience, their meaning, and their political representation around these places. Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society.
    85. 85. MEANING MAKING & the geo politics of content
    86. 86. African universities are essentially consumers of knowledge produced in developed countries. Minister of Higher Education, Blade Nzimande UNESCO Conference on Higher Education, 2009
    87. 87. Flick 2011 FLICKR CONTENT
    88. 88. o Flick 2011 USER-GENERATED CONTENT GOOGLE
    89. 89. o Flick 2011 WIKIPEDIA CONTENT
    90. 90. o Flick 2011 WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE/POPULATION
    91. 91. BARRIERS TO PARTICIPATION
    92. 92. A MORE DEMOCRATIC CASE?
    93. 93. SEE: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21829122.200-free-for-all-lifting-the-lid-on-a-wikipediacrisis.html#.UphtIcQW0rU o Insert the example
    94. 94. BUT: MOOC PROVIDERS Mediation? Recontextualisation? http://openuct.uct.ac.za/blog/mooc-less-africa
    95. 95. In order for education to be most effective, content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences. John Dewey Paulo Freire …….situated educational activity …. of education The programme content must be the present, existential, concrete situations reflecting the aspirations of the people.
    96. 96. MOOC LICENSES o Review of 8 providers o Almost entirely full copyright • Udacity- some content CC-NC-ND (not whole course) o All keep user-generated content rights • Some specify including for commercial use o Users as consumers not adaptors or creators
    97. 97. POLITICS OF PARTICIPATION o The Read-Write web • Who reads and who writes • Replicating global power relations
    98. 98. CONCLUSION The ecosystem includes a great deal of existing knowledge about good learning
    99. 99. GOOD LEARNING o Good learning requires mediation o We are more likely to get the learning outcomes we want when the curriculum is aligned o Learning is more likely to happen when students are actively engaged o Learning is more likely to be successful where the teaching is cognizant of what students bring with them: prior knowledge, language, experience o Learning involves some degree of transformation of self Shay, S 2013 Shay, S Good Learning: What we Know. Presentation at Heads of Department Workshop, University of Cape Town, April 2013
    100. 100. IN SHORT Asserting the interests of good learning is essential
    101. 101. The realignment of interests in the networked society enabled by new technologies is not necessarily serving the requirements of learning the needs of disadvantaged learners concepts of education that serve democracy and social good the needs of the “global south”
    102. 102. Let’s ensure that those networked relationships don’t only serve the interests of the educated & advantaged
    103. 103. W must be e parties in the work!  
    104. 104. Image: Stacey Stent THANK YOU
    105. 105. REFERENCES o o o o o o o o o ACA Seminar ‘Making Sense of MOOCs’ Brussels 10 th October 2013, talks by Tim Gore and Kris Olds, at http://www.aca-secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Tim_Gore.pdf and http://www.aca- secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Kris_Olds.pdf Altbach, P (2011) The past, present, and future of the research university in Altbach, P and Salmi, J (Eds) 2011 The Making of World-Class Research Universities- The Road to Academic Excellence, The World Bank British Council 2012 The shape of things to come: higher education global trends and emerging opportunities to 2020, British Council  Bourdieu, P. (1986) The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (New York, ... Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society, Blackwell Daniel J (20120 Higher Education in a Decade of Disruption , speech to Council  of College and Military Educators (CCME)  Annual Conference, 14-16 February 2012, Orlando, Florida, Commonwealth of Learning Department of Education, South Africa ( 1997) Education White Paper 3: A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education Emanuel, E (2013) Online education: MOOCs taken by educated few , Nature 503, 342 (21 Nov 2013) Fisher G and Scott (2011) ‘The Role of Higher Education in Closing the Skills Gap in South Africa’ The World Bank, Human Development Group, Africa Region, October 2011, Background paper for the World Bank project 'Closing the Skills and Technology Gap in South Africa'
    106. 106. REFERENCES o o o o o o o o o o o  Flick, C, (2011) Geographies of the World’s Knowledge , Convoco Foundation, Oxford internet Institute Oxford internet Institute, www.oii.ox.ac.uk/publications/convoco_geographies_en.pdf ITU (2013) The World in 2013: ICT Facts and Figures, www.itu.int/en/ITUD/Statistics/.../facts/ICTFactsFigures2013.pdf Internet World Stats. 2012. http://www.internetworldstats.com/ ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database- www.itu.int/en/ITUD/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx Jegede, O (2012), The Status of Higher Education in Africa, paper for Panel Discussion in the Launch of Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education- A project of the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) held at the Institute of International Education, New York, , February 1, 2012 Jim, G (2013) Wiki-opoly, New Scientist, Vol. 218, Issue 2912 Letseka, M. and Maile, S. 2008. High University drop-out rates: a threat to South Africa’s future. HSRC Policy Brief. www.hsrc.ac.za. Manovich, L The Language of New Media, MIT Press SAARF South African Audience Research Foundation (SAARF) Available at: http://saarf.co.za/LSM/lsm-diy.asp UK Department of Business Innovation and Skills (2013) The Maturing of the MOOC: Literature Review BIS Research Paper Number 30, September 2013 US Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Economic Council, Four Years of Broadband Growth, June 2013 Also, see URLs on examples on individual slides

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