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Traditional Materials Presentation 1
 

Traditional Materials Presentation 1

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  • Welcome (LA) Focus on 1850-1950: Era of institutional development, era of great change in building technology I will be presenting a very brief summary of traditional building materials: Building Stone Brick and Terracotta Mortar, Plaster, and Stucco Concrete Metals Roofs and Roof Drainage Systems Windows Paints and Coatings
  • 1850-1900: Eclectic period-interest in historical architecture, new styles inspired by historic precedents (VMI-Gothic, Vassar-Second Empire, Clemson-Victorian Eclectic) Development of steel framed buildings, but continued use of traditional construction techniques 1900-1950: Development of modern architecture, use of traditional architectural vocabulary on campuses, modern architecture appears at universities near mid-century (Princeton-Gothic, Clemson-Modern) Development of glass curtain walls, use of reinforced concrete
  • 1850-1900: Eclectic period-interest in historical architecture, new styles inspired by historic precedents (VMI-Gothic, Vassar-Second Empire, Clemson-Victorian Eclectic) Development of steel framed buildings, but continued use of traditional construction techniques 1900-1950: Development of modern architecture, use of traditional architectural vocabulary on campuses, modern architecture appears at universities near mid-century (Princeton-Gothic, Clemson-Modern) Development of glass curtain walls, use of reinforced concrete
  • 1850-1900: Eclectic period-interest in historical architecture, new styles inspired by historic precedents (VMI-Gothic, Vassar-Second Empire, Clemson-Victorian Eclectic) Development of steel framed buildings, but continued use of traditional construction techniques 1900-1950: Development of modern architecture, use of traditional architectural vocabulary on campuses, modern architecture appears at universities near mid-century (Princeton-Gothic, Clemson-Modern) Development of glass curtain walls, use of reinforced concrete
  • 1850-1900: Eclectic period-interest in historical architecture, new styles inspired by historic precedents (VMI-Gothic, Vassar-Second Empire, Clemson-Victorian Eclectic) Development of steel framed buildings, but continued use of traditional construction techniques 1900-1950: Development of modern architecture, use of traditional architectural vocabulary on campuses, modern architecture appears at universities near mid-century (Princeton-Gothic, Clemson-Modern) Development of glass curtain walls, use of reinforced concrete
  • 1850-1900: Eclectic period-interest in historical architecture, new styles inspired by historic precedents (VMI-Gothic, Vassar-Second Empire, Clemson-Victorian Eclectic) Development of steel framed buildings, but continued use of traditional construction techniques 1900-1950: Development of modern architecture, use of traditional architectural vocabulary on campuses, modern architecture appears at universities near mid-century (Princeton-Gothic, Clemson-Modern) Development of glass curtain walls, use of reinforced concrete
  • 1850-1900: Eclectic period-interest in historical architecture, new styles inspired by historic precedents (VMI-Gothic, Vassar-Second Empire, Clemson-Victorian Eclectic) Development of steel framed buildings, but continued use of traditional construction techniques 1900-1950: Development of modern architecture, use of traditional architectural vocabulary on campuses, modern architecture appears at universities near mid-century (Princeton-Gothic, Clemson-Modern) Development of glass curtain walls, use of reinforced concrete
  • 1850-1900: Eclectic period-interest in historical architecture, new styles inspired by historic precedents (VMI-Gothic, Vassar-Second Empire, Clemson-Victorian Eclectic) Development of steel framed buildings, but continued use of traditional construction techniques 1900-1950: Development of modern architecture, use of traditional architectural vocabulary on campuses, modern architecture appears at universities near mid-century (Princeton-Gothic, Clemson-Modern) Development of glass curtain walls, use of reinforced concrete
  • Building stone is formed through natural geological processes that created a wide variety of materials. Basic classifications of building stone: Igneous-Very dense, durable, often speckled from formation of mineral crystals during cooling Sedimentary- Can be cemented with clay, lime (calcium carbonate), or silicate bonds. Composed of layers called bedding planes, orientation of bedding planes important in construction Metamorphic- Some of the more decorative stones, wide variety of durability based on formation
  • Stone is an expensive building material: Public buildings Buildings for wealthy clients Military fortifications. Quarrying was done locally until development of national transportation routes c. 1900: Regional stone and stone quarries: Piedmont region has local granite, gneiss and slate (Winsboro Blue granite, granite in Fairfield, Edgefield, and Richland counties, Kershaw Granite, Pendleton has a biotite granite gneiss) Limestone from Spartanburg and Laurens County Georgia granite and marble No regional sandstone. Development of national industry c. 1900, depends on region Driven by architectural fashions
  • Quarrying was done locally until development of national transportation routes in last quarter of 19th century: Example of Indiana Limestone: Growth of railroad in Clemson area (L 1882, R 1921) In 1882, Clemson area using locally quarried materials, links to regional stone producing areas, like Georgia Clemson building with local granite, limestone, brick and terracotta up until 1920s
  • Quarrying was done locally until development of national transportation routes c. 1900: Example of Indiana Limestone: Growth of railroad in Clemson area (L 1882, R 1921) Within 40 years, Clemson is connected to Indiana limestone quarries. Just in time for the construction of Riggs Hall in 1927 with limestone trim.
  • Stone detailing followed finishing technology: Hand finishing: Rough block from the quarry, laborious task of smoothing out the face of the stone, starting at margin of block and working inward. Front face was given most careful treatment. Variety of finishes were possible, depending upon style and fashion Pneumatic tools c. 1850 Allowed for lower cost stone detailing, also made carving hard stones like granite possible.
  • Because of its cost, stone often used as facing in composite wall construction. Rare to find stone used through the entire wall. Used with lower cost, unfinished rubble stone or low quality brick as a back up. 20 th century buildings used backup materials like fireproof terracotta tile and concrete blocks.
  • Fired clay units with crystalline structure Brick: Clay extracted, weathered, and crushed by mills Tempered: Crushed clay combined with sand and water, traditionally in a pit, later in pug mills Traditionally molded into open, ladder-like molds. Later mechanized processes included extruded and wire cut brick, machine pressed brick.
  • Brick: Bricks dried and fired in kiln Mineral content and kiln heat determine color Greater uniformity through improved manufacturing techniques in the 19 th century Traditionally made locally or on site, industrial production developed with national transportation systems
  • Bricks were laid in a variety of ways to produce different patterns on the face of the wall. In traditional construction, the bond seen on the face of the wall tells you about the walls construction. UL: Example of hand molded bricks, note curved shape of bricks, many irregularities (Flemish bond) UR: Clemson’s Sheep Barn, variety of colors from location in kiln, nice quality brick (common bond) BL: Example of the bricklayers art, early 20 th century example from Rice University BR: Textured, multicolored brick typical of Clemson’s Lee buildings (Flemish)
  • Terracotta: Similar production as brick Clay mixture was more refined and included high percentage of grog (pre-fired clay) Molded into highly decorative pieces Often used in combination with brick. Cost effective for producing decorative and repetitive elements. Lightweight compared to stone Earliest uses 1850-1890 as an unglazed body to blend with brick, treated with a clay slip surface treatment. Later than 1890 trend towards light body terracotta with a matte glaze. Smaller terracotta units tend to have more joints than stone construction. Usually hollow to fit around steel construction or attached with steel anchors and then back filled. Came into wide use 1850-1950, declined post WWII

Traditional Materials Presentation 1 Traditional Materials Presentation 1 Presentation Transcript

  • O C T O B E R 1 5, 2 0 0 8 T R A D I T I O N A L B U I L D I N G M A T E R I A L S 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 5 0
  • A M E R I C A N B U I L D I N G: 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 5 0
  • A M E R I C A N B U I L D I N G: 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 5 0
  • A M E R I C A N B U I L D I N G: 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 5 0
  • A M E R I C A N B U I L D I N G: 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 5 0
  • A M E R I C A N B U I L D I N G: 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 5 0
  • A M E R I C A N B U I L D I N G: 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 5 0
  • A M E R I C A N B U I L D I N G: 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 5 0
  • B U I L D I N G S T O N E
            • Igneous - Formed by volcanic magma under various cooling conditions, includes granite
      • Metamorphic - Formed by alteration of igneous and sedimentary rock through pressure, heat, and groundwater movement, includes quartzite, marble, slate
      • Sedimentary - Formed by re-cemented sediments, includes sandstone and limestone
  • B U I L D I N G S T O N E
  • B U I L D I N G S T O N E Clemson 1882
  • B U I L D I N G S T O N E Clemson 1882 Clemson 1921
  • B U I L D I N G S T O N E
  • B U I L D I N G S T O N E
  • B U I L D I N G S T O N E
    • Stone is a natural material with variable composition.
    • Locally quarried stone may no longer be commercially available. It is often irreplaceable.
    • Stone is a porous material that absorbs water and is vulnerable to freezing, salt damage, and biological growth.
    • Cleaning methods must be tailored to the condition and type of stone and the type of soiling to be removed.
      • Acidic cleaners will damage calcitic stones such as limestone and marble and can etch all polished stones.
      • Aggressive mechanical cleaning methods can damage any type of stone.
      • Atmospheric pollution is extremely difficult to remove from silicate stones such as sandstone.
  • B R I C K & T E R R A C O T T A
  • B R I C K & T E R R A C O T T A
  • B R I C K & T E R R A C O T T A
  • B R I C K & T E R R A C O T T A
  • B R I C K & T E R R A C O T T A
    • Brick and terracotta have a hard exterior, called the fire skin, that protects the more vulnerable interior.
    • Brick and terracotta are man-made materials that can have variable durability and quality. In particular, glazed terracotta may have inherent manufacturing flaws.
    • Locally made brick and terracotta have unique shapes, colors, and irregularities. These are difficult to replace with standard units.
    • Terracotta was cost effective when used in many repeated elements. However, replacing individual decorative units can be costly.
    • Brick and terracotta are porous materials that absorbs water and are vulnerable to freezing, salt damage, and biological growth.
    • Terracotta was installed with metal anchors and framing. Corrosion of embedded metal elements can cause extensive damage.