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Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
Esei assess n equity finalise
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Esei assess n equity finalise

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  • 1. PROGRAM EKSEKUTIF CUTI SEKOLAH SME 6044 ISU-ISU KONTEMPORARI DALAM PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIK TUGASAN 1: ISU 2: ACCESS AND EQUITY DISEDIAKAN OLEH: NAMA NO.MATRIKS Audrey Yee Hsing Hui M20131000365 Joyce Jong Shen Ee M20131000376 Kueh Su Li M20131000375 Lau Ee M20131000384 Ting Jack Yew M20131000380 KUMPULAN: MATEMATIK KUMPULAN A PENSYARAH: PROF. DR.MARZITA PUTEH Pemarkahan
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………1 2.0 SCHOOL ……………………………………………………………………...................2 I) LOCATION ……………………………………………………………………..2 II) SCHOOL ENVIRONEMENT………………………………………………….2 III) SCHOOL FACILITIES ………………………………………………………...3 3.0 TEACHERS ……………………………………………………………………..............3 I) TIME CONSTRAINTS ………………………………………………………...3 II) ALLOCATION OF TEACHERS……………………………………………....4 III) EXAM ORIENTED……………………………………………………………..5 IV) HEAVY WORK…………………………………………………………………5 V) COMMUNICATION SKILLS…………………………………………………6 VI) TEACHER’S ATTITUDE……………………………………………………...6 4.0 PUPILS …………………………………………………………………………..............7 I) PUPILS’ ABILITIES …………………………………………………………...7 II) GENDER ………………………………………………………………………...8 III) DEMOGRAPHIC CAUSES…………………………………………………….9 IV) SELF EXPECTATIONS……………………………………………………….10 5.0 FAMILY …………………………………………………………………………...........12 I) PARENTS EDUCATION BACKGROUND………………………………….12 II) FAMILY INCOME……………………………………………………………..12 III) FAMILY EXPECATATIONS…………………………………………………13 6.0 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………….....14 7.0 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………….15
  • 3. 1.0 INTRODUCTION According to Oxford Dictionaries 2014, access refers to the means or opportunity to approach or enter a place. While, equity refers to the quality of being fair and impartial. In education, access is the ability of all pupils to have equal and equitable opportunities in education, regardless of their social class, background or ethnicity (Great school partnership, 2013). Besides, equity in education has two dimensions (OECD, 2008). The first is fairness, which basically means making sure those personal and social circumstances should not be an obstacle to achieving educational potential such as gender, socio-economic status or ethnic origin. The second is meaning is inclusion, ensuring a basic minimum standard of education for all. For example, everyone should be able to read, write and do simple arithmetic. Access and equity is one of the issues in mathematics education. Our Malaysian education system have strive to provide all children with equal access to a high-quality and free public education. However, we could not ensure that every child in our nation has equal access to free public education what‟s more to say high-quality education. This is caused by various factors. Among these factors are school-related, teachers-related, family-related and pupils themselves. 2.0 SCHOOL A high-quality public education is a civil right that should be made available to all people on equal terms (Anonymous, 2011). Therefore, school is the platform to provide equal access in education. The first factor of school-related can be look into three categories such as location, classroom environment and infrastructure or school facilities. Location. As we know that, the school in rural area is far from home. Due to the geographical location and distances, pupils are having problem to go to school. Pupils in rural area need to use sampan to cross the river or walk a long distances to reach their school every day. Instead, pupils in urban school use school bus, own vehicle and parents
  • 4. even sent them to school. The opportunity gap of access and equity to educate eventually broadens. In addition, small schools located in geographically isolated rural areas may not be able to offer the same diversity of educational opportunities such as multiple world-language courses or co-curricular programs like science fairs, debate competitions, robotics clubs, or theatrical performances since that are available to pupils in larger schools (Great School Partnership, 2013). Rural pupils obviously have less opportunity accessing knowledge and experiences compared to urban pupils. The problems of shortage of teachers required and less number of pupils in a school contribute to the issues of access and equity as well. For example, there might be a school that only has 15 pupils in level 1 in a school and the administrator of the school would combine all pupils in one class to study. Pupils will undergo one of the syllabuses chosen. As a result, pupils who are supposed to receive their rightful education delivery according to their age do not manage to have such assess. Besides, rural pupils may not get their textbooks or exercises book in time due to the location of school. Pupils were forced to learn without textbook with the guidance of teacher. Therefore, rural pupils would definitely have less access to new knowledge and information that can be found in the textbook provided. Classroom environment will also affect the access and equity of education. Small school located in rural areas which is not conducive cannot provide a good learning environment. Some of the schools do not have chairs, tables and fans. Pupils have to study by sitting on the floor in a classroom which is small, dirty, crowded and in humid. Hence, the poor environments in rural school define the difference of access and equity between the rural school and urban school.
  • 5. School facilities are common issues that are often discussed. Small schools located in rural areas may not have electricity and water supply compared schools in urban areas. The lack of internet connectivity, computers, and new learning technologies place pupils at a disadvantage when it comes to acquiring technological skills, accessing knowledge and learning opportunities online. The only teaching tools in rural school are blackboard and chalks. Teachers have limited teaching approaches and strategies in teaching and learning process due to inadequate school infrastructures. Usually, the conventional teaching which is chalk and talk will be used most of the times. Pupil could not experience the fun in learning subject to the limited educational opportunities. Hence, the government must ensure that all schools in rural area or urban area are funded equitably. All teachers need to provide same or similar opportunities to reduce the educational access and equity gap using resources provided delivering knowledge in their teaching and learning. This is important for that all schools can foster a healthy learning environment (Zimmer, 2014). 3.0 TEACHERS Teachers are responsible in delivering knowledge to pupils and to sharpen their skills in order to be successful in this world. Teachers definitely play significant role in determining the fairness of access and equity in education that the pupils gained. Time constraints are one of the problems face by teachers in school nowadays. The syllabus in Malaysia education is too complex. There are too much topics needed to be covered irrelevant to the given schooling length. Most teachers are moulded into the thoughts of exposing and covering the intended syllabus without considering the pupils‟ needs and strengths. Learning is no longer a process to create a conducive and interesting moment for pupils to learn new knowledge.
  • 6. Teachers constantly feel the lack of time in delivering knowledge, what is more to design creative and active learning environment in the classroom. Thus, teachers tend to use traditional teaching method, that is by chalk and talk instead of using pupil-centred approaches such as cooperative learning, discovery learning and others method. In conclusion, pupils feel bored when teachers do not vary their teaching methods. Many of the time-consuming tasks are important in their basic nature, but basically drain all of the energy from teachers. By reducing the workload of these time-consuming duties, teachers can focus on what really matters – their pupils, personal development, and others. This change can lead to a higher quality of life. If teachers have high job satisfaction, then they will not leave their position and will be more motivated in their daily tasks. Allocation of teachers affects the access and equity in education as well. Teachers‟ replacement often contributes to the inequality in public schools (Krei, 2000). This issue originates from Ministry of Education as they are in-charge of the allocation. Teachers are being allocated to school without considering the needs of the school. As a result, the teacher may face the problems where they need to teach the subject that is out of his or her speciality. Allocation of teachers in rural and urban area has always been an issue even up to today. Most of the teachers wish to be allocated in urban area. Hence, when their wish of transfer is granted, rural area pupils often obtain different teachers in each schooling term that requires them to adjust themselves to the new teacher‟s style of teaching and learning routine. Then there are teachers who are posted to rural area that refuse to report themselves and ended up quitting the teaching profession. This causes insufficient teachers in rural areas. When the teachers have been trained to be profession in education and at the end they refuse and reject to be a teacher in rural area, this causes inequity for rural area schools. Exam oriented. The exam-based system grooms pupils to focus on extrinsic goals and task completion that finally results in excellent grades, minus the creative skills
  • 7. (Rajaratenam, 2012). Such a system has produced pupils who will only focus on their studies at the last moment and concentrate more on passing exams rather than understanding the subject. The main concern is more on the outcome rather than the learning process. The system has also forced teachers to struggle in completing syllabus before the exams at the expense of pupils‟ understanding of the content of the subjects. An exam-oriented education system not only increases a pupil's burden but also restricts their ability to learn using techniques that they find to be the most effective. The exam- oriented education system distorts motivation and learning by overemphasizing the importance of scores as outcomes and measure pupils‟ abilities (Mohd, 2013). As a result, pupils are lack of personality and creativity and do not fulfil the requirement needed in future careers. Pupils cannot improve their personality and creativity and are theoretical minded. These produce to bad results, whereby though they have good ability to get good grades but they have little life skills. Heavy rote learning make pupils tired of learning and in worst cases, some even develop psychological problems (Mohd, 2013). Heavy work. The non-teaching tasks and expanded role of teachers have deprived teachers of time to carry out their task as educators. Consequently, teachers experience work overload, which may exhaust their enthusiasm and erode their commitment. According to a study a few years back, reported in the media, teachers work an average of 66.24 hours per week, exceeding the maximum average working hours of 45 hours per week set by the International Labour of Organization (Abdullah, 2013). The changes in our education system have resulted in the general intensification of teachers' working life. There are increased paperwork, more administrative meetings, preparations for external and internal inspections, and monitoring the implementation of new policies and other bureaucratic requirements that sap the teachers' energy and divert them from the core task of educating and delivering the best to their customers – their pupils. Communication skills. Communication is both receptive and expressive. Teachers must be skilled at listening to their pupils as well as explaining things clearly. Teachers need
  • 8. clarity of thought to present the material. They must be able to break down complex ideas into simpler parts and smaller steps to transmit to their pupils, adapt their methods of communication to all pupils regardless of ability or learning style and "read" their pupils in order to adapt to the needs of the individuals. Effective communication includes transforming the boring into the interesting and having good presentation skills (Prozesky, 2000). The art of communication involves listening and speaking as well as reading and writing. Teachers need to be highly skilled in all these areas to excel in their profession. Proficient communicators receive information, understand and synthesize it and express themselves at a high level (Silver & Media, 2012). They make excellent teachers because they are able to transmit knowledge, skills and values at the same time they communicate their caring for the pupils entrusted to their care. When teachers have achieved such level, they would be able to provide equity in learning for the pupils. Teacher’s attitude. Passionate teachers are teachers who love teaching and their job. If teachers are able to focus on what really matters, then they are more likely to keep working and will not leave. Society needs talented teachers who are full of power and have a deep desire to teach. Teaching is an art and the quality of teaching depends on the love, dedication and devotion of the teacher towards the subject of the knowledge. Teaching is a value-led profession; concerned with the betterment of human capital and society as a whole (Abdullah, 2013). Gourneau (2005) has identified five attitudes of effective teachers, which are demonstrating caring and kindness, sharing responsibility, sensitively accepting diversity, fostering individualized instruction and encouraging creativity. However, most teachers are teachers because of the high salary and benefits obtainable being one. When they have successfully become a teacher, they tend to forgot about their responsibility of one and slack off in their duty to provide a just access towards knowledge to their pupils. Certain teachers may possess the passion of teaching in their earlier years but the fire
  • 9. fades over time which when we look at it, seems to provide inequity in education to the pupils. 4.0 PUPILS Pupils’ abilities. In a classroom with mixed abilities pupils, teachers need to know their pupils‟ background as well as their abilities. Pupils still have significant differences in work habits, paces of learning and outside of school experiences. Teachers need to have the ability of grouping pupils but first they need to know the abilities of their pupils. To help pupils with mixed abilities especially in low-level, teachers need to engage pupils in appropriate activities. Teachers need to find ways to assess pupils‟ performance on these tasks and provide timely feedback. This refers to formative assessment activities. These activities can provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. Teachers need to assess their pupils‟ level of ability. To begin with, teachers check the records of their pupils to determine their starting abilities and past educational experiences. Then, teachers test the pupils using a standardized assessment to see where they stand according to district and state requirements. Teachers have to find out any learning or physically disabilities that their pupils might have. For example, a pupil might be dyslexic, hard of hearing, or fall somewhere on the Autism spectrum. In order to determine what types of activities that the pupils enjoy, teachers must examine their pupils‟ interests. For instance, types of activities that pupils enjoy, and their motivations in the classroom. Only then teachers will be able to evaluate their curriculum and standards. Teachers can use suitable tests and activities in order for pupils to learn well. There are several learning model and theories that teachers can apply in the classroom. For example, teachers can use the inquiry-based learning model. This strategy helps pupils to develop critical thinking skills in pupils. Inquiry-based learning puts the pupil in a detective-like role, forcing them to figure out problems and come up with
  • 10. strategies on their own. The discovery process of inquiry-based learning is largely done with minimal help from the instructor. In other words, teachers who use this model can reduce the instructions while pupils engage themselves in the process of learning. Other than that, teachers can also create groups of pupils with mixed abilities. Teachers can group the pupils according to their interests and also learning abilities. This way, the pupils can work out with each other and adjust to the diverse abilities of their peers. Pupils can be taught on how to organize their homework and other educational priorities such as brainstorming and webbing, memorization and comprehensive. Pupils can learn effectively if they learn how to process information first. Gender. Teachers are often asked if they treat all their pupils the same. Teachers may be ignoring their unconscious gender biases towards their pupils, their schools and themselves. If the issues and problem is ignored, it may lead to bias in the classroom. Gender bias happens when people make assumptions regarding behaviors, abilities or preferences of others based upon their gender. This is due to the strong gender role stereotypes for masculinity and femininity. Teachers often see girls are quiet and do not have much discipline problems unlike the boys. Teachers' gender bias towards pupils can also extend to their response to pupils who challenge their authority. Such risk-taking behavior in boys is expected and at times praised, but assertiveness in girls is viewed negatively and labeled unfeminine. Similarly, boys who do not exhibit stereotypic masculine behaviors may be ridiculed (Renold, 2006; Scantlebury, 2009). In classroom, especially in subjects such as mathematics and the sciences, some teachers promulgate myth that boys are naturally better at mathematics and science than girls. The implications are that if girls succeed in these subjects it is due to their hard work, not their intelligence, whereas boys‟ success is credited to their natural talent. The percentage of girls participating in science has increased and achieved parity with boys in biology, chemistry and algebra. However, subjects that are prerequisites for college majors such as engineering or physics remain dominated by men.
  • 11. Teachers need to realize the issues of gender in the classroom. Gender affects both teaching and learning in the classroom. "Sitting in the same classroom, reading the same textbook, listening to the same teacher, boys and girls receive very different educations." (Sadker, 1994; Chapman, 2004). Sadker also added that upon entering school, girls perform equal to or better than boys on nearly every measure of achievement but by the time they graduate high school or college, they have fallen behind. Often, teachers socialize girls towards a feminine ideal. Girls are praised for being neat, quiet and calm, whereas boys are encouraged to think independently, be active and speak up (Chapman, 2004). Boys are easily forgiven by the teachers as teachers often think boys are „naturally‟ naughty. On the other hand, girls often are not allowed to be active as compared to boys. Teachers need to be aware of the educational materials and texts in order to combat this bias. Gender-fair materials need to acknowledge and affirm variation. They need to be inclusive, accurate, affirmative, representative, and integrated, weaving together the experiences, needs, and interests of both males and females (Bailey, 1992; Chapman, 2004). According to Chapman (2004), teachers are generally unaware of their own biased teaching behaviors because they are simply teaching how they were taught and the subtle gender inequities found in teaching materials are often overlooked. Unless teachers are made aware of the gender-role socialization, girls will continue to receive an inequitable education. Demographic causes. Issues affecting equitable mathematics learning appear to be pervasive across major ethic groups in this country. Pupils in urban schools present a special challenge for mathematics teachers. Many urban pupils are behind, and getting farther behind every year. Thus, one key element of an equitable curriculum is providing pupils with the classroom time required to catch up.
  • 12. Besides that, because urban pupils often have a very different experience base, standard classroom approaches that have been developed for pupils with middle-class backgrounds may seem contrived. Thus, teachers need to embed mathematical principles and learning within a range of project and activities which pupils can identify as authentic. We can relate this to the Punan and Penan pupils who live in the way of the nomads with a mixed economy and swidden style of agriculture. In addition, in order to overcome the negative peer pressure this devalues achievement in mathematics, the teacher need to encourage pupils to have more positive and productive interaction context. For instance, teachers need to provide opportunities for additional time on mathematics such as additional instructional sessions by teachers and pupils outside the class. The teacher needs to accommodate pupils with varying levels of proficiency in mathematics and monitor progress daily. Self expectations. Pupils‟ attitudes toward mathematics are an important factor in their learning of mathematics; those who enjoy mathematics and have confidence in their mathematical abilities are more likely to succeed. Studies have shown that minority pupils have positive attitudes toward mathematics in the primary grades. Like other pupils in the United States, however, they become less positive about mathematics as they proceed through school; both confidence and enjoyment of mathematics decline as pupils move from elementary through secondary school (NCTM, 1993. 22)
  • 13. Research indicates that attitude and achievement interact with each other in subtle and often unpredictable ways. For example, while pupils who show a low logical mathematical intelligent often show a negative beliefs about mathematics. More common here, however, is that identification as a low achiever, or placement in a lower track, has a negative impact on a pupils‟ self-confidence and belief in his or her ability to learn mathematics. Therefore, teachers are recommended to use instructional strategies that provide positive experiences for pupils and engender in them the pleasure of learning mathematics and be confident in their abilities to do mathematics. Besides that, teachers need to convey to pupils that it is normal to find mathematics frustrating at times and, through examples, that it sometimes takes a considerable amount of time to solve mathematical problems. Lastly, teachers are suggested to use positive peer influence to help shape the attitude and beliefs of pupils. Peer tutoring, especially between younger pupils and older peer tutors, can increase pupils‟ interest and motivation. Teacher may seek actively to dispel parental myths their children must inherit their anxieties and difficulties with mathematics. Pupils‟ beliefs about mathematics are also an important factor. For instance, those who believe that math doesn‟t run in their family will always believe that they could not excel in mathematics. Similarly, we have to be aware that all pupils experience both positive and negative emotions as they learn mathematics, and that pupilss will develop negative beliefs about their mathematics ability if their negative emotion is not balanced with positive emotion about mathematics.
  • 14. 5.0 FAMILY Family plays an important role and affects how a child thinks, grows and progress in life. During early childhood years, children will listen to their parents‟ instruction and advice as guidance to get through their early stage of life. This is because parents are among the few people that they meet, interact and bond with in most of their early childhood times. Thus, a bond of trust and respect was created then. Parents education background plays a role in influencing education access among children, even in the smallest form. Most parents who possess low education background have low awareness about how education can impact their children‟s future. Education opens the door to a better future to children. Furthermore, if such parents are satisfied with their current way of living and see no harm that their children inherit such lifestyle too, they tend not to encourage their children to pursue their study. Thus, this creates a blockage in access to education for their children. A study done by National Center for Education Statistics, US (as cited by Reizberg, 2010) showed that only 44.2% high school seniors with parents who only managed to complete high school attend university while 56.6% high school seniors who have parents with A- level qualification attend university. The percentage gets higher with high school seniors who have parents with college certificate and 80.6% of high school seniors with graduate parents attend university. This issue is explainable as parents who are graduates themselves see the importance of education. Hence, they will encourage their children to continue their study for a better future. Family income also affects a child‟s access and equity to education. Masters (1969) found out that for children whose parents have little income, the probabilities of them attaining better education are more than 20 times less than for children from well-to-do families. One of the common issues happening among families in rural areas with low income is the absence of children attending school.
  • 15. Children whereby their parents are either fishermen or farmers can be seen helping their parents to tend their farm or help out with their work during schooling hours. This can be related to Agemoglu and Pischke (2000)‟s statement that family income might matters when it comes to education decisions because of credit constraints, or because education is not a pure investment good. Perhaps parents think that it would be better off for their children to lend a hand in earning more money to support the family which brings immediate positive effect to the family. Furthermore, when a family faces financial status, their children will have fewer learning- enhancing facilities at home to be accessed compared to children whose parents are able to cater and provide computer, utilities and references to help them in their study. Eventually, their children will fall behind academically and this minimizes their chances to access to higher education. This is supported by National Center for Education Statistics‟ analysis (cited by Reizberg, 2010) where only 49.4% high school seniors with their family income less than 35,000 enter university. The percentage increases as their family income increases; 60.6% when the family income is between 35,000 and 75,000 and 76.7% when the family income is more than 75,000. Family expectations. Expectations can be defined as a strong belief of something that eventually will happen. It is undeniable that the foundation of a child‟s future starts with the strict expectations of his or her family. Asian cultures foster their children to listen, abide, respect and follow their parents‟ decision and to fulfil their parents‟ expectations. Thus, as a typical Asian child, you would believe and listen to your parents‟ orders and advices as they mould your goals, dreams and morals with such believe that your future is in good hands. If parents are not strict about their children‟s upbringing especially in education, it can be said that the parents are actually withholding the child‟s access and equity to education. Taking an example of the olden days, most parents would only encourage their male children to pursue education. The stereotype thinking of that female should not gain too much educational knowledge but to be better in cooking, sewing, taking care of their
  • 16. siblings and to be wed to someone wealthy is definitely wrong as they have eliminated their female descendents right to learn and understand the world better. A low family expectation can be considered a hindrance towards the child, whereby it disallows them to be what they wants and might be. Hence, a wakeup call to parents about education level awareness must be done in order to restore every child‟s access and equity in education, even by a little. 6.0 CONCLUSION To conclude, there are many factors affecting the access and equity in education for each child. It is not an easy job to provide a fair and equal access and equity of public education to all children as the education ministry has strive and put their best effort to achieve that since years and years ago. However, there are guidelines on how a fair access and equity in education should be. To name a few; (i) all children deserve a knowledgeable, well-prepared and passionate teachers who put effort in educating and deliver their knowledge in their area of expertise well, (ii) government must ensure that all schools are funded equitably as well as be equipped with necessary facilities and utilities that are needed to commence good schooling environment, (iii) citizens and the community cannot demand equal outcomes from schools without first understanding that each child is unique and has different pace of learning, (iv) each and every school should share the mission of eliminating the predictive value of race, class, gender and special capacities on pupil success by working together with family and communities and (v) it is in the best interest of our education‟s future to separate educational matter and politics issues so that any education setback or error will not be labelled and used as another political reason to criticize the ruling government. Awareness of these must be commenced as the welfare of our nation rests heavily on our education achievements.
  • 17. 7.0 REFERENCES Abdullah,D. (2013). Teachers’ workload: It tests their resolve. Retrieved from http://www.nst.com.my/opinion/letters-to-the-editor/teachers-workload-it-tests-their- resolve-1.413252 Access. (2014). Oxford English dictionary (3rd Edition). Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/ Agemoglu, D., Pischke, J. S. (2000). Changes in Wage Structure, Family Income and Children’s Education. European Economic Association [Seminar]. Bolzano, Italy. Anonymous. (2011). Equity & Access. The Forum for Education and Democracy. Chapman, Amanda (2004). Gender Bias in Education. Retrieved from: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/genderbias.html Equity. (2014). Oxford English dictionary (3rd Edition). Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/ Gourneau, B. (2005). Five attitudes of effective teacher: Implications for teacher training. Retrieved from http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol132005/gourneau.pdf?q=attitudes Great School Partnership. (2013). Equity. The glossary of education reform. Access from http://edglossary.org/ Krei, M.S. (2000). “Teacher Transfer Policy and the Implications for Equity in Urban School Districts”, paper presented at the American Educational Researchers Association, New Orleans. Retrieved from http://www.languagetestingasia.com/content/pdf/2229-0443-1-3- 36.pdf Prozesky, D.F. (2000). Communication and effective teaching. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1705977/ Rajaratenam, P.R. (2012), Exam-oriented system: Evaluate students on all their abilities. Retrieved from http://www.nst.com.my/opinion/letters-to-the-editor/exam-oriented- system-evaluate-students-on-all-their-abilities-1.58757#ixzz33sMGjhyE Reizberg, L. (2010). Access & Equity in Higher Education: Issues and Complexities. Accessed from http://www.gr.unicamp.br/ceav/pdf/unicamp_access&equity%5B1%5D.pdf Masters, H. S. (1969). The Effect of Family Income On Children‟s Education: Some Findings On Inequality of Opportunity. The Journal of Human Resources. Vol 4., No.2, pp. 158- 175. Mohd, F. (2013). Leaving Behind Exam-oriented System. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com.my/Opinion/Columnists/IKIM-Views/Profile/Articles/2013 /10/29/Leaving-behind-examoriented-system/
  • 18. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1993). Reaching All Students with Mathematics. Reston, VA Scantlebury, Kathryn (2009). Gender Bias in Teaching. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/gender-bias-in-teaching/ Silver, F., Media, D. (2012). Why Is It Important for Teachers to Have Good Communication Skills? Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/important-teachers-good-communication- skills-10512.html Sloan, Willona. Gender in the Classroom. Retrieved from: http://www.ascd.org/ascd- express/vol5/512-sloan.aspx Zimmer, S. (2014). Access and Equity. Board of Education. Los Angeles Unified School District. Retrieved from http://zimmer.laschoolboard.org/access-and-equity

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