Conceptualising creative city through characterising creative milieu in Central Geelong
Nur Melati Zamri

Professor David ...
LOOKING THROUGH THE LENS OF CHARLES LANDRY

• Born in 1948, studied in Britain, German and Italy.
• Aims to help cities be...
THE URBAN SHIFT

• “Century of cities” - shift from an industrial era to a knowledge-based era has
entirely switched the c...
THE CREATIVE CITY
•

An on-going process - “a journey rather than a destination, a process not a
status”

“[A] … creative ...
THE CREATIVE MILIEU

• Milieu - environment.
• A place that contains the necessary precondition of both ‘hard’ and
‘soft‘ ...
THE CREATIVE MILIEU - ITS CHARACTERISTICS

Understanding Landry’s concept of the ‘creative city’ involves four main
themes...
GEELONG - The ‘peri-urban city’

• Originally known as a port city due to its
location on Corio Bay and Barwon River.
• De...
TESTING THE THEORY
1. Literature review
2. Data collection:

QUALITATIVE

QUANTITATIVE

•face-to-face interviews with 20 s...
Each characteristic is investigated by using appropriate scales of intrusion.
DISTINGUISHIN
G LOCALITY

ENRICHING
DIVERSIT...
DISTINGUISHING LOCALITY - SMALL SCALE OF INTRUSION
• Small

scale - least amount of intrusions, more temporal in nature, r...
DISTINGUISHING LOCALITY - SMALL SCALE OF INTRUSION

• Gore Place - displays a successful
means of harnessing locality by
d...
ENRICHING DIVERSITY - MEDIUM SCALE OF INTRUSION

• Refers to a higher degree of built work and physical installations.
• P...
ENRICHING DIVERSITY - MEDIUM SCALE OF INTRUSION

• Convincing amount of pedestrians.
•However it is the street shops (hard...
PROMOTE PLACES FOR INTERACTION - LARGE SCALE OF INTRUSION

• Biggest intervention and
reconfiguration involving mixed - us...
PROMOTE PLACES FOR INTERACTION - LARGE SCALE OF INTRUSION

• Interviews: 90% of participants
strongly agree that there are...
THE POSSIBILITIES

• Refers to the capacity of a space to
allow changes and by definition, it
deals with flexibility, comp...
THE POSSIBILITIES
• Very

insignificant amount of
interactions reflecting the minimum
amount of potential creative milieu
...
• Uneven level of ‘creative milieu’,
making it hard for Geelong to fully
harness the creativity.
•Weak soft infrastructure...
THANK YOU...
Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
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Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference
La Trobe University
October 2013

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  1. 1. Conceptualising creative city through characterising creative milieu in Central Geelong Nur Melati Zamri Professor David Jones Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference LaTrobe University 1st – 2nd October 2013, LaTrobe University, Melbourne Campus, Melbourne Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  2. 2. LOOKING THROUGH THE LENS OF CHARLES LANDRY • Born in 1948, studied in Britain, German and Italy. • Aims to help cities become more resilient, self sustaining - identifying and make the most of their resources and reach their potential by triggering their inventiveness and open-minded thinking. • Coined the term ‘Creative city’ in 1980s, soon after founded Comedia in 1978, a highly respected European consultancy working in creativity, culture and urban change. KEY AUTHOR Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  3. 3. THE URBAN SHIFT • “Century of cities” - shift from an industrial era to a knowledge-based era has entirely switched the city’s functions and policy from being the ‘producer’ by maximising productivity to reintegrating the system as a whole. • The challenge for cities from the older era is how to adapt to 21st century desires and needs. This requires more than just shifting the city‘s visions but also the shift in thinking holistically; the instruments, and the aspirations. industrial knowledge-base CREATIVE CITY BACKGROUND Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  4. 4. THE CREATIVE CITY • An on-going process - “a journey rather than a destination, a process not a status” “[A] … creative city posits that conditions need to be created for people to think, plan and act with an imagination in harnessing opportunities or addressing seemingly intractable urban problems” • More than 100 cities and regions call themselves creative cities. • Often involves a checklist of requirements and interpreted as a successful recipe expected to be replicated without considering the distinctive aspects and locality of places and circumstances. • These common misinterpretations trigger competition between cities who replicate the same strategies and policy interventions. Having an art or cultural centre does not make a city creative, instead it needs the creative milieu to be a successful creative city. BACKGROUND Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  5. 5. THE CREATIVE MILIEU • Milieu - environment. • A place that contains the necessary precondition of both ‘hard’ and ‘soft‘ infrastructure to allow people to think, plan and act with their creative imagination to harness any opportunity for solving the urban problems. “What makes a milieu creative is that it gives the user the sense that they can shape, create and make the place they are in; that they are an active participant rather than a passive consumer, that they are an agent of change rather than a victim” “hard” infrastructure network of buildings and institutions of a “creative milieu” BACKGROUND Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference successful creative milieu “soft” infrastructure system of associative structures and social networks, connections and human interactions
  6. 6. THE CREATIVE MILIEU - ITS CHARACTERISTICS Understanding Landry’s concept of the ‘creative city’ involves four main themes: • supporting harnessing maximising provide LOCALITY DIVERSITY INTERACTIONS CAPACITY Refers to both businesses and cultural aspects; specifically to an area which can harness, inspire and innovate. The ‘soft’ infrastructure describes social diversity Hard’ infrastructure refers to physical diversity. It provides spaces that encourage business or living at various scales “creativity needs to be communicated and a creative milieu can be the physical urban setting where a group of people can engage, communicate and share in an openminded environment” Suggests the ability of a building or space to adapt to changes. Can be classified as temporary or permanent capacity to test it in case studies BACKGROUND Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  7. 7. GEELONG - The ‘peri-urban city’ • Originally known as a port city due to its location on Corio Bay and Barwon River. • Developed a strong (20%) manufacturing industry. • The emerging of tourism and hospitality industries that soon made up 10% of the local activity caused Geelong to develop into a major commercial and residential area. In response to this, the Council recognised the need to provide facilities to support the transition. what are the value added outcome to Geelong through implementing the characteristics? CASE STUDY Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  8. 8. TESTING THE THEORY 1. Literature review 2. Data collection: QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE •face-to-face interviews with 20 selected professional practitioners in Geelong. •conducted with open-structured questions and recorded through note taking. Site analysis in selected areas through observation and documentation within central Geelong. Elements being identified, observed and analysed. -Pedestrian count, include: Walking Going to destinations METHODOLOGY Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference Cycling Standing Laying Service s Playing Leisure 10 replied Secondary sitting Browsing x 20 professional practitioners invited Primary sitting Commercial activities
  9. 9. Each characteristic is investigated by using appropriate scales of intrusion. DISTINGUISHIN G LOCALITY ENRICHING DIVERSITY PROMOTE PLACES FOR INTERACTIONS PROMOTE CAPACITY SMALL SCALE OF INTRUSION MEDIUM SCALE OF INTRUSION LARGE SCALE OF INTRUSION POSSIBILITIES CASE STUDY Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  10. 10. DISTINGUISHING LOCALITY - SMALL SCALE OF INTRUSION • Small scale - least amount of intrusions, more temporal in nature, requires the least amount of physical structure to reinforce the changes in the area. • Example : laneways. • The best example of a successful laneway in Geelong that developed the character of a creative milieu is a café called Fuel Coffee + Food along Gore Place. Fuel Coffee + Food cafe blocked area new cafe FINDINGS Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  11. 11. DISTINGUISHING LOCALITY - SMALL SCALE OF INTRUSION • Gore Place - displays a successful means of harnessing locality by developing creative milieu through introducing retail activity in the laneway - new cafés opening up towards their backlane. • Interviews: 60% agree upon the significant of locality portrayed at the site. • Several key barriers: -permeability -walking and cycling facilities -facade treatment -usage - services • Poor hard infrastructure - leads to poor soft infrastructure. Average pedestrian count per hour in Gore Place. FINDINGS Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  12. 12. ENRICHING DIVERSITY - MEDIUM SCALE OF INTRUSION • Refers to a higher degree of built work and physical installations. • Provides a higher degree of interactions by promoting diversity in both social and physical context. • Example : any programs extended into the public realm, street vendors, or even small shops. • Little Malop Street in the heart of central Geelong - the favourable urban plaza - intended to create a public place to allow impromptu gatherings or community events to take place and replacing the dull commercial facade. FINDINGS Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  13. 13. ENRICHING DIVERSITY - MEDIUM SCALE OF INTRUSION • Convincing amount of pedestrians. •However it is the street shops (hard infrastructure) experiencing dullness. • Interviews: 90% of the participants agreed about the insignificant amount of diversity harnessed. • Several key barriers: -large scale of retail (lack of intensification) -poor pedestrian facilities -sidewalk barriers • Poor physical diversity restraining the creative milieu from growing FINDINGS Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  14. 14. PROMOTE PLACES FOR INTERACTION - LARGE SCALE OF INTRUSION • Biggest intervention and reconfiguration involving mixed - used or creative cultural complexes. • Libraries, art galleries, and museums are among the examples of cultural complexes in a ‘creative milieu’ which perform as the community nodes. • In Geelong, the cultural precinct is located along Little Malop Street towards Gheringhap Street. Why are these creative buildings developed an uncreative milieu? FINDINGS Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference Geelong City Library Geelong Performing Art Centre Geelong Gallery
  15. 15. PROMOTE PLACES FOR INTERACTION - LARGE SCALE OF INTRUSION • Interviews: 90% of participants strongly agree that there are insignificant amounts of interaction in the area. • Several key barriers: • lacks human scale activities and its hard street edge makes it hard to promote interactions • lack of indoor and outdoor connections – the key activities are too internalised. • Lack of interactions restraining the creative milieu from growing FINDINGS Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  16. 16. THE POSSIBILITIES • Refers to the capacity of a space to allow changes and by definition, it deals with flexibility, complexity and uncertainty. • Open or enclosed areas and they vary in size and function. • In Geelong - Johnstone Park, a landscaped garden located in the heart of central Geelong, has the strategic location surrounded by civic buildings FINDINGS Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  17. 17. THE POSSIBILITIES • Very insignificant amount of interactions reflecting the minimum amount of potential creative milieu being harnessed. •Several key barriers: -Vehicle priorities oriented -Lack of walking and cycle amenities -Lack of commercial engagement •Weak creative milieu due to the lack of soft and hard infrastructures. •The capacity of the park is not fully harnessed, decreasing the creative milieu. FINDINGS Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
  18. 18. • Uneven level of ‘creative milieu’, making it hard for Geelong to fully harness the creativity. •Weak soft infrastructure in most of the case studies, due to poor hard infrastructure. •70% of the participants were reticent that Geelong was currently steering towards becoming a creative city. •Through this research, it is suggested for those cities who are ready to adopt the concept of creative city, they first need to unravel the key issues by underpinning the characteristics of a creative milieu and adapt to it accordingly. •This research explores the intangible aspects of the concept of creative milieu as the basis of building a creative city. •The focus of this research was only to identify the possibilities for solving urban issues by unraveling the key problems through looking into characteristics of creative milieu. Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference CONCLUSIONS
  19. 19. THANK YOU... Beyond the Edge: Australia’s First Peri-Urban Conference
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